A skyscraper is a very tall building. A skyscraper is a free-standing structure, evenly distributed vertically on floors intended for the life and work of people. In Russian, the term "high-rise building" or simply "high-rise" is also used.
Skyscrapers higher than 300 m are called super-high. The minimum height of a skyscraper building is controversial. In the USA and Europe, skyscrapers are considered to be buildings with a height of at least 150 m. The first famous skyscraper was the Tower of Babel, destroyed according to biblical tradition. At various times, the title of the tallest building in the world belonged to the Pyramid of Cheops, the Eiffel Tower, the Washington Monument.
The buildings being erected now differ significantly both in form and in execution. Among them, there is a race for records, a spire is being installed on many skyscrapers, the meaning of which is only in one thing - to move the highest point further from the ground and make the building even higher.
Below we will talk about the twelve largest modern buildings, the rating, for obvious reasons, did not take into account towers and TV towers that were not intended for the permanent stay of a large number of people.
Burj Khalifa. The building resembles a stalagmite in shape. Its opening ceremony took place later than other members of this list - on January 4, 2010 in Dubai. If in July 2007 the building under construction became the tallest structure in the world, then since May 2008 it is the tallest structure in the world ever built by man. The exact height of the tower is 828 meters and has 162 floors. The tower was originally known as "Burj Dubai" ("Dubai Tower"), but at its opening, the ruler of Dubai renamed it after the President of the UAE. The Dubai Tower was not designed as an office center, but as a real city within a city; it has its own parks, boulevards and lawns. The cost of the construction was $ 1.5 billion, the author was the American Adrian Smith. The contractor was the construction division of Samsung, which was previously noted for the construction of the Petronas towers. The skyscraper has become a key element of Dubai's new business center. The 37 lower floors are given to the hotel, from the 45th to 108th floors there are 700 luxurious apartments. Most of the space is given to offices, while the lobby and observation deck are located on floors 123 and 124. Especially for the construction of the skyscraper, a special concrete was developed that can withstand high temperatures, it was poured exclusively at night, and ice was added to the solution. The building is equipped with 65 two-story lifts, totaling $ 36 million. From the first to the last floor it will be possible to rise exclusively by a service elevator. Residents and visitors will have to take advantage of transfers during the ascent. The skyscraper was built in 6 years, 1-2 floors were built in a week. The fire system of the building implies the evacuation of all residents in 32 minutes. The skyscraper is completely non-volatile; a 61-meter wind turbine is installed in it to generate electricity, as well as a solar array system with an area of 15 thousand m2. The building is equipped with reflective glass panels for superheating from the sun - this reduces the need for air conditioning. The declared air temperature in the premises is 18 degrees; for this, a convection system will also be used, driving air along the entire height of the tower.
Taipei 101. The skyscraper is located in Taipei, the capital of Taiwan. But this project belongs not only to the height record, it has become a landmark in the investment practice of the state. For the first time in the history of Taiwan, the city's tender for the implementation of the project, its operation and management was won by a consortium of investors. The building is officially called the Taipei Financial Center, it has 101 floors, and the height together with the spire is 508 meters. The lower floors with an area of 74,711 m2 are dedicated to shopping centers, while the upper floors are 198,348 m2 for offices. The construction of the skyscraper started in 1999, and the building was officially opened on November 17, 2003. It was put into operation only on December 31 of the same year. The project cost investors $ 1.7 billion. The building is distinguished by its elevators - the fastest in the world. Their speed is 63 km / h, so you can get from the first floor to the 89th floor, where the observation deck is located, in just 39 seconds. The building rests on 380 concrete pillars, each of which extends 80 meters deep. The skyscraper frame is made of steel, aluminum and glass. Since the leader among skyscrapers in height was built in a zone of increased seismic activity, the best techniques for protecting structures from earthquakes were taken into account during the erection. To reduce the likelihood of a hurricane or earthquake collapse, a huge pendulum ball weighing 728 tons was placed between the 87th and 91st floors. Engineers ensure that the tower can withstand strong shocks for 2,500 years. Naturally, the unusual tower also attracts unusual people. So, on December 25, 2004, she was conquered by the "spider-man" Alain Robert, who managed to climb to the top in 4 hours, although initially he planned to spend half as much. On June 15, 2008, during a race on the stairs of a skyscraper, the German Thomas Dold won, who managed to climb the 91st floor in 10 minutes 53 seconds. To do this, he needed to overcome 2046 steps, while the prize for the athlete was 6600 American dollars.
Shanghai World Financial Center. This skyscraper was commissioned in the summer of 2008, and its height was 492 meters. The construction was carried out by the Japanese company Mori Building Corporation, and the representative of the New York company Kohn Pedersen Fox, David Malott, became the chief designer of the project. Construction of the building began in 1997, but the 1998 financial crisis stretched the construction for 10 long years. The work itself lasted only 4 years, after the start of active funding in 2003. At the same time, the developers made changes to the project, for example, the building from the original 460 meters and 94 floors increased to 492 meters and 101 floors. 2005 brought about a reshaping of the window at the top of the building. The original plan was to create a circular hole 46 meters in diameter to reduce air resistance. However, the public at the head of the mayor of the city opposed such a decision, as it was believed that it would look like the rising sun that is present on the flag of Japan. As a result, the hole became trapezoidal, moreover, it simplified and reduced the cost of the project itself. Investors planned to increase the height of the building with a spire, thereby breaking Taipei's record, but the architects abandoned such a design, considering that the building was already majestic in its size. The project cost was one billion dollars, however, these costs should be recouped in just two years. The skyscraper was erected in the business center of Shanghai, the first level of the building, up to the seventh floor is given to retail space, from the 7th to 77th floors there are offices, and above - hotel rooms. At a height of 472 meters, there is a walking gallery with a sliding glass roof and an exhibition hall. The observation deck of this skyscraper is the highest in the world. The architects designed the building so that it can withstand a magnitude 10 earthquake, there is practically no risk of a sudden collapse of the facade. The entire skyscraper, including the pedestal, is glass. The facade is made of laminated glass with PVB films, which improve optical, acoustic and energy saving characteristics. The glass has a pearl-silvery sheen, from the inside it is completely transparent. On every 12th floor of the building, there is a protected floor in order to shelter people from fire in case of fire.
Petronas. The building is 452 meters high and has 88 floors. The building is located in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia. The Prime Minister of Malaysia proposed the shape of two intersecting squares, while the architect added semicircular protrusions for stability. The Twin Towers are made in Islamic style, as the state does not have its own Malaysian style. Construction lasted 6 years - from 1992 to 1998. To increase the productivity of work on the project, two different companies worked simultaneously. Initially, the building was intended to be built on fragile stone and limestone, as a result, the foundation was shifted 60 meters to soft ground, becoming the largest foundation in the world. The skyscraper is also distinguished by the complexity of its design, the area of all premises of the building was 213,750 m2, which is equal to the area of 48 football fields. In the city, the towers cover 40 hectares, they are located offices, conference rooms, exhibitions and even an art gallery. The main customer for the construction of the skyscraper was the state-owned Petronas oil corporation, the project cost was $ 800 million. Part of the amount was compensated by Malaysian firms that bought the office space. A striking feature of the skyscraper is the bridge-like transition between the towers. 10,000 people constantly live and work in the towers, while cleaning all 16 thousand windows of just one tower takes a month. The construction was based on elastic concrete, which is comparable in strength to light steel, which is quite expensive for Malaysia. Thanks to the addition of quartz, the concrete's strength has also increased, it can withstand pressures of up to 9 tons per square inch. During construction, one of the floors was even deliberately destroyed, as it used low-quality concrete. Visitors can get inside at a certain time, with a ticket in hand and in a certain amount. The towers lack a central pivot and extra space, so that to install elevators in a confined space, it was necessary to use excess height in the towers. As a result, the elevators turned out to be two-story, two in each shaft. The design of the skyscraper provided for protection from terrorists, so if 3 of the 16 supporting columns are lost, the building will still stand. And the air bridge is not fixed rigidly, but is placed on giant ball bearings. This gives the structure additional strength as the towers swing. It is curious that the original structure of the building attracts filmmakers, as the famous films "Trap" and "Code of the Apocalypse" were shot here, and in several computer games the action takes place in these twin towers.
Sears Tower. Since July 2009, the building has changed its name to Willis Tower by the name of the tenant. Its height is 443.2 meters and it has 110 floors. Construction began in August 1970, and on May 4, 1973 it was completed. Bruce Graham became the chief architect of the project, and Fazlur Khan became the chief design engineer. At the base of the building is a large square formed by 9 square pipes. The base rests on concrete piles with stone filling, they are driven into solid rock. These 9 steel pipes rise 50 floors up, after which the building begins to narrow, only 7 pipes go to the 66th floor, five to the 90th floor, the remaining 20 floors are formed by two pipes. The building area is over 418,000 m2, which is comparable to 57 football fields. The skyscraper is equipped with 104 high-speed elevators, and its fire-resistant frame is clad in black aluminum, the building has more than 16 thousand dark glass windows. The building is washed with automatic machines once every six weeks. The Sears Tower is the tallest building in the United States and, thanks to its spire, held the record for a long time from ground level to the top of the antenna until it was taken away by the Dubai Tower.
Jin Mao Tower. Translated from Chinese means "Golden Building of Success". This skyscraper has 88 floors and is located in Shanghai, China. There are offices, as well as the Grand Hyatt hotel. Until 2007, it was the tallest building in China. In the silhouette of the urban area of Pudong, the tower takes center stage with the Oriental Pearl Tower, a 468-meter high TV tower. The plot of land for the skyscraper occupies 24,000 m2, nearby is the Lujiazui metro station. The skyscraper was designed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill and was commissioned in 1999. Interestingly, the date of the official opening of the building. 08/28/1998 was chosen taking into account the number "8", which is a symbol of well-being, hence the number of floors of the building. Moreover, they are divided into 16 segments, each of which is one eighth shorter than the sixteen-story base. The central concrete frame has 8 corners and is surrounded by 8 composite columns and 8 external steel columns. The skyscraper is owned by China Jin Mao Group Co. Ltd. The building has a postmodern shape, on the upper tiers it becomes more complex and slightly narrows, thereby creating a rhythmic pattern characteristic of Chinese architecture, in particular, pagodas. The outer wall of the tower is made of stainless steel, glass, granite and aluminum, it is covered with a lattice structure of aluminum pipes. The base of the building rests on 1,062 strong steel piles, which extend 83.5 meters deep, thus compensating for the poor quality of the soil. The foundation is surrounded by a wall in the ground 1 meter thick and 36 meters high. Its total length was 558 meters. In order for the building to withstand hurricane winds, a high-tech structural system is incorporated into it, which allows it to withstand gusts of up to 200 km / h, while the maximum swing of the building will be 75 cm.The skyscraper can also withstand earthquakes of up to 7 points, this is achieved thanks to movable joints steel columns. They absorb force by shock and soften the effects of earthquakes and wind.
International Financial Center located on the waterfront of downtown Hong Kong. This commercial building is now the tallest building in the city. The skyscraper was built with the support of Sun Hung Kai Properties and MTR Corp by 2003. The height of the center is 420 meters. The building has the same 88 floors, of which 22 are given to shopping centers. However, not all floors are in reality, so the 14th and 24th floors are skipped, as they are consonant with the phrases "just dead" and "easy to die". The bulk of the offices are given to financial institutions. The skyscraper contains almost no columns, but is equipped with the latest telecommunications technology. It is believed that the building can accommodate up to 15 thousand people. Several floors at the top of the building were bought by the Hong Kong Treasury Department for nearly half a billion dollars. In 2003, an advertisement with an area of 19,000 m2 and a length of 230 meters was placed on the facade of the building. Spreading over 50 floors, the ad is the largest ever placed on a skyscraper. The tower is also notable for the fact that it took part in the filming of the film about Lara Croft.
CITIC tower. This is the building of the International China Trade and Investment Company. The skyscraper has 80 floors and is located in the Chinese city of Guangzhou. Together with the two spiers, the building is 391 meters high. The skyscraper was built in 1997, at that time it was the third tallest building in the world, and the tallest in Asia. The CITIC tower is part of the complex of the same name. It also includes two 38-storey residential buildings. Not far from the tower there is a new station, a new metro and a sports center. Like other skyscrapers, this one is subject to frequent criticism from the public. The fact is that they are the property of the state, and studies have shown that for buildings above 300 meters, operating costs for maintenance will always be greater than the profit received. As a result, the government did not provide a full report on the income and expenses for the maintenance of the tower, and we will not provide any information on the protection of the building in the event of an earthquake.
Shun Hing Square in Shenzhen, China. The height of this 69-storey skyscraper is 384 meters.The 90s were at times the economic boom of the city, which in just 20 years has grown from a small fishing village near Hong Kong to a 4 million metropolis. The reason was the declaration of the city as a free trade zone, and in 1996 the Shun Hing Tower appeared here. For a short time, it was the tallest building in China. The skyscraper is built of steel, and most of its area is occupied by offices. Shun Hing has a 35-storey annex that houses shops and apartments. There is an observation deck at the top of the tower.
Empire State Building. The building is located in New York City, Manhattan on Fifth Avenue between West 33rd and 34th Streets. For more than 40 years, from 1931 to 1972, it was the tallest building in the world. In 2001, with the fall of the World Trade Center tower, the Empire State Building regained the title of the tallest building in New York. The skyscraper is 381.3 meters high and has 102 floors. The total height of the building together with the TV tower, added in the 50s, was 443 meters. It is curious that the skyscraper is one of the prototypes of Stalin's skyscrapers. The name of the tower comes from the common name of the state of New York, which is also called the "imperial" state. The skyscraper was designed by the Shreve, Lam and Harmon architectural company. The pace of its construction was unheard of - about 4.5 floors were built in a week. In the most intensive period of construction, 14 floors were erected in 10 days. The building was officially opened on May 1, 1931, when the United States was in the Great Depression. Therefore, not all of the premises were leased, the building received the nickname "Empty State Building". Only 10 years later, all the premises were finally put into operation. The weight of the building is 331 thousand tons, the foundation occupies two floors. During the construction of the building, ten million bricks and 700 kilometers of cable were used, and the total area of the windows is two hectares. The staircase to the top consists of 1,860 steps and is the venue for the annual fastest climb competition, with police and firefighters running at full capacity as well. The office premises of the building can accommodate 15 thousand people, while elevators can transport 10 thousand people per hour. The Empire State Building cannot be fully viewed from below, as it is surrounded by various office buildings. The skyscraper is designed in a modest but elegant art deco style. Its façade is made of stone and has a gray color, along it stretches of stainless steel, the upper floors are 3 ledges. The inner 30-meter hall is three stories high and contains panels depicting the eight wonders of the world. The eighth, according to the author of the composition, is the skyscraper building itself. The Empire State Building has observation decks on the 86th and 102nd floors, they are wildly popular with tourists - because they offer beautiful views of the city, especially at night. The site on the 86th floor has a 360-degree viewing angle; in total, over the entire existence of the building, the viewing areas have been visited by 110 million people! The official website of the building can tell you about all the films filmed here, the most famous of course is "King Kong" in 1933.
Central Plaza in Hong Kong. Its height with a spire is 374 meters, it has 78 floors. The building was built in 1992 on polders reclaimed from the sea. The skyscraper is clad in terracotta, gold and silver glass - it makes a vivid impression. From the observation deck on the 46th floor, you can see the port of Kowloon and the port of Victoria. It is on Central Plaza that the largest clock in the world is located, and in the evening the pyramid above is illuminated in different colors, creating an unforgettable sight. The building itself contains office space.
Tantex Sai Tower. This skyscraper has 85 floors; its height, including the antenna, is 378 meters. The building is located in Taiwan, in Kaohsiung. The building has a non-standard design - two 39-storey buildings are connected together by a central tower, under which there is a void. This is a peculiar image of the hieroglyph "gao" ("high"), which is present in the name of the city. The main part of the building is given to offices, but the skyscraper also contains residential apartments and a shopping center, and from the 37th to the 70th floors, space is given to the Splendor Kaohsiung Hotel. On the 75th floor, there is a traditional observation deck, which gives a view of the pier, river and city, the building is equipped with high-speed elevators moving at a speed of 10 meters per second.