The history of scouts and spies has always attracted people. Did women do this too? Why is their role hidden, and in general there were few of them?
It was believed that the weaker sex could split more easily during interrogation. But they have other trump cards, purely female ones. Often the path to the source of information was through the bed.
Among the names of spies, Mata Hari stands out; the recent scandal with Anna Chapman has again revived interest in the representatives of this secret profession. Let's talk about the most famous female spies in history.
Mata Hari. The most famous spy of all times and peoples is Mata Hari (1876-1917). Her real name is Margarita Gertrude Celle. As a child, she managed to get a good education, since her father was rich. For 7 years, the girl lived in an unhappy marriage on the island of Java with a drinking and dissolute husband. Back in Europe, the couple divorced. To get a livelihood, Margarita begins her career, first as a circus rider, and then as an oriental dancer. The interest in the East, ballet and eroticism was so great that Mata Hari became one of the celebrities of Paris. The dancer was recruited by German intelligence even before the war, during which she began to cooperate with the French. The woman needed money to cover her gambling debts. It is still not known for certain what high-ranking fans told her, and what Mata Hari conveyed as an agent. However, in 1917 she was captured by the French military, who quickly sentenced her to death. On October 15, the sentence was executed. The true reason for the death of the artist, perhaps, was her many connections with high-ranking French politicians, which could affect their reputation. Most likely, the role of Mata Hari, as a spy, is exaggerated, but the dramatic plot about a seductive agent led to the interest of cinema.
Bell Boyd (1844-1900) is better known by the nickname La Belle Rebel. During the American Civil War, she was a spy for the southern states. The woman passed on all the information received to General Shoneval Jackson. No one could have guessed espionage activity in the innocent questioning of the soldiers of the Northern States Army. There is a known case when on May 23, 1862, in Virginia, it was Boyd who crossed the front line in front of the northerners to report on the impending offensive. The spy was fired upon from guns and cannons. However, the woman dressed in a blue dress and cap was not scared. When the woman was first captured, she was only 18 years old. However, thanks to the exchange of prisoners, Boyd was released. But a year later, she was arrested again. This time the link was waiting for her. In her diaries, the spy wrote that she was guided by the motto: "Serve my country to the last breath."
Pauline Kushman (1833-1893). And the northerners had their own spies. Pauline Kushman was an American actress, during the war she also did not remain indifferent. And she was eventually caught, sentenced to death. However, the woman was later pardoned. With the end of the war, she began to travel around the country, talking about her activities and exploits.
Yoshiko Kawashima (1907-1948). Yoshiko was a hereditary princess, a member of the royal family of Japan. The girl so got used to someone else's role that she loved to dress in men's clothes and had a mistress. As a member of the imperial family, she had direct access to the representative of the Chinese royal dynasty, Pu Yi. In the 1930s, he was about to become the ruler of the province of Manchuria, a new state under Japanese control. In fact, Pu Yi would become a puppet in the hands of the cunning Kawashima. At the last moment, the monarch decided to give up this honorary title. After all, it was she who, in fact, would govern the entire province, listening to the orders of Tokyo. But the girl turned out to be more cunning - she planted poisonous snakes and bombs in the king's bed in order to convince Pu Yi in danger. He eventually succumbed to the persuasion of Yoshiko and in 1934 became the emperor of Manchuria.
Amy Elizabeth Thorpe (1910-1963). This woman was engaged in not only diplomatic activities in Washington. The scout's career began with her marriage to the second secretary of the American embassy. He was 20 years older than Amy, she traveled with him around the world, not hiding her numerous novels. The husband did not mind, because he was an agent of British intelligence, the wife's entertainment helped to obtain information. After the unexpected death of his spouse, the Cynthia agent goes to Washington, where he continues to help the country with cheap temptation and bribery. The Englishwoman used her bed to obtain valuable information from French and Italian employees and officers. Her most famous espionage stunt was opening the safe of the French ambassador. By skillful action, she was able to do this and copy the naval code, which then helped the Allied troops to land in North Africa in 1942.
Gabriela Gast (born 1943). This woman studied politics in a good school, but after visiting the GDR in 1968, she was recruited there by scouts. The woman simply fell in love with the handsome blond Schneider, who turned out to be a Stasi agent. In 1973, a woman managed to get a position in the Federal Intelligence Service of the Federal Republic of Germany in Pullach. In fact, she was a spy for the GDR, for 20 years transmitting the secrets of the western part of Germany there. The connection with Schneider continued all this time. Gabriela had the pseudonym "Leinfelder", during her service she managed to climb the career ladder to the highest government official. The agent was exposed only in 1990. The following year, she was sentenced to 6 years and 9 months in prison. Released in 1998, Gast now works in a regular Munich engineering office.
Ruth Werner (1907-2000). German communist Ursula Kuchinski was already actively involved in political activities in her youth. However, having married an architect, she was forced to move to Shanghai in 1930. It was then that she was recruited by the Soviet special services, giving the pseudonym "Sonya". Ruth collected information for the USSR in China, collaborating with Richard Sorge. The husband did not even suspect what his wife was actually doing. In 1933, a woman took a special course in an intelligence school in Moscow, then returning to China, she continued to collect valuable data. Then there was Poland, Switzerland, England ... Sony's informants even served in the intelligence of the United States and Europe. So, with its help, invaluable information was received about the creation of an atomic bomb in the United States directly from the project engineers! Since 1950, Werner has lived in the GDR, having written several books there, including the autobiographical "Sonya is Reporting." It is curious that twice Ruth went on missions with other scouts, who were listed as her husbands only according to impeccable documents. However, over time, they really became such, for love.
Violetta Jabot (1921-1945). This Frenchwoman was already a widow at the age of 23, she decided to join the ranks of British intelligence. In 1944, a woman was sent to occupied France on a secret mission. She landed by parachute. At the destination, Violetta not only transmitted to the headquarters data on the strength and location of the enemy forces, but also carried out a number of sabotage actions. The April part of the tasks was completed, the woman returned to London, where her little daughter was waiting for her. In June, Jabot is back in France, but now the mission ends in failure - her car is detained, cartridges for the shootout are running out ... However, the girl was captured and sent to the Ravensbrück concentration camp, which became famous for its cruel torture and medical experiments on prisoners. After going through a series of tortures, Violetta was executed in February 1945, just a few months before the Victory. As a result, she became only the second woman in history to be posthumously awarded the St. George Cross (1946). Later, the scout was awarded the "Military Cross" and the medal "For resistance."
From left to right: Regina Renchon ("Tizhi"), wife of Georges Simenon, Simenon himself, Josephine Baker and her first husband, Count Pepito Abbitano. Who is the fifth at the table is unknown. And there is probably a waiter who is always ready to pour champagne.
Josephine Baker (1906-1975). This American woman's real name was Frida Josephine MacDonald. Her parents were a Jewish musician and a black laundress. Because of her origin, she herself endured a lot of suffering - already at the age of 11 she learned what a pogrom in the ghetto is. In America, Baker was disliked because of her skin color, but in Europe fame came to her during the Paris tour of "Revue Negre" in 1925. An unusual woman walked through Paris with a panther on a leash, she was nicknamed "Black Venus". Josephine married an Italian adventurer, thanks to which she acquired the title of count. However, the place of her activity remained the Moulin Rouge, she also starred in erotic films. As a result, the woman made a great contribution to the development and promotion of all types of Negro culture. In 1937, Baker easily gave up American citizenship in favor of French, but then the war broke out. Josephine was actively involved in the action, becoming a spy for the French resistance. She often visited the front and even trained as a pilot, received the rank of lieutenant. She also supported the underground financially. After the end of the war, she continued to dance and sing, filming along the way in television series. The last 30 years of her life, Baker has devoted to the upbringing of children, whom she adopted in different countries of the world. As a result, a whole rainbow family of 12 kids lived in her French castle - a Japanese, a Finnish, a Korean, a Colombian, an Arab, a Venezuelan, a Moroccan, a Canadian and three Frenchmen and a resident of Oceania. It was a kind of protest against the policy of racism in the United States. For her services to her second homeland, the woman was awarded the Order of the Legion of Honor and the Military Cross. At her funeral, on behalf of the country, official military honors were given - she was carried out with 21 rifle volleys. In the history of France, she was the first foreign woman to be honored in this way.
Nancy Wake (Grace Augusta Wake) (born 1912). The woman was born in New Zealand, unexpectedly receiving a rich inheritance, she moved first to New York, and then to Europe. In the 1930s, she worked as a correspondent in Paris, branding the spreading Nazism. With the invasion of France by the Germans, the girl, along with her husband, joined the ranks of the Resistance, becoming its active member. Nancy had the following nicknames and pseudonyms: "White Mouse", "Witch", "Madame Andre". She and her husband helped Jewish refugees and Allied troops to leave the country. Fearing being caught, Nancy left the country herself, ending up in London in 1943. There, she trained as a professional intelligence officer and returned to France in April 1944. In the Overan region, the scout was organizing the supply of weapons, as well as recruiting new members of the Resistance. Soon Nancy learned that her husband had been shot by the Nazis, who demanded that he indicate the location of the woman. The Gestapo promised 5 million francs for her head. As a result, Nancy returns to London. In the post-war period, she was awarded the Order of Australia and the George Medal. Wake published her autobiography The White Mouse in 1985.
Christine Keeler (born 1943). The former British model turned out to be a "call girl" by the will of fate. In the 60s, it was she who provoked a political scandal in England called "The Profumo Affair". Christine herself acquired the nickname Mata Hari of the 60s. While working in a topless cabaret, she simultaneously entered into contact with the British Minister of War John Profumo and the USSR Naval Attaché Yevgeny Ivanov. However, one of the ardent admirers of the beauty persecuted her so persistently that the police, and later journalists, became interested in this case. It turned out that Christine was extracting secrets from the minister, then selling them to her other lover. In the course of the outbreak of a high-profile scandal, Profumo himself resigned, soon the Prime Minister, and then the Conservatives lost the elections. The minister left without work was forced to get a job as a dishwasher, while Christine herself earned even more money - after all, the beautiful spy was so popular with journalists and photographers.
Anna Chapman (Kushchenko) (born 1982). This story has recently become public. The girl moved to England in 2003, and since 2006 in the United States she headed her own real estate search company. On June 27, 2010, she was arrested by the FBI and on July 8, she admitted that she carried out intelligence activities. The girl tried to get data on US nuclear weapons, politics in the East, influential people. The press was interested in a beauty with the appearance of a photo model. It turned out that Anna was carrying out her actions while still in London. She was associated with a certain peer from the House of Lords and even approached the princes. Funds for a luxurious life were brought to her by a business sponsored by someone unknown. As a result, Anna was deported to Russia.