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Argentina

Argentina

Argentina is located in the southeastern part of the South American continent. Argentina shares borders with the following states: Chile, Uruguay, Brazil, Paraguay and Bolivia.

The waters of the Atlantic Ocean wash Argentina from the east. On the territory of Argentina is the highest mountain of the South American continent - Mount Cerro Aconcagua. Its height is 6,960 meters.

Buenos Aires is the capital of Argentina. This city became the official capital in 1880 (although according to the declaration in 1853).

The country's territory is stretched out. From north to south, the length of Argentina is 3.7 thousand km. Argentina's area is 2.8 million square kilometers.

In terms of population, the country ranks thirty-third in the world and third among the countries of the South American continent. Approximately thirty-five percent of the population is under the age of fifteen and over sixty-five years of age.

The rate of natural population growth tends to decrease. In the mid-1990s. natural population growth was 0.91% (negative natural increase, which means the excess of mortality over births).

Seventy-six years is the average life expectancy in Argentina. The share of the urban population exceeds eighty-seven percent (2/5 of which live in the capital of Argentina - which is approximately twelve million inhabitants). Among the major cities in Argentina are the following: Tucuman, Mendoza, Rosario and Cordoba.

Religion in Argentina is Christianity. The division of powers into three branches (judicial, legislative and executive) has existed in Argentina since the middle of the nineteenth century. The separation of powers is inherent both at the national level and at the local level. Argentina is a federal republic in terms of government.

The formation of the Argentine nation was greatly influenced by immigrants. Even today, European influence is felt in all spheres of Argentine life (especially in culture and everyday life).

The tango dance, which has now become popular all over the world, is part of the national culture of Argentina. Argentina is a country rich in attractions. Buenos Aires alone has about one hundred and twenty museums, not to mention other cultural treasures.

Myths about Argentina

Argentina is characterized by natural diversity. Argentina has a huge length from north to south. This circumstance, along with the difference in the relief of various territories, is the reason for such a rich Argentinean nature, which delights both residents of this country and tourists. The southern part of Argentina is sublime. The northern and eastern parts of the country are flat areas. The Andes stretch along the entire western border of the country. These mountains were formed during the period of alpine mountain building, at present their geological structure is complex and diverse. Indeed, even the mountainous landscapes are amazing. They are, in fact, majestically unique.

Argentina is rich in natural resources. There is a rich mineral resource base for the development of industry in the country, but there are practically no world-scale deposits here. The latter, in general, somewhat distinguishes Argentina from other countries of Latin America. Deposits of ore minerals have been discovered in the western regions of Argentina, the country is distinguished by reserves of copper, manganese, uranium ores, on its territory there are deposits of iron, tungsten and lead-zinc ores, as well as beryllium.

Oil and natural gas are of the greatest importance among fuel and energy resources; the main deposits of these resources are located on the island of Tierra del Fuego, in the intermontane troughs of the Andes and troughs of the Patagonian platform. Recently, the production of natural gas in Argentina has significantly increased, its reserves are estimated at six hundred billion cubic meters.

Argentina has rich reserves of non-metallic minerals. This is especially true for sulfur. However, the generally low geological knowledge of the territory of Argentina is regrettable. Many raw materials for the Argentinean industry are not absent at all, but are very unfavorably placed.

Argentina has abundant land resources, farmland occupies about seventy percent of the land fund. Argentina specializes in livestock raising on natural pastures and grain farming, which is largely due to the very favorable combination of agro-climatic resources. Water resources are mainly represented by rivers, and the river network in the north-east of the country is much better developed than in other regions.

Parana is the largest river in Argentina. In terms of basin area and length, Parana is second only to the Amazon, thus ranking second in terms of these indicators in all of South America. The largest rivers of the country are characterized by the rain type of feeding.

Argentine vegetation is characterized by a great variety. Argentina has both semi-desert regions and rainforests. The species composition of the subtropical forests of the northern Mesopotamia is especially diverse; Lapacho, Sedro, Araucaria and other trees with valuable wood grow here. In the more southern regions of Argentina, the vegetation is mainly represented by shrubs. Dry and elevated areas are characterized by the presence of a rich grass cover, while in marshy areas vegetation is represented by water lilies, reeds and reeds. Palm groves are found along the river banks. Also on the territory of Argentina you can find sparse forests of ostrich trees, mimosas, acacias.

The cereal prairie - the southern part of the province of Entre Rios - is a kind of transitional territory to Pampa (translated this word means nothing more than "devoid of tree vegetation"). A significant part of the territory of Pampa is currently plowed up, but earlier both pearl barley and feather grass grew on it - forbs surprised with its beauty. The grassy cover has lost its original species in the process of cattle grazing, which continued for many years, because it served as a natural fodder base for animal husbandry. The predominance of xerophilous vegetation is what is characteristic of Pampa today. Xerophilous vegetation is represented by tough grasses, thorny shrubs and stunted trees.

Approximately twelve percent of Argentina's land fund is occupied by forests, among which the most valuable are the Kebracho forests in the Chaco (the most developed forest resources), as well as the coniferous forests of the humid Andes and Mesopotamia. It is worth noting the fact that Argentina has been using the forest resources of Chaco for a long time, in view of which the problem of not their exploitation, but their restoration and protection, is currently becoming urgent.

Erythrina is the national flower of Argentina. It is, and erythrine is the pride of Argentina. Erythrina (or in other words, coral tree) is a very beloved plant of the Argentines. The most common type of this plant is the cockscomb, which in Argentina is called the beautiful word "seibo". By its name, this type of erythrina is bright red flowers, which are associated with a cock's comb. This tree can often be seen in Argentinean squares, squares and parks. Seibales are whole groves of erythrina in parts of Argentina. Interesting fact: the neighboring state of Argentina - Uruguay - also recognizes erythrina as its national flower.

The Argentinean animal world is characterized by a huge variety. In terms of its diversity, the fauna of Argentina is to some extent inferior to the diversity of the fauna of other Latin American countries. However, the fauna of Argentina is characterized by the presence of many endemic species, including the Magellanic dog, the Pampas cat, and the Pampas deer. Almost all representatives of endemic species live either in the foothills of the Andes, or directly in the Andes. At present, in the mountains you can still find chinchilla and vicuna, which have been almost completely destroyed. The sparsely populated area of ​​Patagonia is also home to many rare animal species, and the relic spectacled bear can be seen in Pune.

Among the animals widespread in Argentina: cougar (lives in Chaco and Patagonia), armored carriages, rodents, otters and nutria (most often found in Patagonia, Mesopotamia and Chaco) and many others. Waterfowl of lakes and marshes are beautiful. Their coloration is very bright. Often, flamingos and herons can appear on the shores of water bodies. Hummingbirds also live in the forests of Argentina. Moreover, one of the hummingbird species - it is called a fluttering emerald - is known only in Argentina and nowhere else in the world (it is an endemic species). One of the national symbols of Argentina is the stove maker. This bird received the status of a national symbol in 1928.

The extractive industries in Argentina dominate the manufacturing industries. Quite the opposite. The manufacturing industry dominates. Heavy industry is especially developed (a large proportion of enterprises are concentrated in the industrial belt between Rosario and Buenos Aires, in the lower reaches of the Parana). However, the food and light industries still play an important role in the country's economy. These industries are also important in terms of exports.

Oil production meets one hundred percent of Argentina's needs for it. According to this indicator, among the Latin American countries, Argentina ranks fourth. Argentina has significant uranium reserves. This country is among the first among the countries in the world for its reserves. A considerable number of scientific developments are being created related to the uranium industry, as well as to issues of nuclear energy.

The highest value among the products of the heavy industry belongs to mechanical engineering (Peugeot, Toyota, Chrysler, Ford and other major car manufacturers have their factories in Argentina). The transport automotive industry (of particular importance is the production of automobiles), aircraft construction, shipbuilding, agricultural engineering, etc. Cordova is the center of the automotive industry and aircraft construction, Buenos Aires is the center of the automotive industry and shipbuilding. Another center for shipbuilding is Ensenada.

The meat processing industry occupies a worthy place among export industries, and indeed the country is one of the most important meat producers. Not the last export value is inherent in the following branches of the food industry: winemaking, oil mill, flour milling, soybean, vegetable oil production.

Argentina exports food. This is so, and this has already been said above. Moreover, livestock and agricultural products account for over fifty percent of export earnings. However, a distinctive feature of this country is the fact that Argentina, although it exports food products, at the same time does not fully provide itself with food. With all this, only one percent of the working population is employed in agricultural sectors. Interestingly, Argentina ranks first in the world in terms of meat consumption; meat dishes are the national food of local residents. Argentina is among the first countries to harvest wheat. Oilseeds and grain crops occupy a leading place in the crop production of this country.

Argentina has a positive trade balance. This means that exports exceed imports. As of 2008, exports amounted to seventy billion dollars. Exported goods included meat, wheat, corn, automobiles, gas, oil and soybeans, the main buyers of which were Brazil, the Netherlands, Chile, the United States of America and China. Brazil owns 18.9%. Imports for the same year totaled $ 54.6 billion. Argentina imports plastics, organic chemicals, industrial products, the main suppliers of which are Germany, the United States of America, China and Brazil. Brazil occupies a leading place among the importing countries (it supplies more than thirty imported products to Argentina).

Argentina is a country with a developed transport infrastructure. Relatively developed. The length of the Argentinean roads is approximately two hundred and thirty thousand kilometers. Moreover, these figures do not take into account the length of rural roads. Argentina has a lot of toll roads that were once privatized, high-speed roads (their total length exceeds one and a half thousand kilometers). The length of paved roads is seventy two thousand kilometers. Some particularly large Argentine cities are connected by multi-lane expressways, the length of which has increased significantly in recent years. Despite the progressive development of the transport infrastructure, it is characterized by the presence of many problems that need to be resolved. As of 2009, the number of registered cars in Argentina was nine and a half million. To ensure their normal movement, it is necessary to build new roads.

An interesting fact: there are two hundred and forty cars per thousand people. The railway network has a length of more than thirty-four thousand kilometers. Many railways are currently simply not in use, as the railway company does. Transportation of both international and domestic significance is carried out by the main Argentine airline Aerolineas Argentinas. Another (a subsidiary of its company) also operates flights throughout Argentina.

The Buenos Aires Metro is currently the largest on the South American continent. In the year of its opening - 1913 - it was exactly so. However, this is currently not the case. However, the length of its lines is 52.3 kilometers. This metro serves approximately one million people every day.

Water transport is of great importance to Argentina. Inland waterways are approximately eleven thousand kilometers long. Their importance can be assessed on the basis of the following fact: much less cargo is transported by rail than by waterways, which include an extensive network of canals and natural waterways. As for the latter, the following rivers should be especially noted: Paraguay, Rio Negro, Uruguay, Parana and Rio de la Plata.

Immigrants have had a decisive influence on the formation of the Argentine nation. The Argentine nation was indeed formed by a large number of immigrants from Europe in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and currently the number of Indians living in Argentina is only four and a half percent of the total population of this country. More than eighty percent of the population of Argentina belongs to the white race. Another half of a percent belongs to such tribes originally living on its territory as Matako, Toba, Stakes, Mapuche. Among immigrants, Italians and Spaniards predominate, but the ethnic composition of immigrants is very variegated (as it was originally and as it remains today). The British, Germans, French, representatives of the Slavic peoples (mainly Ukrainians) immigrate to Argentina.

Buenos Aires is the largest metropolitan area in the world.One of the largest - Buenos Aires falls into the top ten such agglomerations. The population of Buenos Aires is approximately twelve million.

Argentina is a federal republic in terms of government. Its territory is divided into twenty-three provinces, and one additional federal capital district is allocated. The president is at the head of the state. The term for which the president is elected is four years. The prime minister is the head of the cabinet. The National Congress (the highest legislative body) consists of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. The Chamber of Deputies consists of two hundred and fifty-seven people, and the Senate - of seventy-two people. With each new election, one second of all deputies and one third of all senators are replaced. The frequency of parliamentary elections is once every two years. Among the most significant political parties in Argentina, the following parties are currently (in ascending order of importance): Republican Proposal, Socialist Party, Civil Coalition, Civil Radical Union, Front for Victory. The last party in parliament is represented by one hundred and nineteen deputies and forty-two senators. About twenty more parties are represented in the National Congress to an insignificant extent (which, naturally, conduct their activities on legal rights).

Argentina is a country of many traditions. This fact is due precisely to the national composition of the country. The traditions of many countries and peoples have left their mark on the traditions of Argentina. This could not but affect the development of culture, the customs and life of the Argentines. If a child is born on the territory of Argentina, then he is considered a citizen of this country.

The connection with Europe is evident throughout the culture of Argentina. This is due to the fact that a large number of Argentines have a European education - Europe has had a great impact on their minds. It can be traced in the way of life of the Argentines, and in literature, and in architecture, and, of course, in art. In particular, this applies to literature, which is built on the basis of the mutual influence of cultures. Many Argentine writers have a worldwide reputation. Among them: Osvaldo Soriano, Manuel Pugh, Ernesto Sabasto, Julio Cortazar, Jorge Luis Borges and others. Folk music also flourishes in Argentina.

Tango is a dance that is part of the culture of Argentina. Perhaps even the most popular. Tango is an old folk dance. His homeland, indeed, is Argentina. Romantics from all over the world are extremely sensitive to the melody and plasticity of this dance. Tango is a pair ballroom dance. It is characterized by a clear rhythm, energy, free composition. From Argentina, tango spread all over the world.

Tango was originally called cryoglio. The ancient African dance forms of the African communities of the present Argentine capital gave birth to elements of tango, by the way, the very word "tango" of African origin. Literally translated, tango means "dance to the sound of a drum", it was in relation to dance that this word began to be used at the end of the nineteenth century (in the 1890s). Tango is currently represented by different dance styles. Among them: old tango, Finnish tango, ballroom tango, Uruguayan tango, and, of course, Argentine tango The last is closest to the tango that once originated in Argentina.

Paris is the city that was the first to host a tango show in Europe. It happened at the beginning of the twentieth century. By 1914, the dance was widely known in Finland, the United States of America and New York. This dance was often performed at a fast pace. "The Golden Age of Tango" - this is how the period 1930-1950 is called. And this despite the Great Depression. At this time, a large number of ensembles appeared. Tango performers and famous composers became their participants. Astor Piazzollai, Osvaldo Pugliese, Annibal Troilo and others recognized as classics of the tango style were included in such ensembles.

December 11 - "Tango Day" - a holiday that is celebrated annually in Buenos Aires. This is the birthday of Carlos Gardel - "King of Tango", the famous Argentinean film actor and singer.

Argentina is a sports country. Football is the most popular sport in Argentina. Rather, it is not even just a game, but a national passion. Twice (in 1978 and 1986) the World Cup went to Argentina.

Meat is the backbone of Argentine cuisine. Indeed, meat predominates in national dishes. This is especially true for beef. The best dish, perhaps, is called "Assorted Parrillada". Surprisingly, it can be cooked using almost all parts of a cow. And this is the udder, and intestines, and offal!

Speaking about the national cuisine of Argentina, one cannot fail to mention the famous ice cream Elado, as well as the Paraguayan mate tea. As for the latter, offering a cup of Paraguayan tea means showing sympathy. This is not just a drink, but downright some kind of ceremony. The very process of preparing the leaves of the plant is very effective. And the vessel from which this drink is drunk is made of pumpkin.

"Latin temperament" is characteristic of all Argentines. Moreover, it is characteristic to the same extent of both men and women. With all this, the locals are extremely attentive to the visitors and, in fact, to each other. Argentines are always on the lookout for changes in fashion. They are sensitive to their appearance. Another peculiar custom is courtesy. The Argentines cannot be denied in this capacity. Politeness is not generated by the desire to please someone, it is in the blood of Argentines. Greeting each other by the hand (a European custom) is a common occurrence among unfamiliar people, and well-known people greet each other by kissing on the cheek. It is important for every Argentinean how the interlocutor reacts to his words. The favorite topics of conversation are football and politics.

Argentines are obsessive. Indeed, the citizens of Argentina have it to some extent. The relationship between the sexes is an example. It is only worth noting the fact that obsession is unlikely among Argentines to be the desire to get their way by any means. This also includes the rather frivolous attitude of the Argentines to the promises given to anyone or their words (though this does not apply to business, where promises are still fulfilled), therefore it is not recommended to take an Argentine's word for it in everyday life.

Argentines are punctual. Not at all. Even returning to the above, one can understand that this is not the case. Argentines do not always keep their word. That is why a delay of thirty minutes is quite acceptable for them.

Argentines are vindictive. Rather, they are quite touchy. But the Argentines can hardly be called vindictive. With a little effort, it is even possible to end the quarrel on the spot. However, it should be borne in mind that in no case should the pride of the Argentines be hurt. The subject of their pride is the country in which they live, and, in fact, they themselves. The Argentinean is also particularly proud of the local fashion and his appearance. Therefore, in these matters, one should not go too far and hope for momentary forgiveness.

Many Argentines speak English well. Rather, it only applies to those Argentines who work in large stores or are employees of hotels. However, their attitude to the English language is such that they start to speak Spanish as soon as possible. For most Argentines, Spanish is the only language they know. True, in many parts of Argentina various slangs and jargons have appeared.

Argentines love to sleep. Yes, you definitely cannot call them larks. They prefer to get up late. As a result, their lunch and dinner times are much different from what we are used to. Lunch in Argentina falls between 4 pm and 6 pm. Argentines have dinner after 21.00. This meal "schedule" applies not only to weekends, but also to weekdays. Argentines are especially attentive to dinner, moreover, each family can have and observe their own small rituals every day. Dinner is never complete without lengthy conversations on a variety of topics.

Argentines talk about the weather and business, family and tango, football and politics, etc. The most important thing in such conversations is the ability to listen to the interlocutor and substantiate your position, but emotional interest in a particular issue is not at all welcomed. It is undesirable to turn the conversation into a kind of meeting.

Argentina is a Europeanized country. Indeed, Europe has had a significant impact on the life of Argentina. Moreover, on the territory of this country, there are almost no traces of the Indian civilizations of antiquity. Perhaps these tracks were not searched with due diligence. However, Argentina has absorbed the real flavor of everything that can attract the attention of a tourist. Amazing beaches with a length of several kilometers; excellent ski resorts; the highest mountain peaks and stunning waterfalls; dense forests and endless steppes - everything is here. A tourist can also get acquainted with the architecture of the colonial period, visit both the most modern megacities and visit unforgettable cattle-breeding villages, enjoy the colorful Argentinean nature. The attractiveness of Argentina is added by the fact of the mixing of cultures in this country.

Buenos Aires is a city with a long history. No, Buenos Aires' history is relatively short-lived. But, nevertheless, it is quite stormy. The founding date of the real Argentine capital is 1580. At this stage, the city had a slightly different name. The city of Nueva Senora de Santa Maria del Buenos Aires appeared at the mouth of the La Plata. In its development, the city has experienced both ups and downs. However, the earthquakes of the nineteenth century were so strong that the city was almost completely destroyed.

The new rise of Buenos Aires began in 1880, it was then that the city became the capital of the state. A large number of fountains, monuments, squares, wide avenues appeared in Buenos Aires. Currently, the city is home to almost half of the entire Argentine population (about forty percent). In any case, now Buenos Aires is the center of Argentina's history and glory. Tourists should visit this place, despite the constantly crowded streets and the hectic lifestyle of the huge city.

Buenos Aires' cultural heritage is immense. The sights of this city include the following: the old La Boca area, the Basilica of De Santo Domingo, the Church of El Pilar, the Presidential Palace of the Casa Rosada, the Metropolitan Cathedral, the Plaza de La República, the famous Teatro Colon, Cesar Park , Plaza de Mayo (which is the heart of Buenos Aires) and many others.

Buenos Aires is a city of many museums. Few people know the fact that in Buenos Aires there are no less than no more, but about one hundred and twenty different museums. This is another pride of the Argentines. Moreover, the locals are not at all surprised by such a large number of museums in the Argentine capital; they are simply very proud of the history of their country. Some of the most famous museums in Buenom Aires are: Museum Center, Museum of Latin American Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Museum of Natural Sciences, Museum of Caricatures, National Historical Museum, Museum of Cinema, Casa Rosada Palace Museum, Libra Museum, Model Museum and many others.

The word "Pampa" is synonymous with the word "Argentina". In practice this is true, but formally not at all. Pampa is one of six economic regions in the country, but it controls the entire Federal Capital District, which is by no means a small number. Pampa spans the Argentine north and center. There is a huge number of small towns and farms, desert areas and swamps alternate with the economic development of some areas. Of greatest interest are the cities of Santa Fe and Rosario, as well as the city of Lujan. The first two cities became famous throughout Argentina for examples of colonial architecture, churches and many museums. the main attraction of the city of Lujana is the famous Basilica of La Virgen de Luján. It receives approximately four million pilgrims annually.

Iguazu - Argentina National Park. It is located on the border with Paraguay and Brazil. This park is not only famous, it is recognized as one of the modern wonders of the world. And this is not surprising! On its territory, the waters of two hundred and seventy-five waterfalls break down, the most famous of which are the following: Adam and Eve, Rivadavia, Benjamin Constant, Belgrano, Miter, Salto Floriano, Salto Escondido, Arayagaray, Union, Ramirez, etc. Within one second, the waterfalls of Iguaza Park throw about five thousand cubic meters of water.

The largest waterfall in South America is located in the National Park. This is Cataratas del Iguazu (or simply Iguazu). Its width varies from three to four kilometers. The cascade of fourteen waterfalls of Gargante del Diablo is very beautiful (and famous). This name in translation means nothing more than "The Devil's Throat". This cascade is the border between two countries: Brazil and Argentina.

under the protection of the National Park, which stretches, in fact, just around the waterfalls, there are unique tropical vegetation, a huge number of species of butterflies and exotic birds. The park is not limited to Argentina, but continues to Brazil.

Salto is one of the most interesting cities in Argentina. To be more precise, its northwestern part. This city was founded in 1582 at an altitude of 1190 meters above sea level. Salto did not become a provincial town just because of its attractions, which currently attract tourists from all over the world. We are talking about the statues of Christ the Wonderworker (sixteenth century) and the Virgin Mary located in the Cathedral of San Francisco, which are healing. They are also credited with the ability to stop earthquakes. other attractions of Salta include: Town Hall, Cathedral, La Florida pedestrian walkway, Uriburu house, San Bernardo monastery, central square. The building of the Town Hall currently houses the Historical Museum.

Watch the video: 10 Best Places to Visit in Argentina - Travel Video (October 2020).