Badminton (English badminton) - one of the game sports. The competition is held on an area of 13.40x6.10 m (for doubles) or 13.4x5.2 m (for a single game), which is divided in half by a net (height 1.55 m). The playing field by the extreme lines (right and left), as well as the back lines. In addition, at a distance of 1.98 m from the net, there is a service line, together with the back line, defining the service area, halved by a center line.
The game involves two athletes (or two teams of two), located on opposite sides of the site. The game, usually consisting of 3 or 5 games, is played up to 15 points (if children and women play - up to 11 points).
Some researchers consider India to be the birthplace of badminton, while others argue that this game originated in Malaysia, from where it later came to other Asian countries. Be that as it may, it was in India that the Duke of Beaufort from England first became acquainted with the prototype of modern badminton - the game "pune" ("pune"). In 1873 he returned to his Badminton House estate in Gloucestershire (100 km from London), taking with him a feathered ball and a pair of rackets. The outlandish game, the first rules of which were written by British officers during their stay in India, immediately attracted the attention of the public, and found numerous fans.
Already in 1887, the first club of fans of this game was created, and on September 13, 1893, 14 badminton clubs created the first English Badminton Association (BAE). In the same year, the rules of this game were officially fixed. The first All-England open championship was held in 1899, and the international badminton competition was held in 1902 in Dublin, Ireland. Only two teams participated in this match - from England and from Ireland.
On July 5, 1934, nine states (England, Scotland, Denmark, Holland, Ireland, Wales, France, Canada and New Zealand) founded the International Badminton Federation (IBF), which now includes representatives of 147 countries. The European Badminton Union (EBU) was established by 11 countries on September 24, 1967, and a year later the first European Badminton Championships in this sport took place in Bochum (Germany). Among male badminton players, the Thomas Cup (named after the first IBF president, Englishman George Thomas) has been played since 1947, and women athletes have been fighting for the Uber Cup since 1955 (named after American badminton player Betty Uber). Since 1977, the Badminton World Championships have been held.
In order to have information about competitions in this sport, it was not at all necessary to personally attend all the matches - since 1951, television broadcasts of various championships were carried out, and in 1972 a specialized magazine "World badminton" was published, which existed until 1999, when all information about badminton began to be posted on sites on the Internet.
Necessary equipment for playing badminton: shuttlecock (from the French volant - "flying", "light", "mobile") - a small-sized feathered ball made of cork covered with leather, and a racket (from the French raquette, - a word that, in turn, derived from the Arabic rakhat - "palm"), consisting of a round rim with stretched strings and a handle. The strings, originally made from natural materials (most often ox strings) are now interwoven synthetic microfibers (most often nylon or aramid), with the core made of elastic fibers, and the braid and sheath made of more durable materials that provide product strength. Shuttlecock mass - from 4.5 to 7 g, rackets - from 135 to 190 g.
Today badminton is one of the most popular sports games due to the simplicity of the rules, as well as the ability to adapt any relatively flat surface as a playground - a clearing in the forest, a lawn, a beach, etc. Badminton has been included in the program of the Summer Olympic Games since 1992.
Games like badminton existed only in Asian countries. This is not true. On ancient amphoras, which are about 3000 years old, there are images that suggest that even in those distant times in ancient Greece, they played shuttlecock, and not only with their hands, but also with their feet. In China, there was also a game of this kind - "ji juu qi". She is mentioned in one of the manuscripts dated 1122 BC. In Japan, back in the 14th century, they played with wooden rackets a shuttlecock made of large ripe cherries, into which several goose feathers were inserted. This construction, dried in the sun, turned out to be light and rather strong. There was a similar game in France, where it was called "gee-de-pom" ("playing with an apple") or "coc vanten" ("flying rooster"), and later - "shuttlecock". And the discrepancies in the interpretation of the rules even served as a pretext for a quarrel between the Bourbons and the Guesses. The game of shuttlecock is mentioned by Marco Polo, a famous traveler from Venice (1254-1323), and also by Friedrich Schiller in his play Don Carlos (1787). Even in England, until the end of the 16th century, peasants organized competitions in playing the "feather ball" with two bats, and in Sweden in 1650, Queen Christina ordered to build a court for playing shuttlecock not far from her palace ("Royal Palace") in Stockholm.
The first badminton books appeared after 1872. The book "Badminton-Battledore - The New Game" was published by Isaac Spratt somewhat earlier - in 1860.
The Badminton World Championship is held annually. Indeed, organized by the World Badminton Federation, to identify the best players, the World Championship is held every year (with the exception of the years of the Olympics), but this was not always the case. Until 1983, the aforementioned competition was held every 3 years, and since 1985 - once every two years. Since 2006, the Badminton World Championship has been held annually.
At the Olympic Games, badminton players first performed in 1992. Badminton has been included in the program of the Olympic Games since 1992, but the first demonstration performance of badminton players took place much earlier - back in 1972 (XX Summer Olympics, Munich).
Badminton is an easy game, fun entertainment. At the amateur level, it's really enough just to try to keep the shuttlecock in the air, but in order to win, professionals have to show cunning, flexibility, endurance, perfect coordination, remarkable strength and agility, the ability to develop high speed and carry out rapid attacks for a fairly long period of time.
Elderly people with cardiovascular diseases will not be able to play badminton. When it comes to professional sports, this statement is true. However, amateur badminton is another matter entirely. Moreover, experts say that playing badminton in adulthood can increase life expectancy by at least 2-3 years, provided that the duration of the game is at least half an hour. In addition, practicing this sport helps to shorten the basal heart rate and lower blood pressure - therefore, extremely beneficial for hypertensive patients. Researchers have shown that exercise leads to a decrease in the amount of certain types of cholesterol (triglycerides, low and very low density lipoproteins) in the body that constrict blood vessels. As a result, badminton players are less likely to develop heart disease. And the condition of the heart muscle during this game improves, and, as a result, the risk of myocardial infarction decreases. People who already have heart disease can also play badminton, but in this case, the lesson should be supervised by a doctor. In addition, badminton helps to strengthen bones, activates the absorption of calcium in the intercellular substance of bone tissue, and thereby prevents osteoporosis. Finally, this game reduces the risk of cancer (especially breast and bowel cancer).
Playing badminton can quickly lose weight. If we are talking about competitions for beginners or amateurs, a lot depends on the intensity of the load and the time of the game. But in any case, movement around the site will be quite intense, moreover, with uneven movements (jumps, accelerations, sharp turns, etc.) more effort is expended than, for example, when running. Professional players run about 10 km during one match, and their weight is reduced by several kilograms.
You can play badminton at any age, and physical training is not particularly required. Yes, this game can be mastered at 10, and 20, and 40, and 60 years old, if we are talking about amateur badminton. In this case, the state of health and age of the player does not matter. But in professional sports, both age and physical fitness are quite significant things. Firstly, in order to start playing at a high professional level, it will take at least 10 years of hard training, because the sooner a future athlete begins to master the wisdom of this game, the better. The optimal age for starting badminton is 5-6 years old, and a child can be sent to the sports section at 10-11 years old. Secondly, without proper physical training, it is simply impossible to withstand the rather strong loads that involve participation in professional competitions in this sport. Even amateurs, who can dose the time and level of load at their discretion, should first consult a doctor (especially if there are impaired cardiovascular function, myopia, some diseases of the respiratory system). The workload in professional sports is much greater. For comparison: the heart rate of an amateur when playing badminton reaches 130-180 beats per minute, and the pulse of professionals - sometimes more than 200 beats per minute. In one game, badminton players cover a distance of about 2000 meters on average, and this is by no means a uniform load - blows on the shuttlecock are accompanied by many jumps, jerks, starting accelerations, etc. The body must be ready for such loads.
Rackets are most often made of wood or metal. Indeed, at first the rackets were only made of wood, a little later metal ones appeared. However, nowadays, various materials are used for the manufacture of this sports equipment: aluminum, steel, titanium, carbon fiber, etc., due to which the products are able to withstand the tension of the strings for a long time and withstand rather strong impacts. For professional athletes, rackets are most often made of composite carbon fiber with built-in structural elements of a different material, which provides the flexibility and strength of this type of sports equipment.
It is impossible "by eye" to tell the difference between professional and beginner rackets. The playability of a racket is really not that easy to define. But some easily distinguishable signs are still there. For example, the presence of a clearly visible T-shaped knot ("tee") at the junction of the rim frame and the shaft is inherent only in rackets for beginners and amateur athletes. You can also roughly determine the strength of a racket by simply getting information about what material (or materials) it is made of. But such game characteristics as stiffness (the amplitude of movement of the racket rod during the strike), control (depends on the degree of twisting of the rod upon impact, affects the accuracy of the shuttle flight) and energy (the force of the shuttle strike, depending on the balance distribution - the closer it is to the rim of the racket, the stronger the impact and the lower the control) can only be determined by professionals.
Best results will be achieved with the latest racket. Of course, progress does not stand still - new models of sports equipment for badminton from leading companies appear every 3-4 months. Since this is an extremely short period of time, professional athletes prefer to change their racquet model no more than once every 2-3 years. Even less often, top-class badminton players change the brand of equipment, preferring products only from a certain manufacturer. Indeed, it sometimes takes a lot of time to get used to certain qualities of the racket, which a particular company emphasizes, and it takes a lot of effort.
The tighter the strings on the racquet are, the better. Rackets for professionals are really stretched harder than for amateurs - the difference is 40-80 N or 1-2 kg (strings for amateur rackets are pulled with a force of 80-110 N, i.e. 11-12 kg, and for professional - up to 160 N, i.e. 13 kg). However, in order to provide a tension of 13x13 kg, a special, extremely strong string is needed. Regular strings are not recommended to be pulled more than 12 kg and less than 11 kg. If the tension is excessive, the strings may simply break, and if not stretched, the playing qualities of this sports equipment will deteriorate.
The strings on the racket should only be changed if they are broken. No, the tension should be renewed periodically, regardless of whether the string has broken. After all, a weakened tension helps to reduce the playing qualities of the racket. In addition, it should be remembered that small plastic bushings ("cambric") inserted into the rim of the racket, through which the string is passed, also need to be periodically replaced, since the string acts on their outer part and gradually frays it. In order for the cambric to serve longer, before the next stretch, they should be turned around the axis.
The racket can be tensioned manually. For amateur athletes, this method of stretching is really acceptable, but it should be taken into account that the pulling force will have to be determined "by eye", and the required pulling speed can hardly be provided. Therefore, the best way out is to give the racket and strings (which will take about 10 meters) to special workshops that stretch on the machine.
The heavier the racket, the better. Not always. Much depends on physical fitness, especially if the racket is acquired by a beginner. For amateurs, it is best to start with light to medium rackets weighing no more than 92 grams. From heavier models, beginner athletes can experience severe shoulder pain. However, if physical training allows, you can use heavier rackets. By the way, the largest and, accordingly, the heaviest racket in the world can be seen at the Red Willow Badminton Center (Alberta, Canada). The height of the product, designed to draw attention to this sport, is about 4 meters.
Metal rackets are the most durable. Misconception. The metal rim is easily deformed by pulling force and impacts. Therefore, the optimal choice, especially for beginners, is carbon fiber graphite rackets.
It is best to choose a racket with thin strings. Racket strings vary in thickness - from 0.66 to 0.85 mm, and indeed, professionals prefer the thinnest strings (the so-called tournament strings), which allow you to better feel the shuttlecock, beat the mix (attack hit) harder, and also lead more accurate and fine play on the net. However, such strings break quickly (sometimes an athlete can use several rackets in one play). Amateurs should remember this, and opt for thicker and stronger strings (from 0.7 to 0.8 mm thick), which are able to withstand quite strong loads for several months, and, by the way, are used even by professional players during workouts.And in order for the string to last longer, you should avoid hitting the shuttlecock in the areas near the rim - because sometimes one hit of this kind is enough to break the string. If the string still breaks, you need to immediately cut the entire stretch, otherwise, due to incorrect load distribution, hidden cracks may appear, which can soon lead to breakage of the racket.
The best winding of the racket handle is terry. If the athlete's palms are sweating a lot, or if the racket handle is too small for him, the best solution would be to use a terry winding - it is somewhat thicker than rubber. In addition, such a winding lasts longer, although it costs a little more. However, it should be borne in mind that when the terry winding is erased, it will not be possible to pull another one over it. But rubber, although less durable, is somewhat thinner than terry, therefore it will not be difficult to put an additional winding on top of it.
Good racquets are extremely expensive. Yes, professional racquets usually cost $ 500 and up. However, at the initial stages of mastering the intricacies of this game, you can opt for much cheaper models, the cost of which is $ 5-15. Amateur athletes can get a more expensive racket - from $ 15 to $ 100. However, this does not mean at all that you should focus on the maximum price - for $ 30-40 you can purchase an excellent racket from leading manufacturers, made of graphite or titanium-graphite alloy.
Feather shuttlecocks are much better and cheaper than plastic ones. Indeed, feather shuttlecocks, consisting of a cork head covered with thin kid skin, and 16 goose feathers glued into holes around the head circumference and tied with a thread, have much better flight characteristics than plastic ones. They are sorted by speed and trajectory, respectively marked and categorized as slow, medium and fast. It is easy to separate which group the shuttlecock belongs to - just pay attention to the edging ribbon fixed on the shuttlecock head. If it is red - the shuttlecock is the fastest, blue - has an average speed, green - the slowest. For the price, feather shuttlecocks are really cheaper than plastic ones, but these fragile designs are not very durable.
Plastic shuttlecocks, consisting of a cork or synthetic head and a plastic "skirt" attached to it, have an undeniable advantage at a higher price - durability. Beginner players can recommend plastic shuttlecocks with a synthetic head, amateurs - products with a cork head, which have playing qualities close to feathers. Professional players prefer to use exclusively feather shuttlecocks during matches and training.
Natural shuttlecocks wear out most quickly during the game of beginner athletes. The greatest damage to the shuttle can be inflicted by a blow with the rim of the racket, most often indicating a low level of player's technique. However, even during matches of top-class athletes, the shuttlecocks can lose individual feathers or deform from strong blows. It is estimated that in one match of professional players, several shuttlecocks are used - from 2-3 to 12-14, and sometimes even more.
The weight of the heaviest shuttlecock does not exceed 7 grams. This is really so - shuttlecocks are used for playing badminton, the weight of which is from 4.5 to 7 grams. But there is a much heavier shuttlecock - it can be seen in the Kansas City Museum (USA, Missouri). The feathered ball is 48 times larger than usual - it is about 5 meters high and weighs more than 2 tons.
An amateur badminton athlete can dress as he pleases. There are no restrictions for amateur athletes these days. However, you should choose the most comfortable clothes, and even better - specialized (especially for shoes). Firstly, you need to pay attention to the selection of the size of the form - too small will hinder movement, too large also does not contribute to the creation of a feeling of freedom and comfort during the game. Secondly, the material. The best choice is cotton, from which the T-shirt and the lining of the shorts should be made. But you should buy only specialized sneakers that provide good grip on the court, as well as reinforced in those places that are exposed to maximum load during the game. Shoes of this kind minimize the risk of injury to the feet while playing.
Tennis shoes are fine for playing badminton. There are differences between badminton and tennis shoes. Tennis shoes are less stable and higher, while badminton shoes are more stable under lateral loads and provide more traction to the court.
Mastering badminton skills doesn't take long. The rules of this game are extremely simple. It's really easy to study them. But mastering all the skills and abilities of this technically rather complex game usually takes at least 10 years of hard training.
To be successful in badminton, you need to practice on the court as often as possible. This is not entirely true - off-court training should continue. After all, a well-prepared body is a must for a badminton player. To prepare for future aerobic and anaerobic loads, rapid changes in the pace and rhythm of the game, you should pay a lot of attention to running training (crosses, acceleration), various kinds of jumps, strength exercises with weights, etc. Only in this case it will not be difficult for you to complete tasks on the badminton court.
Fantasy does not affect winning the game. The pros say that being in a good mood before a match is just as important as being physically fit. Therefore, before entering the site, you should recall the most successful match of all the previous ones, and also feel confident that all the shots are given to you with ease. This will eliminate the nervousness and any negative emotions, as well as create the positive attitude necessary to defeat your opponent.
The rules of badminton have not been corrected for quite some time. Over the past 10 years, changes to the rules of the game have been made several times. In 2000, according to the decision of the IBF Council, starting from 01.07.2001, the tournaments of the World Series of Grand Prix were to be held on a 5x7 system. And a year later (in April 2002), on the initiative of the English Federation, which was supported by representatives of other European countries, at the extraordinary meeting of the IBF, the new scoring system was canceled. From that moment, in all categories, the counting was carried out according to the old system - 3x15 (and in the women's singles - 3x11). The following changes took place in 2006 - now, to make matches more entertaining, points are awarded regardless of the serve, and the game is played not up to 15, but up to 21 points. If the score is 20:20, the competition will continue until one of the teams is 2 points ahead of the rivals, or the first one reaches the score of 30 points. In addition, in doubles play, each team is entitled to 1 service (instead of the two provided by the old rules).
The highest results in badminton are achieved by Asian athletes. Indeed, these days it is athletes from China, Indonesia, Korea. The Thomas Cup was won most often (13 times) by the Indonesian team, and the Uber Cup by the Chinese team (8 times). At the Olympic competitions in this sport, the greatest successes were achieved by the teams of the PRC (9 medals, of which 3 are gold and 3 silver), Indonesia (9 medals, of which 1 is gold and 2 are silver) and Korea (8 medals, of which 4 are gold and 3 silver). More modest achievements in the athletes of Malaysia - 3 medals (1 silver, 2 bronze). In total, athletes from Asia have won 42 of the 46 Olympic medals. And only once 2 medals (gold and bronze) were awarded to athletes from Denmark.
In a single player game, the more difficult the tactics and strategy, the more chances of winning. Not necessary. Even fairly simple tactics can be extremely effective in solo competition. The main thing is not to execute blows, in the accuracy of which you are not entirely sure, to quickly change the direction of the blow, forcing the opponent to open the area for the subsequent attack from your side. For example, if the opponent is in the center, your blow should be directed to one of the corners, and the next one - to the net. You should also force your opponent to make mistakes by all means. This can be easily accomplished by pissing off the player in a variety of ways, while remaining completely calm. For example, leading the score, you need to rush the continuation of the game, and losing - to delay the beginning of the fight as much as possible. A long look in the eyes or at the chest of an opponent can also make him nervous, pay attention to his appearance, distracting from the game - at this moment you can carry out a series of fairly successful attacks and win. However, in any case, one should not forget about politeness. For example, if one of the players hits an opponent with a shuttle, he must apologize. You should give the shuttlecock to your opponent calmly and carefully, showing respect for him.
Having taken the shuttlecock on the net, you can hit anywhere on the court. Much depends on where the shuttlecock is encountered. Ate on the edge of the net - indeed, it is possible to hit anywhere. However, if the shuttle is encountered below the edge of the net, there will be much less options for the subsequent blow. In the event that the shuttlecock is met at the very floor, the best way out is to fold to the back line. In this case, you can buy time to return to the center of the site.
After serving, it is best to take a position exactly in the center of the court. Indeed, the center of the court is considered to be the most appropriate place for a player waiting to be hit by an opponent. Moreover, while waiting badminton players do not stand still, but are constantly in motion - as if "dancing" in order to prepare the body for rapid movement to any point on the site. But it is not necessary to be exactly in the center - the location is determined by the technical skills of the athlete. For example, players with good backline control move closer to the net, while those who are better at playing on the net take a half step or step back, closer to the backline.
To become a professional badminton player is easier for an amateur who has been mastering this sport on his own for several years. Unfortunately, this is not the case. Indeed, in the process of independent study of the technique, many mistakes can be made, which in the process of prolonged repetition can become a habit. And retraining is much more difficult than learning from scratch. For example, the correct grip, which seems uncomfortable to many beginners, further enhances the effectiveness of the game. And the use of the wrong grip, acquired as a result of independent attempts to learn badminton, often leads to a paucity of striking technique.
The main thing in badminton is striking technique. Yes it is, but the importance of footwork should not be underestimated. After all, it is precisely the precise and fast movements on the court that allow the player to be at the right time in the place where he can deliver a technically correct blow to the shuttle. Therefore, in training, you should definitely pay attention to working out the technique of moving around the site.
Badminton was brought to Russia from England. No, this game came to Russia in 1954 from China, where it was called "yumaotsyu".