The history of Arab astrology dates back to the middle of the 9th century. The achievements of Arab astrology caused a noticeable echo in Europe, having got there through Spain, as well as being introduced by some medieval philosophers.
Applying their methods, Arab astrologers did not confine themselves to drawing up a horoscope and studying the distribution of planetary combinations. They also included elements of numerology, attributing to each person a certain set of symbolic emblems. This method contains 12 houses, divided into 36 equal sectors. The considered parameters, which are very similar to the parameters of the classical horoscope, can be combined in an infinite number of combinations that can be used for the purposes of psychology and fortune-telling.
The compilers of the Arabic horoscopes used the knowledge of the Indian astrological schools. This is not entirely true. On the formation of Arab astrology (and, as a consequence, on the method of drawing up horoscopes), which, according to researchers, began at the end of the 7th - beginning of the 8th centuries. AD influenced not only the Indian, but also the Hellenistic astrological system. For example, Ptolemy's work "Megale Syntaxis" ("The Great Construction") was translated into Arabic as early as 872, and was called "Al Majisti" ("The Greatest").
Some knowledge was gleaned by Arab astrologers from the works of the inhabitants of the Sassanid empire (nowadays - the territory of Iran and Iraq). In addition, researchers believe that there was a reverse influence: in the 13th century, the Arab astrological tradition enriched with new ideas, thanks to the campaign of the Mongol conquerors, penetrated into China, India and other Asian countries.
The most famous center of activity for astrologers and astronomers was Baghdad. Firstly, the study of stars and the compilation of horoscopes in ancient times were engaged in many countries of the east. Secondly, the center of the greatest activity, depending on political and economic factors, periodically changed its location.
If in the VIII - IX centuries. many leading scientists (including astrologers) actually settled in Baghdad, then in the XI century. the palm in this matter belonged to Spain. In the XIII - XV centuries. the greatest interest in astrology and astronomy was shown in Syria (the center of astrological research was Damascus), Cairo, Egypt, and at the end of the 15th century. - in the Ottoman Empire (the most eminent astrologers settled in Istanbul).
The most prominent Islamic astrologers were Arabs. Misconception. Among the people who devoted their lives to stargazing and drawing up horoscopes, and, accordingly, contributed to the development of Arab astrology, there were representatives of other nationalities, people from different countries of the world.
For example, Abraham Ben Meir Aben Ezra, who was born in Spain and influenced the medieval astrologers not only in Muslim countries, but also in Christendom, was a Jew. Jacob ben Tariq, who founded an astrological school in Baghdad, belonged to the same nationality. Rizkallah an-Nakhhas - Egyptian, Khubaysh ibn Muhammad at-Tiflisi, who successfully pursued asceticism at the court of the Sultan in Turkey, was a native of Tbilisi (Tiflis), Ibn al-Banna was born in Morocco, etc.
Arab scientists have had a significant impact on the development of astrological science in European countries. Yes, thanks to the fact that in the XI-XII centuries. the Spaniards started translating the works of Arab scholars, and gained access to the works of Plato, Ptolemy and Aristotle (which had long been translated and studied by astrologers of the Islamic world). Therefore, European astrologers of the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance made horoscopes and predictions, relying on knowledge gleaned from the works of Arab astrologers. In addition, it should be mentioned that it was thanks to the spread of Islamic culture in the countries of Central Asia, Africa and the Middle East that it contributed to the widespread penetration of astrological knowledge into these territories.
In the countries of Islam, astrology has been banned since ancient times, and the compilation of horoscopes was strictly persecuted. Researchers differ on this issue. Some believe that at first, Islam quietly got along with astrological research. There were even interpretations of some verses of the Koran, produced by astrologers, and the invention of astrology was attributed to the prophet Idris. During the reign of Caliph Al-Mansur (full name - Abu Jafar Abdallah ibn Muhammad), who was revered as the greatest ruler and who built Baghdad, and his grandson Harun al-Rashid (nicknamed "The Just"), many famous artists and scientists were called to the capital of the Caliphate (in particular mathematicians, astrologers and astronomers).
Also, the treatises of famous Greek, Egyptian and Indian astrologers were translated into Arabic. In 777, it was in Baghdad that Jacob ben Tariq founded the first school in which students learned the wisdom of drawing up horoscopes, creating zij (astronomical tables, supplemented by a guide that allows interpreting the horoscope), etc. Also in the school founded by at-Tusi (full name - Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Muhammad Nasir ad-Din at-Tusi, one of the greatest scientists of Persia, who, according to the assumption, became the prototype of the legendary Khoja Nasreddin) in 1259 in Madrag (Azeibarjan ) among other disciplines, astrology was also studied.
However, after a while, astrology moved further and further from astronomy and was increasingly intertwined with magical traditions, which, according to the researchers, caused a negative attitude from the clergy.
Other scholars believe that already in the Middle Ages, not only astrology, but also astronomy was persecuted by Islamic theologians. However, it should be mentioned that the need for astronomical calculations arose precisely in the Islamic period, because, firstly, there was a need to draw up a calendar containing information on the exact dates of religious holidays, the beginning and end of fasting, etc.
And information about the time of prayers (which had to be pronounced by the faithful at a strictly defined time of the day) could be obtained only by performing some astronomical calculations. Secondly, it was the astronomers who could indicate to any person wishing to visit the holy city of Mecca the exact direction of movement (qibly).
Be that as it may, nowadays it is considered a forbidden action (haram) not only to draw up horoscopes or perform other astrological calculations, but also to visit an astrologer (who is equated with fortune-tellers and magicians for trying to see the future). It is also forbidden to wear jewelry with the image of the signs of the zodiac or other astrological symbols, reading and even occasionally listening to horoscopes.
Ancient Arab astrologers could draw up not only a personal natal chart, but also a horoscope of a location or city. From treatises on astrology, written by Arab scholars, it follows that the study of the influence of heavenly bodies on the fate of countries and cities was actually carried out. For example, Al-Biruni (full name - Abu Reikhan Mohammed ibn Ahmed al-Biruni; a resident of Khorezm (Ghazni, the territory of modern Afghanistan), author of outstanding works on astronomy and astrology, mathematics, mineralogy, geology, etc.) in the treatise “ Science of the Stars ”mentioned that a certain area is patronized by this or that star and sign of the Zodiac.
Such a correspondence, in his opinion, could be traced by studying the features of the area (the mentioned correspondences were traced by the Sumerian astrologers and scientists of Ancient Egypt).
In the work of Albumazar (full name - Abu Mashar Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Umar al-Balkhi; astrologer, astronomer and mathematician from Persia) you can find information about the influence of certain signs of the zodiac on a particular area.
For example, the constellation Pisces (which corresponds to the coasts of rivers and seas, waterways, holy places), in his opinion, patronizes Egypt, Alexandria, partly France, the Yemeni sea, as well as Tabaristan (the southern coast of the Caspian Sea), regions located north of Djurdjan (Caspian sea), most of the Byzantine Empire, lands stretching from it to Syria. Under the influence of Sagittarius (the patron saint of mountainous areas and fire worshipers) are Isfahan (central regions of Iraq), Baghdad and Jibal (a province in ancient Media, now western Iran), etc.
But the compilation of at least an approximate horoscope of any local geological formation (for example, rivers or rocks, the age of which was simply unrealistic to determine in those days), Arab scientists considered it almost impossible. Horoscopes of cities, according to Arab astrologers, are very, very difficult to compile, since few people remember the exact time of the start of construction, which means that the error in the calculations can be large, which ultimately will lead to information that does not correspond to reality.
The zodiac in Arab countries differs from the Indian or European "Circle of Animals". This point of view arises among people who consider the image of the zodiacal constellations (which in Arabic astrology are called "buruj" (locks)), created by Arab astrologers and do not meet, for example, the outlines of Gemini or Virgo. However, it should be noted that in Islamic countries there is a ban on the depiction of human figures. Therefore, in order not to contradict the postulates of faith, astrologers and astronomers depicted the constellation of Virgo, called Sunbula - "Ear" or "Tulip" (which is most often represented on the maps of the starry sky in the image of a young woman with an ear of wheat and a burning lamp in her hands) in the form of a wheat sheaf.
Gemini or Jauza (who in Indian astrology symbolized Krishna and Radha, his beloved, and, therefore, were associated with a man armed with a club and a woman holding a harp; the Hellenes depicted 2 male figures of the twin brothers Castor and Polidevk (Pollux) ) is replaced by a pair of peacocks, and Aquarius, called by the Arabs Dalv - "Bucket" (this sign was traditionally represented in the form of a man holding a vessel with water) - the image of a donkey carrying 2 baskets on his back.
However, in the descriptions of the qualities of the above-mentioned zodiacal constellations, one can find the characteristic "human", implying that in the image of this sign there is a human figure or part of it (as in the sign of Sagittarius). In addition, in some books (for example, in the treatise as-Sufi (full name - Abu-l-Husayn Abd-ar-Rahman ibn Umar al-Sufi) "The Book of Fixed Stars") you can also see traditional (in the form of human figures) images of some constellations - Gemini and Virgo, Bootes and Cepheus, Hercules, etc.
The Arabic horoscope complements the characteristics of the signs of the zodiac by matching one type of weapon or another. Nowadays, you can really find a version of the horoscope, called "Arabic" or "Islamic", which indicates that each of the 12 signs corresponds to one or another type of weapon (for example, Aries - a dagger, Taurus - a mace, Gemini - a club, Sagittarius - bow, etc.). However, there is no such information in the works of Arab astrologers.
And, although the correspondences between the signs of the Zodiac and various substances or objects, Muslim astrologers really tracked, but with various types of weapons (with the exception of Sagittarius, which corresponds to a bow, arrows, spears and all weapons in general and Leo, who patronizes armor) was not associated. According to Al-Biruni, for example, belts, crowns and tiaras correspond to Aries, necklaces to Taurus, bracelets to Gemini, etc.
The lunar stations in the Arabic horoscope correspond to the signs of the Zodiac, which is reflected in their names. First, the names of lunar sites are most often associated with a specific group of stars in a particular constellation. Those. the term "Moon in Aries", for example, does not occur in Arabic astrology. But the lunar site called Al-Nath or "Horn" (we are talking about the beta and scale of Aries, which, according to the astronomical maps of the Arabs, are on its horns) can be found. There are also Al-Kalb or "Heart" (Antares, alpha Scorpio), Ash-Shawla or "Sting" (a group of stars corresponding to the "tail" of Scorpio), etc.
Secondly, it should be borne in mind that 28 (in some sources - 27) lunar stations in some cases are named according to the ideas of the ancient Arabs about the boundaries of the constellations. Therefore, for example, the station in Gemini is called Az-Zira or "Two cubits" (these are the stars Castor and Pollux in Gemini and Portion in the Little Dog), but the mentioned body parts do not belong to Gemini at all, but to Leo. The next station in the constellation of Cancer is called An-Nasra or "Nostril" (the Manger nebula and nearby stars), however, the "nostrils" themselves and the "vapor escaping from them" (which was considered the aforementioned nebula) again belong to the ancient boundaries of the constellation Leo.
And finally, there are lunar stations outside the boundaries of the zodiac signs. For example, Al-Haqa or "Curl" is a group of stars that form a ring near Orion's lambda. The Al-Farg al-Muqaddam site (“Front outflow” / in the bucket / - so named because the Arabs' leather bucket had several holes into which a wooden spacer was inserted from the inside), related to Aquarius, is actually located in the constellation Pegasus. The group of stars Sad al-Suud ("Happiness of Happiness"), where one of the lunar sites is located, includes the beta Dolphin, etc.
In a horoscope compiled by an Arab astrologer, the Arab parts are considered one of the most significant factors. The Arabic parts (Parsis), which are points on the astrological chart, found by certain calculations, are indeed taken into account by Arab (and some European) astrologers. However, they are not the primary and most significant components of the horoscope.
In horary (from Lat. Hora - "hour", or interrogative, giving an answer to a certain question) astrology, the Arabic parts are calculated when the planetary indicators do not provide enough information to interpret the chart.
In natal (from Lat. Natalis - "associated with the moment of birth") Arabic astrology, they help the specialist to more deeply understand the mental impulses and internal motives of a person (intentions, reflections, subconscious aspirations, etc.). Also, the Arabic parts are used in forecasting astrology (to determine the most appropriate time for trading operations) and mundane astrology (from the Latin mundus - "world") for a more accurate interpretation of certain world events.
The Arabian parts were invented by Arab astrologers. Researchers claim that the calculations of indicators identical to the Arab parts were carried out as early as 300 BC. and possibly even earlier - in the Greco-Roman pagan period. The mention of the Parts can be found in the "Book of Hermes" and "Pentateuch" (1st century AD) by the famous ancient astrologer Dorotheus of Sidon.
When compiling an Arabic horoscope, an astrologer could add more than 20 Arabic parts to the basic calculations. In fact, there were much more Arab units. Some sources indicate the number 128, and in the treatise of Al-Biruni, one can find mention of 143 Arab parts (which he called "lots"). Such a large number of them led to the fact that often inexperienced practitioners focused on calculating the Arabic parts, to the detriment of reading the main indicators of the horoscope.
This state of affairs is also the case these days, especially when it comes to computer programs that perform calculations automatically. As a result, a person, for example, when asked "When will I get married?" receives a response indicating the position of not only the Marriage Part, but also all the Parts included in the program (including the Death Part, Divorce Part, Surgery Part, Parts of Goods (for example, potatoes or lentils), etc.).
The problem described above is aggravated by the fact that some features of the compilation of horoscopes have changed over time, and as a result, it has become somewhat more difficult to accurately calculate and interpret the Arabic parts. For example, since the beginning of the 19th century, astrologers have ceased to distinguish between day and night astrological charts, while ancient astrologers, depending on the type of chart (if the Sun is above the horizon - daytime, under - night), to calculate the same Arabic part, they used different formulas ...
The Arab units do not exert influence, but are only exposed to it. This is really so, since the Part is a mathematically calculated point in space that does not emit light and does not have a physical embodiment. However, in some cases, a direct connection can be observed between the Part and the event to which it points.
Arab astrologers can predict the time of marriage or death of a person, guided by the location in his horoscope of the corresponding Arab parts. Both the time of marriage and the hour of death (in some cases - with an accuracy of the minute and with an indication of the reason) can indeed be calculated from the natal chart, but the Arabic parts in these calculations usually do not play a primary or even significant role.
For example, Part of Marriage Can describe the relationship between two people, but to obtain information about the time of the event, other calculations will have to be made (to determine the characteristics of the aspect between the significators of a man and a woman).
And, guided only by the calculation of the position of the Part of Death, it is impossible to accurately determine the time when the client will enter another world (although sometimes, for example, you can advise the client to postpone the planned operation if it is found that the Part of Death is in the same degree as Part of Surgery). Such a serious event as death is usually indicated by other combinations of stars in the natal chart - and it is worth paying special attention to them.