Information

Boxing

Boxing

Boxing (English box - "fenced off place" or "blow (by hand or fist)") is one of the contact sports, which implies single combat of athletes, regulated by special rules. Competitions are held between fighters of approximately the same level of preparedness, divided into age and weight categories.

Boxers strike each other with their fists, protected by special leather gloves stuffed with horsehair, and are designed to soften the blow and protect the hand from damage. Strikes are allowed to be applied to the upper front half of the boxer's body. For successful strikes that the opponent could not reflect, the fighter who struck them is awarded points.

According to scientists, fist fight is one of the most ancient types of competitions. The rock carvings of the Sumerians, which depict the fight of fist fighters, are dated to the 3rd century BC. And on the ancient Egyptian frescoes (II century BC) not only the battle itself was reflected, but also the audience watching the competition. The preparation of fighters for a duel is depicted on stone slabs found in Baghdad. According to archaeologists, this image is at least 7000 years old. Descriptions of fist fights can be found in the ancient Indian Vedas, Ramayana, Mahabharata, Iliad, as well as in many legends and myths. According to Greek legend, the creator of this type of competition called pygme was Hercules; during the reign of Theseus, boxing fights were established, which differed from modern ones in that the fighters fought sitting opposite each other, and not standing, and the fight ended only when one of the boxers died. And in the work of Homer, you can find information that fistfights were carried out in Mycenae in the days of honoring the dead.

The Etruscans and the inhabitants of Lebanon called the fistfights pugilism. The competitions were held without taking into account weight categories, the fight was not divided into rounds, and ended only when one of the fighters was knocked out, wounded or killed.

The fist fight was included in the program of the XXIII Antique Olympic Games in 688 BC. Fighters (exclusively people born free) competed on a sandy square area around which spectators crowded. The athletes' equipment consisted of leather belts, which were wrapped around their arms and sometimes chest to protect against injury. In the event that none of the fighters won a victory during the fight, they additionally exchanged blows without defense. The course of the fight was watched by a gelladonic (judge). Fist fighters were trained in schools (palestras), where future athletes practiced the technique of striking on sandbags (korykos). Boxing was very popular in ancient Rome as well. Moreover, two types of fist fights stood out: sports (free citizens participated in them, and sometimes even emperors, for example, Caesar and Nero) and gladiatorial (competitions between slaves and criminals who want to get freedom), characterized by the ability to use brass knuckles (cestas).

Boxing was banned in 500 by Theodoric the Great, in whose opinion this particular sport is especially offensive to God, because in the process of a fight, blows are most often applied to the face, which is a symbol of the Lord. However, fist fights did not lose their popularity in areas beyond the control of the Roman Empire, especially in Western Europe, Ancient Russia, and since the XIII century, after the ban on boxing matches was lifted, in some provinces of Italy.

At the beginning of the 17th century, fist fights with bare hands gained considerable popularity in England, at the same time this type of competition was called "boxing", since at first the fights were held on fenced areas. Mention of boxing matches is found in some written sources of that time.

For a long time, competitions of this kind were considered illegal, since they were conducted for money (spectators made bets on one or another fighter), and, by and large, differed from an ordinary fight only in that the boxers followed certain rules, which, at times, were agreed upon before the beginning of the battle. This was the case until 1882, when all boxing matches were fought under the same rules, known as the Marquis of Queensberry Rules.

The first association of amateur boxers - the Amateur Boxing Association of England (ABA) was founded in England in 1880, and since 1881 regular championships in this sport began to be held. In the United States, a similar organization called the Amateur Sports Union and founded in 1888 also hosted national boxing competitions. Since 1926, the "Golden Gloves" competition, held by the "Chicago Tribune" newspaper, has received national championship status. The World Amateur Boxing Championships have been held since 1974. In professional boxing, the title of world champion has been awarded to the best boxers since 1882.

Today, there are many varieties of boxing in many countries. For example, in Thailand, fist fighting is called Muay Thai, in France - Savat, in Myanmar - Lethwei. Therefore, in order to avoid confusion, the term "English boxing" is sometimes used to refer to the Olympic sport.

Despite the fact that the organizers of the first Olympics considered this type of competition too cruel, in 1904, after the demonstration performances of boxers (both men and women) at the III Olympics in St. Louis (USA), boxing was ranked among the Olympic sports, and since 1920 included in the Olympics program.

World professional boxing federations and associations:

The National Boxing Association or NBA is one of the first professional boxing organizations that was founded in 1921 in Rhode Island (USA). This organization was actually a competitor to the New York State Athletic Commission (NYSAC), created in 1920. This division has led at times to competing organizations awarding the same title to different boxers. On August 23, 1962, the NBA grew from a national organization to an international one and was renamed the World Boxing Association or WBA. Initially, the headquarters of the organization was in Panama, in 1982 it was moved to Caracas (Venezuela). Since 1964, only Hispanics have held the presidency of the WBA. In addition, as a result of the decentralization of the organization, the following boxing associations were created in certain regions: International European (World Boxing Association International - WBAI), North America (North America Boxing Association - NABA), Asian (Pan Asian Boxing Association - PABA), African ( Pan African Boxing Association - PFBA) and Latin American Boxing Federation - FEDELATIN. It was the WBA that created the Super Champion title, which is awarded to a boxer who holds championship titles in 2 of the 4 most prestigious versions (WBA, WBC, IBF and WBO). If such a title is assigned to any of the fighters, two contenders in each version get the opportunity to compete for the title of Super Champion;

The World Boxing Council (WBC) is an organization of professional boxers founded on February 14, 1963 (after the WBA was accused of rigging ratings and bias). It united the national boxing organizations of Great Britain, France, USA, Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, Mexico, Peru, Panama, Philippines, Chile;

International Boxing Union - was created in Paris in 1910 to provide leadership over professional boxing in European countries. In 1948, this organization was transformed into the European Boxing Union (EBU) and in the 90s of the last century became part of the WBC along with the Oriental and Pacific Boxing Federation (OPBF), African Boxing Union (African Boxing Union - ABU), the Bureau of the CIS and Slavic countries (CIS and Slovenian Boxing Bureau - CISBB), as well as with the North American (North American Federation - NABF), Caribbean (Caribbean Boxing Federation - CABOFE), Central American (Central American Boxing Federation - FECARBOX) , South American Boxing Federation (FESUBOX) and the Oriental and Pacific Boxing Federation (OPBF);

International Boxing Federation - IBF (International Boxing Federation, IBF) - founded in 1983, unites professional boxers from Ukraine, the USA and other countries that are not included in other boxing organizations;

World Boxing Organization - WBO (World Boxing Organization, WBO) - was founded in 1988 by businessmen of the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico. In some countries (especially in the USA) it has long been considered a secondary organization;

International Boxing Organization - IBO (International Boxing Organization, IBO) - an organization that uses an independent computerized rating in boxing, ranking 5th in importance;

The World Boxing Foundation (WBF) - founded in 1990, unites professional boxers from Latin American countries that are not included in other associations;

The New York Athletic Commission (NIAK) is a rather influential organization that has held competitions for many years, the winner of which is awarded the title of world boxing champions. Associations and Federations of Amateur Boxing:

The International Amateur Boxing Federation (FIBA) was founded in 1924, at the same time the first European Boxing Championship was held. Since 1946 this organization is called the Amateur International Boxing Association (AIBA) and includes 195 national federations of Africa, South and North America, Asia, Europe, Australia and Oceania;

European Amateur Boxing Association (ELBA (EABA)).

Modern boxing is divided into professional and amateur. These subspecies of fist fighting differ in the number of rounds (there are more of them in professional boxing) and in some features of the equipment (for example, amateur boxers are required to compete in helmets and a belt corresponding to the color of the corner of the ring intended for them). It is amateur athletes who participate in the Olympic Games.

Boxers compete in the ring (English ring - "arena, area", squared ring - "square area") - a square area, the dimensions of which can vary from 5.5 × 5.5 to 7.3 × 7.3 meters, with a solid base extending at least 0.6 m beyond the ropes on all 4 sides. The covering of the ring is a thick tarp, under which a felt (thickness - from 1.5 to 2.5 cm) is laid, softening the blows when the athlete falls. The battlefield is limited by strong ropes (diameter - from 3 to 5 cm), which are stretched in 4 rows between 4 uprights. The lower rope is at a height of 40.66 cm above the surface of the ring, the distance between the ropes is 30.48 cm. On each side, the ropes are connected by a flat ribbon located vertically. Stretchers, rope posts and the ropes themselves are protected with special coatings to prevent injury to athletes. The ropes and pads in the corners of the ring occupied by boxers are of different colors: red (most often to the left of the supervisor's table) and blue. These corners are equipped with ladders for seconds and boxers, seats or stools, as well as urns or basins. In the neutral corner of the ring (white) there is a ladder for the referee and the doctor. In addition, a stretcher should be installed on opposite sides of the ring.

Each fight consists of a certain number of rounds (English round - "cycle", "round"), separated by rest breaks (duration - 1 minute). In amateur boxing there are 3 such rounds, in professional - 4, 6, 8, 10 (if the fight is for the title of World Champion among women or juniors) or 12 (in international and title competitions). The duration of each round in professional boxing is 3 minutes (for women - 2 minutes), in amateur boxing - 2 minutes.

Basic punches in boxing:

Hook (English hook - "hook, trap") - a side blow carried out by a bent arm with a turn of the body during a fight at close or medium distance. Directed to the liver or jaw. One of the most powerful and dangerous knockout blows;

Cross (eng. Cross - "cross, intersection") - a direct blow with the right (or left - for a left-hander) hand, and the beating hand passes over the opponent's hand. It is considered one of the most powerful blows;

Uppercut (English uppercut, from upper - "upper", cut - "cut") - the fist is swinging along the inner trajectory; the blow is most often aimed at the chin (nose or eyebrow) or the solar plexus of the opponent. Effective only in close combat. This classic punch, used in traditional boxing, is ranked among the most powerful;

Jeb (English jab - "push, punch") - a long straight punch in which the front arm is fully extended. It is used for attacks to the head, body, or as a counterattack. Does not belong to the category of the most powerful;

Swing (English swing - "turn, side kick") - most often used in English boxing side kick from a long distance. It was popular in the middle of the last century, but nowadays it is rarely used (moreover, by boxers who are not distinguished by strong technique), since this blow involves a long swing, to which the opponent can quickly react. Swing is ineffective, although it is a rather spectacular blow;

Bolo strike - passes in an arc, does not differ in power, however, it is quite effective due to an unexpected angle of impact;

Overhead (English overhead - "upper, high") - a blow going in an arc. Used by shorter boxers when fighting a taller opponent.

Also, there are short straight punch, cross-counter, half uppercut, half hook. The blows are delivered, as a rule, one after the other, forming ligaments.

To protect against the above-described shocks, the following movements are used:
• slope (English slipping) - movement to the side and forward. Effective against direct impact;
• dive (English bobbing) - squatting with a slight forward bend. Used against side impacts;
• blocking (English blocking) - protection from blows with the help of arms, shoulders or elbows;
• support (English cover-up) - the back of the forearm, palm, shoulder or elbow is placed under the blow;
• clinching - constraining the opponent's attacking actions;
• movement (English footwork) - fast movements in different directions. There are also several defense styles:
• High - the far hand protects the chin;
• Low style or "peek-a-boo" - designed by Kassa D'Amato, named after Negro dance. The fighter covers his face with gloves for protection, and makes constant movements and dives;
• Arms crossed - the forearms are positioned one above the other horizontally at head level. The most effective method of protecting the head, but the boxer's body remains open;
• Mixed style - characterized by the use of various combinations of the above styles;
• Hanging on the ropes is a defensive tactic where the boxer lets the opponent strike for a long time while lying on the ropes, and when the opponent gets tired he switches from defense to attack. Was applied by Muhammad Ali. Not used in modern boxing.

The referee controls the fight (English referee - "judge"), whose duties are to call boxers into the ring, conduct the fight, monitor compliance with the rules of the fight, determine the cause of the injury received by the fighter during the next round, etc. The referee also decides to stop the round, award penalty points to one of the fighters who violated the rules, or disqualify the boxer.

For each competition in this sport, three (in professional boxing) or five (in amateur boxing) side judges are appointed, who determine the winner of the bout, communicating their decision in writing (referee's note) to the referee. He, in turn, is obliged to acquaint the supervisor with their verdict (eng.supervisor - "supervisor", "methodologist", "inspector"), appointed by the professional boxing federation. In addition, a timekeeper, an informant in the ring and a doctor must be present at the competition (two doctors are required for title fights).

Seconds (no more than 4 people) can help the boxer during the match, but only one of them (Senior Seconds) has access to the ring during the break between rounds, he, if, in his opinion, the fight should be stopped, can rise to the platform and inform the referee of your decision ("throw away the towel").

The victory is awarded to one of the boxers if there was a knock-out (English knock-out - "to overcome", "to win"), i.e. the boxer's loss of the ability to continue the fight for more than 10 seconds as a result of a blow from an opponent; technical knockout (the fight was stopped by the referee, the boxer's second or the athletes themselves due to an injury that prevents the fight from continuing); refusal of the opponent to continue the fight or disqualification of one of the athletes. In other cases, the winner is determined by the judges, or a draw is declared, and in rare cases a "No Decision" verdict is issued, for example, if weather conditions or an intrusion into the ring interfered with the fight.

Boxing Myths

The victory in the boxers' competition is ensured by the ability to rebuild during the fight. Not necessary. Experts say that this skill was completely absent in the most powerful boxers (Joe Fraser, Mike Tyson, David Tua, Joe Louis, brothers Vladimir and Vitali Klitschko), but this did not prevent them from winning athletes with the aforementioned skill. But in some cases, such skill is simply necessary - especially if an athlete is a beginner or vice versa - a well-known and successful fighter who has received a minor injury in the ring (for example, an eyebrow cut), or has lost some of his abilities with age.

The World Boxing Championships are held every two years, like the European Championships. These days, it is the above frequency that takes place. But until 1991, competitions of this kind were held less often - once every 4 years.

Professional boxers do not participate in the Olympic Games. Yes, however, according to the current project, professional boxers will be able to return to amateur boxing and participate in the Olympics.

Boxers compete with athletes of equal experience and rank. It all depends on what system is used for the competition. Amateur athletes compete according to the Olympic system: boxers are divided into pairs without taking into account the previously received titles, the winner prepares for a meeting with the next opponent, and his opponent is eliminated from the competition. Athletes who win the preliminary rounds advance to the quarterfinals, then to the semifinals. In the end, there are only two boxers-winners in the semifinals - it is they who continue to fight for the gold and silver medals, and the athletes who lose to them receive bronze medals. In professional boxing, there is a rating system: according to the results of all fights fought by an athlete, he takes one or another place in the consolidated rating list. The boxer in first place gets the right to fight for the title of world champion with the current holder of this title, and if the reigning champion is defeated, a rematch may be appointed.

At the Olympics, female boxers do not compete. For the first time, a demonstration boxing competition between the fair sex took place at the III Olympics (St. Louis, (USA)), but this type of competition was never ranked as an Olympic one. However, on August 13, 2009, at a meeting of the IOC Board, it was decided to include women's boxing in the program of the XXX Olympic Games 2012 (London (UK)).

Women are not ready for boxing purely physiologically. Misconception. It is the female body with more elastic muscles and high joint mobility that is better suited for this sport than the male. Rather, there is a psychological unpreparedness - a woman is more likely than a man to get lost, and stops resistance when she receives a painful blow in the face, it is more difficult for her to get used to pain.

Boxing does more harm to women's health than men's health. No, research has shown that practicing this sport has the same effect on both sexes. However, blows to the chest are actually more dangerous for women. Chest protectors are used to protect this area. In addition, female athletes are required to undergo regular examinations by a mammologist.

Boxing leads to delays in the development of the female body and negatively affects the reproductive functions of athletes. Experts believe that this opinion is wrong. Firstly, girls can practice boxing only from the age of 14, i.e. when the main age-related changes in the body are already close to completion. In addition, this sport does not imply strict diets, which sometimes lead to a delay in the development of a girl. Secondly, blows to the upper abdomen, allowed in boxing, cannot harm the fertility of the female body.

The taller and heavier a boxer is, the more chances he has for a long and successful sports career. Not always. Intense training can sometimes negatively affect the health of the joints, which, combined with high growth and considerable weight (especially for super heavyweights), sometimes leads to injuries and chronic diseases, which most often cause the end of a sports career. In addition, for all the strength of the punches, boxers that are too tall and heavy cannot develop sufficient speed and sometimes lose to more agile athletes.

The USSR had an excellent boxing school - that is why in recent years there have been many world champions with Russian surnames. This opinion exists only in the post-Soviet countries. Experts believe that African Americans have been the best boxers at all times, and the reasons for the decrease in the number of black athletes in the ring are simple - due to the rise in living standards, they prefer safer activities.

It is difficult to determine the best fighter in history - after all, you cannot arrange a competition between representatives of different age categories. Yes it is. However, programmers tried to solve this problem by entering information about the battles of world champions of different years into a computer. In this virtual tournament, the winner was Mohammed Ali ("The Greatest"), who turned out to be on points stronger than the virtual copy of the young Mike Tyson.

Parallel training in other martial arts, for example, karate, will help improve performance in the ring. If the athlete was initially engaged in any martial art, freestyle wrestling, etc. - it will really be much easier for him to master the wisdom of boxing. But the simultaneous training in two different types of martial arts most often leads to the fact that the fighter does not achieve great results in either one or the other. It is still advisable to devote maximum time to studying any one art of fighting, and if there is a desire to receive comprehensive training (study grips, kicks, etc.), you can choose a style in which all of the above elements are studied (for example, kickboxing or hapkido).

Boxers use punching bag training and sparring to improve their skill level. It really is. The punch speed is practiced on a small pneumatic bag, strength is gained during exercises with a heavy sack or with the so-called "stretching bag", and accuracy - during work with a "paw" - a special device that the trainer puts on the arm. However, in addition to this type of training and sparring, boxers are required to engage in other general developmental exercises (strength training, jogging (in a ragged rhythm, with sudden accelerations and stops), jumping rope, etc.).

Boxers are the strongest fighters to defeat any opponent. Yes, the punching force of professional boxers, especially heavyweights, is sometimes very high - for example, Mike Tyson's was 1000 kgf. However, in the competitions of athletes who own various techniques of fighting, the championship is for the masters of gripping and painful holdings, and not for striking techniques.

There are no knockouts in amateur boxing. This is not entirely true - there are knockouts in amateur boxing, although much less often than in professional boxing. The reason for this state of affairs is the small number of rounds in amateur boxing fights (4 x 2 minutes, while in professional boxing - from 4 to 12 rounds of 3 minutes). And the tasks of professional and amateur boxers are different. The goal of the professional is to knock out the enemy, the goal of the amateur is to carry out the maximum number of fights with minimal damage.

The helmet protects the boxer's head from a knockout blow. Completely erroneous opinion. The purpose of this piece of equipment for amateur boxers is to protect the face from abrasions, nothing more.

Only inexperienced boxers perform in helmets. This is not true. The fact is that professional boxers must enter the ring in the established form: soft shoes with flat soles without spikes and heels, socks and shorts with a groin protector under them (for men), in gloves and with a tooth protector (mouth guard). Chest protectors and a T-shirt are required for female athletes. And for amateur boxers, a helmet and a T-shirt are mandatory elements of equipment. In addition, even professional fighters use helmets during training to avoid abrasions and cuts.

During the breaks between rounds, boxers can heal bruises. Professional boxers do have the right to apply lead lotions or apply Vaseline to their face. But amateur athletes are strictly prohibited from applying any "foreign substances" to their face and body.

Boxers' standard fighting stance is left-handed. Combat stance, i.e. the position of the body that the boxer takes in front of the opponent, with the aim of further performing attacking or defensive actions, must, firstly, give the athlete the opportunity to have a good view, secondly, ensure a stable balance of the fighter's body and freedom of movement in all directions, and thirdly , be the least convenient for the opponent's attacking actions. All these requirements are best met by the left-side stance (the legs are slightly bent at the knees, the left is in front, the right is a step behind and slightly to the right; the left arm is bent at the elbow, and is in front of the body (the fist is at shoulder level), the right arm is bent at the elbow, a fist turned inward - at the chin). It is this that is first learned by novice boxers in training. However, there are 2 more types of combat stance - right-sided ("mirror" left-sided) and frontal (more often used in close combat). In addition, if at the beginning of his sports career a boxer starts a fight from standard positions, then over time, gaining experience, he can develop his own fighting stance, corresponding to his constitution, strategy, method of fighting, etc.

The scoring in boxing can be done using a special electronic system. During the competition of amateur boxers, it is true that an electronic scoring system is sometimes used, which is activated by pressing one of the two buttons at the disposal of each of them by the judges. Moreover, a point is awarded to this or that boxer only if three out of five referees pressed the button with an interval less than 1 second. At the end of the battle, points are automatically calculated (the maximum number of points that an athlete can earn per round is 20). However, in fights of professional boxers, scoring is carried out only manually (for a victory, a boxer is awarded 10 points, for a defeat - 6).

For blows to the upper front half of the body, which the opponent could not reflect, points are awarded to the boxer. However, it should be borne in mind that blows inflicted half-heartedly or hitting the opponent's hands do not bring points.

In boxing, the quality of the shot is assessed. The division of strikes into light, hard (one hard strike is equal to three light) and heavy ones takes place only in professional boxing. There is no such classification in amateur boxing.

The most important punches in boxing are knockouts. Yes, but many boxers consider the jab to be the most important hit, not the hook or the cross, even though it is not among the strongest. If during the counting the referee sounds a gong - the boxer who is knocked out or knocked down gets a minute to recover. In professional boxing, this is so - after the gong is struck, the score stops and the boxer has the right to a break. In amateur fights, the sound of the gong does not prevent the referee from continuing the countdown, and if the fighter does not rise to the count of 10, he is declared knocked out.

An athlete who knocked down an opponent receives a certain point advantage. Yes, when it comes to professional boxing. Amateurs are not entitled to any advantage for a knockdown.

A boxer's recovery after a strong blow is given from 8 to 10 seconds. However, if a fighter accidentally receives a blow below the belt, he has five minutes to recuperate. Only after this period has expired, if the boxer is still unable to continue the fight, he is considered knocked out.

A boxer can only be knocked out with a blow to the jaw. Most often, boxers are sent to knock out an opponent in the above way. However, there are other pain points on the human body, and exposure to them can also lead to a knockout. Some of them (the area below the waist, the back of the head) are prohibited by the rules, others (the solar plexus) are not easy to influence, since the fighter can easily reflect the blow directed to this area. But there is one more point, a blow on which can lead to a knockout - the liver, and if the effort is properly distributed, it is possible to influence this area both from the right and from the left, and it is no less effective.

A knockdown is declared when one of the boxers touches the ring with any part of the body other than the heels. Knock-down (English knock-down - "crushing blow") occurs when one of the fighters, as a result of a blow from an opponent, touches the floor with his hand, knee, etc. In this case, the referee counts to 8, if after that the boxer could not take a vertical position - the count continues to 10 (in case of falling outside the ring, the count is up to 20). In the case when the athlete could not get up, a knockout is announced. However, there is also a so-called standing knockout, which is declared when, in the opinion of the referee, the ropes prevented the boxer's fall. This rule does not apply in championship battles.

A fighter who has been knocked down three times in one round loses. Not always - the rule of three knockdowns (after 3 knockdowns per round (or 4 knockdowns per round), a boxer is considered knocked out and the fight stops) is valid only in fights under the auspices of the WBA.

If a boxer touches the ring with the third pivot point immediately stands up - this is not considered a knockdown. A situation of this kind is called a flash knockdown ("light knockdown"), and even if the boxer immediately assumes an upright position, the referee must count to 8.

Boxers are not allowed to grow a beard. A ban of this kind, coupled with the regulated length of mustache and hair, is valid only in amateur boxing. Professionals in this matter are not limited by any rules.

Boxing gloves began to be used only today - before that, fights were fought with bare hands. According to archaeologists, fights with gloves (of course, different from modern ones and represented by folded strips of skin repeating the shape of the hand) or using other methods of protecting hands (strips of leather were wound on the palm and wrist) took place in Crete and Sardinia for 2000- 1000 BC However, it should be borne in mind that they boxed in gloves only during training, and before the competition, the fighters wrapped their hands with strips of hard leather.

In amateur and professional boxing, the same boxing gloves are used. Indeed, all boxers use gloves with a thumb attached, which are tied with special laces on the back of the wrist, and in addition, secured with adhesive tape (over the bandages that protect the athletes' wrists).However, this type of equipment may vary in weight and color. In professional boxing, gloves of any color and weight of 8 ounces (226 grams) are used for categories from "lightest" to "welterweight" (from "lightest" to "featherweight" for women), 10 ounces (280 grams) for other weight categories ( from "first light" to "heavy" for women) and 12 ounces for "super heavyweights". Amateur boxers of all weight classes compete in 10 ounce gloves with a white stripe that runs around the fist. The fact is that punches in amateur boxing are counted only if the fist of the athlete striking it touches the point on the opponent's body with a white stripe.

The mouthguard protects the athlete's teeth from staining in the event of a sharp impact. In fact, the functions of the mouthguard are much broader. A mouthguard made by a dentist based on an athlete's teeth impression prevents a sharp closing of the lower and upper jaw upon impact, and thereby minimizes the risk of concussion, cerebral hemorrhage, jaw fracture, damage to the cervical vertebrae, loss of consciousness. In addition, the mouthguard serves as a shock absorber between the soft tissues of the mouth and teeth, thereby protecting against lacerations and bruises on the cheeks and lips.

Only boxers wear a mouthguard. Nowadays, during training and competitions, the mouthguard must be worn by athletes involved in taekwondo, ice hockey, American football, men's lacrosse, and women's field hockey. The use of a mouthguard is also recommended for professional football, basketball, rugby, softball players as well as wrestlers, skaters, skateboarders and cyclists.

The ring should be as well lit as possible. Indeed, the illumination level of the ring should be at least 1000 lux. However, it should be noted that all lighting fixtures must be located exclusively above the ring. Spotlights or any other light source from the side is not allowed.

The referee decides on the boxer's victory. The referee may determine and declare the winner in the event that there is a knockout (or technical knockout), refusal of one of the opponents to continue the fight, the fight is stopped due to injury or the disqualification of any of the competing boxers. On a victory by points (or by points by a technical decision), a draw or a technical draw, or a No Decision (without a decision - in the event of an accident, natural disaster, ring damage, etc.), the final decision is made by the supervisor.

The seconds can give advice to the boxer during the fight. During the fight, the seconds are obliged to remain silent, have no right to enter the ring or in any way give advice or help the boxer. Violation of these rules will result in the disqualification of the fighter.

Only those Boxers on whom the die has fallen undergo doping control. It depends on what kind of competition we are talking about. Participants of amateur fights undergo selective doping control after the end of the fight. If the results of the fight imply the receipt (or deprivation) of one or another title, doping control is mandatory for all athletes.

Boxing is easy. This sport is considered one of the most difficult, both technically and in terms of combat tactics.

Boxer fights have been governed by rules laid down by the Marquis of Queensberry since 1867. This is not entirely true. The first generally accepted set of rules for boxing matches was developed on August 16, 1743 by the champion boxer Jack Broungton (England). Before that, fights were fought without gloves, and the rules of the fight were negotiated immediately before the start of the bout by the boxers themselves. For striking blows, it was allowed to use not only fists, but also elbows and head. Grabs and throws were also not prohibited. The Broungton Rules served as the basis for the London Prize Ring rules that came into force in 1838, according to which a round lasted until one of the fighters was on the ground. After that, a break of 30 seconds was announced, during which the seconds, having risen to the site, assisted the boxer in one of the corners of the ring. After 30 seconds, the fighters were to meet in the center of the site and continue the fight. If one of the rivals did not take a place in the middle of the ring, additional time (8 seconds) was assigned and, if after that the fighter was still not able to continue the fight, he was awarded a defeat. Quarrels, swearing, spitting, headbutts, kicks, blows below the waist were considered unacceptable in the ring. New, more lenient rules were developed by the journalist, member of the amateur athletic club John Graham Chambers (England) for one of the amateur boxing championships. The ninth Marquess of Queensberry, John Sholto Douglas, sponsored and promoted the rules. According to the new rules ("Queensberry"), strikes with any part of the body other than fists (for example, head, elbow, body, knee) were not allowed. Throws and grabs were also prohibited. The fight was divided into rounds of 3 minutes each with breaks between them lasting 1 minute. If a boxer clung to the ropes with his hands or touched the ring with his knee, this was equivalent to a fall. The fallen fighter had to get up on his own within 10 seconds, otherwise he was considered knocked out. The presence of anyone other than the referee in the ring at this moment and throughout the entire round was strictly prohibited. Some of the mandatory elements of equipment were also agreed: the fighters had to perform in high-quality leather gloves and shoes without heels. However, the aforementioned rules became mandatory for all boxing competitions only in 1882, when, after hearing the "R. Cooney case", it was decided that fights according to the previously valid rules cause too much damage to the health of the competitors.

Boxing is sometimes called fist fighting. In addition, the terms pugilism, prizefighting and sweet science are used to refer to this type of competition.

The first officially documented boxing match took place in 1681. Indeed, it is the article in the newspaper Protestant Mercury, which tells about the boxing match between the lackey of the Duke of Albemarle and the butcher, published in January 1681, that is considered the first official document attesting to the competition in this sport. However, in earlier written sources there are references to competitions of this kind. For example, in the biography of the Royal Representative in Ireland from 1582 to 1588. John Parroth, it is said that he boxed with the Lord in the city of Abergavenny, and also used boxing skills during a skirmish with the Life Guards. Semuel Pepys, a member of the English Parliament, mentions in his diary that on August 5, 1660, a boxing match took place at the stairs of Westminster Abbey between a water carrier and a German named Minher Klinke.

A boxer's career is short-lived. Boxing is the only Olympic sport that has an upper age limit: amateur athletes who are at least 17 and not older than 34 are allowed to participate in the competition. In professional boxing, there are no restrictions of this kind - fighters whose health condition corresponds to certain parameters are allowed to compete. For example, George Foreman, who left the ring in 1977, returned to professional boxing in 1980 when he was 40 years old. For 2 years, he had many successful fights, and became the world champion in this sport. And James Mays (England), world champion, who is sometimes called the father of modern boxing, entered the ring for the last time at the age of 73.

All boxers compete according to the same rules. However, it should be taken into account that, in accordance with preferences, inclinations and physical capabilities, boxers most often give preference to one or another style of fighting and defense. For example, according to the fighting style, boxers are classified into the following categories:
• Out-fighter - a boxer using this style, maintains his distance and, using a series of quick long punches (mainly jabs), tries to wear down the opponent. Fighters using this style gain a lot of points and rarely knock out an opponent. Notable boxers-outfitters: Wili Pep, Mohammed Ali, Jean Thani;
• Puncher (English puncher) - a fighter with a strong blow. Most often, he wins by knockout as a result of a series of blows, and sometimes from one blow. The techniques used are similar to those used by outfighters, but the puncher is less mobile than them. Boxers-punchers: Joe Louis, Joe Gans, Sam Langford, Sugar Ray Robinson, Mike Tyson at the beginning of his sports career;
• Knocker - this is the name of boxers who, with a parsimony of technique, sometimes even losing on points, put all their strength into punches and finish the fight ahead of schedule, knocking out an opponent. Notable Knockouts: David Tua, Ernie Shavers;
• Slugger (English slugger) - a fighter, characterized by low mobility, which is compensated by a large impact force. Somewhat slow and predictable, however, they can withstand the opponent's attacks for a long time, preparing to strike. Sometimes they lose to a more mobile and cunning opponent. Slugger Boxers: David Tua, Stanley Ketchell, Max Baer, ​​Rocky Graziano, Mike Tyson (towards the end of their careers);
• Swarmer (English swarmer) or infighter (English in-fighter) - boxers who prefer to fight at close range. They use a combination of several blows (most often a hook and an uppercut), are very hardy, aggressive, withstand the opponent's blows well. The most famous infighters: Joe Fraser, Henry Armstrong, Jack Dempsey.

It should be noted that sometimes boxers use several styles in the same bout, or they change their fighting style throughout their sports career.

Amateur and professional boxers are divided into the same weight categories. The division into weight categories, which appeared in the late 19th - early 20th centuries, was developed in England and the United States. Initially, there were 8 weight categories:
• Up to 50.8 kg - the lightest weight (English flyweight - "fly weight");
• Up to 53.5 kg - the lightest weight (English bantamweight - "rooster's weight");
• Up to 57.2 kg - featherweight (English featherweight - "feather weight");
• Up to 61.2 kg - lightweight;
• Up to 66.7 kg - welterweight;
• Up to 72.6 kg - average weight (eng. Middleweight);
• Up to 79.4 kg - light heavyweight;
• Over 79.4 kg - heavy weight.
This classification has undergone changes, and today there are two types of division into weight categories:
1. Classification approved by the World Boxing Council (WBC) for professional fighters (17 categories):
• Up to 47.6 kg - minimum weight (eng. Strawweight, minimumweight);
• Up to 48.9 kg - the first light flyweight (English light flyweight, junior flyweight);
• Up to 50.8kg - the lightest weight (eng. Flyweight);
• Up to 52.6 kg - the second lightest (first bantamweight) weight (English super flyweight, junior bantamweight);
• Up to 53.5 - bantamweight;
• Up to 55.3 kg - the second lightest (first featherweight) weight (English junior featherweight, super bantamweight);
• Up to 57.1 - featherweight;
• Up to 58.9 - the second featherweight (English super featherweight);
• Up to 61.2 - lightweight;
• Under 63.5 - the first super lightweight, Junior welterweight;
• Up to 66.6 - welterweight;
• Up to 69.9 kg - the second welterweight (first average) weight (eng. Super welterweight, light middleweight);
• Up to 72.5 - average weight (eng. Middleweight);
• Up to 76.2 - the second average weight ("super middleweight") (eng. Super middleweight);
• Up to 79.3 - light heavyweight;
• Up to 90.8 - the first heavy weight ("cruiser") (eng. Cruiserweight);
• Over 90.8 - heavyweight.
2. Classification in force in amateur boxing (11 categories, until 2002 there were 12):
• 48 kg - the first lightest (minimum) weight (English light flyweight);
• 51 kg - the lightest weight (English flyweight);
• 54 kg - the lightest weight (English bantamweight);
• 57 kg - featherweight;
• 60 kg - lightweight;
• 64 kg - first light welterweight;
• 69 kg - welterweight (first average);
• 75 kg - average (second average) weight (eng. Middleweight);
• 81 kg - light heavyweight;
• 91kg - first heavyweight;
• over 91 kg - heavy (super heavy) weight (eng. Super heavyweight).

Boxers are usually not very intelligent. This conventional wisdom is refuted by a new hybrid sport called chessboxing (chess boxing, chessboxing). Chessbox was created in 2003 by the Dutch performance artist Jepe Rubing, who lives in Berlin. Inspired by pictures accidentally seen in Enki Bilal's comic book "Froid-Équateur", Rubing developed the rules and procedures for chessboxing tournaments. Competitions in this sport consist of 11 rounds (5 boxing rounds of 2 minutes each (since 2007 - 3 minutes each) and 6 chess rounds, in a "blitz-check" format of 4 minutes each), separated by 1 minute breaks. The fight begins with a chess round, with the board placed directly in the ring and removed at the end of the 4-minute game. The new sport quickly gained quite a lot of popularity - the World Chessboxing Organization was created, and the first World Championship was held in Amsterdam in 2003.

Sylvester Stallone's "Rocky" - Best Boxing Film. The aforementioned film, or rather the series, is indeed one of the most successful films about boxers. However, according to a public opinion poll, Martin Scorsese's Raging Bull (starring Robert De Niro) is considered the best film, and Michael Mann's Ali (starring Will Smith) is the most truthful.


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