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Black hole

Black hole

When man began to study space, he was faced with a mysterious phenomenon. It got the name "black hole". As a result, even objects moving at the speed of light cannot get out of it.

This includes the quanta of the light itself. We can only guess about their nature and capabilities, and the lack of information about this phenomenon gives rise to some myths.

Black hole myths

Albert Einstein was the first to declare the existence of black holes. It would seem, who, if not this great scientist, theorist of time and space, should declare the existence of black holes? In fact, he was not the first to make such an assumption, but John Mitchell. It happened back in 1783, while Einstein created his theory in 1916. However, in those days, the theory was unclaimed, the English priest Mitchell simply did not find application for it. He himself began to think about black holes, accepting Newton's teachings about the nature of light. In those days, it was believed that it consists of the smallest material particles, photons. Thinking about their movement, Mitchell realized that it is completely dependent on the gravitational field of the star from which the particles begin their journey. The scientist wondered what would happen to the photons if the gravitational field was so large that it would not release light at all. Interestingly, it is Mitchell who is considered the founder of seismology as we know it. The English priest was the first to guess. That earthquakes spread over the surface like waves.

Black stars do not consume space. Space can be thought of as a sheet of rubber. Then the planets will be some kind of balls that put pressure on him. As a result, deformation occurs, and straight lines disappear. This is how gravity appears, which explains the movement of planets around stars. With increasing mass, the deformation only increases. Additional field disturbances appear, which determine the force of attraction. Orbital velocities increase, which implies more and more rapid movement of bodies around the object. For example, the planet Mercury moves around the Sun at a speed of 48 km / s, and stars move in space near black holes 100 times faster! In the case of strong gravity, a collision of a satellite and larger objects is possible. And all this mass tends to the center - to the black hole.

All black holes are the same. It seems to many of us that this term belongs to essentially identical objects. However, astronomers have come to believe that black holes have several varieties. There are rotating holes, some have an electric charge, and there are those who have both those and other features. Usually such objects appear by absorbing matter, while a rotating black hole appears when two ordinary ones merge. Such formations, due to the increased perturbation of space, begin to consume much more energy. The charged black hole turns into one huge particle accelerator. A classic example of an object of this class is GRS 1915 + 105. This black hole spins at a speed of 950 revolutions per second, and it is located 35 thousand light years from our planet.

The density of black holes is low. These objects, given their size, need to be very heavy in order to generate an attractive force to hold light inside them. So, if the mass of the Earth is compressed to the density of a black hole, then you get a ball with a diameter of 9 millimeters. A dark object, 4 million times the mass of the Sun, can fit between Mercury and our star. Those black holes located in the center of galaxies can weigh 10-30 million times more than the Sun. Such a massive mass in a relatively small volume means that black holes have a huge density and the processes taking place inside are very strong.

The black hole is very quiet. It is hard to imagine that a huge dark object, sucking in everything around, also made noise. In fact, everything that falls into this abyss moves with constant acceleration. As a result, on the border of space-time, which we can still feel due to the finiteness of the speed of light, the particles are accelerated almost to the speed of light. When matter begins to move to its ultimate speed, a gurgling sound appears. It is a consequence of the transformation of the energy of motion into sound waves. As a result, the black hole turns out to be a very noisy object. In 2003, astronomers working at the Chandra X-ray Space Observatory were able to detect sound waves emanating from a massive black hole. But it is located at a distance of 250 million light years from us, which once again testifies to the noise of such objects.

Nothing can escape the attraction of black holes. This statement is correct. After all, when some large or small objects find themselves near a black hole, they will certainly find themselves in captivity of its gravitational field. Moreover, it can be both a small particle and a planet, star or even a galaxy. However, if this object is acted upon by a force greater than the attraction of the black hole, then it will be able to avoid death captivity. This could be, for example, a rocket. But this is possible before the object reaches the event horizon, when the light can still escape from captivity. After this border, it will be impossible to escape from the embrace of the all-consuming cosmic monster. After all, to break out of the horizon, you need to develop a speed greater than the speed of light. And this is impossible even theoretically. So black holes are truly black - since light can never get out, we cannot look inside this mysterious object. Scientists believe that even a small black hole will tear an unwitting observer into particles even before reaching the event horizon. The force of gravity increases not only with the approach to the center of the planet and the star, but also to the black hole. If you fly towards it with your feet forward, then the force of attraction in the feet will be much higher than in the head, and will lead to an instant break in the body.

Black holes don't change time. Light bends around the event horizon, but in the end it gets inside and goes into oblivion. So what happens to the clock if it falls into a black hole and continues its work there? As they approach the event horizon, they will begin to slow down until they finally stop. This stopping of time is associated with its gravitational slowing down, which explains Einstein's theory of relativity. A black hole has such a strong gravity that it can slow down time. From the point of view of the clock, nothing will change, however, they will disappear from the field of view, and the light from them will be stretched under the influence of a heavy object. The light will begin to pass into the red spectrum, its wavelength will increase. As a result, he will finally become invisible.

A black hole does not produce any energy. It is known that these objects pull in the entire surrounding mass. Scientists assume that everything inside is compressed so much that even the space between atoms decreases. As a result, subatomic particles are born that can fly out. In this they are assisted by the magnetic field lines that cross the event horizon. As a result, the release of such particles generates energy, and the method itself turns out to be quite effective. The transfer of mass into energy in this case gives 50 times greater recoil than in the course of nuclear fusion. The black hole itself appears as a huge reactor.

There is no relationship between stars and the number of black holes. Once Karl Sagan, a famous astrophysicist, stated that there are more stars in the Universe than there are grains of sand on the beaches of the whole world. Scientists believe that this number is still finite and amounts to 10 to the power of 22. What does this have to do with black holes? They are their number and determines the number of stars. It turns out that the streams of particles emitted by black objects expand into some kind of bubbles that can spread through the places of formation of stars. These areas are located in gas clouds, which, when cooled, give rise to luminaries. And particle streams heat gas clouds and prevent new stars from appearing. As a result, there is a constant balance between the activity of black holes and the number of stars in the universe. After all, if there are too many stars in the galaxy, then it will be too hot and explosive, it will be difficult for life to originate there. Conversely, a small number of stars will also not help the birth of life.

Black holes are made of a different material than we are. A number of scientists believe that black holes help in the birth of new elements. And this can be understood, given the splitting of matter into tiny subatomic particles. They then participate in the formation of stars, which eventually leads to the appearance of elements heavier than helium. We are talking about carbon and iron, which are necessary for the appearance of solid planets. As a result, these elements are part of everything that has mass, that is, the person himself. It is likely that some distant black hole is the true builder of our body.

Watch the video: BLACK HOLE. The Dr. Binocs Show. Best Educational Videos for Kids. Peekaboo Kids (October 2020).