Bus is a public vehicle designed for 9 or more passengers. The first buses appeared at the beginning of the 20th century. They were relatively widespread by the beginning of the 1st World War.
In Moscow, regular bus lines were organized in 1924. By appointment, buses are divided into urban, suburban, intercity (tourist), local and general buses.
City buses have a passenger compartment with several doors for entry and exit, with a limited number of seating positions, with a wide central passage, with spacious "storage" areas near the doors. City buses are characterized by their high acceleration ability, which provides a relatively high average speed with frequent stops.
Suburban buses have a passenger compartment with a smaller central aisle and "storage" areas, and due to this, a larger number of seats.
For intercity (tourist) buses, hard or soft (sleeping) seats are installed in the passenger compartment. Buses are equipped with heating and ventilation, and some of them are equipped with a wardrobe, refrigerator, toilet. Luggage compartments are placed under the floor of the passenger compartment. The design of such buses must ensure movement at high speed.
Local buses are used to transport passengers on intra-district and inter-district routes, mainly in rural areas. These buses provide for increased body and chassis strength, increased ground clearance, and sometimes 2 or 3 axle drive.
In western cities, of all types of public transport, only the bus remained. Completely erroneous opinion. Along with a well-developed bus service (both urban and intercity), there are other types of "non-rail transport" (trolleybus, duobus, ie combined trolleybus / bus, etc.).
A considerable amount of transportation is carried out using private cars and the subway; on suburban routes, electric trains are most often preferred. In addition, a network of tram lines is developing in many countries, which constitute serious competition for bus routes.
Buses harm the environment by polluting the air with exhaust emissions. Not necessarily - it all depends on the model range. Modern buses are equipped with the most advanced emission control systems, but these models are quite expensive, because they are practically absent on the streets of cities in the post-Soviet space.
Buses should be replaced with trolleybuses. Indeed, a developed infrastructure of trolleybus routes can help in solving many problems. However, it should be remembered that if the passenger traffic in one direction or another is less than 1,000 passengers per hour, the bus will still be the best and most profitable vehicle.
Buses are the fastest and most mobile. This is not entirely true. Since an electric motor is more powerful than an internal combustion engine, the bus spends more time accelerating and braking, and the trolleybus often overtakes buses on parallel sections. The increase in the speed of transportation is due to the fact that buses skip some minor stops, working by express. The mobility of buses, of course, is higher than, say, that of electric transport, however, moving along with the rest of the cars, this vehicle is not at all insured against falling into a "traffic jam". At the same time, for example, a high-speed tram is spared from this.
Double-decker buses often tip over. In fact, almost all cars of this type are equipped with anti-rollover mechanisms (most often it is ballast made of cast iron ingots, which is installed on the chassis to lower the center of gravity).
There is a dedicated lane for buses in all developed countries. No, dedicated lanes only for buses with the creation of BRT (Bus Rapclass Transit) systems is a rather rare phenomenon, since the arrangement of this type of highway is quite expensive. More often for the movement of buses, as well as taxi cars, light trucks, specializing in urgent delivery of goods, the extreme right lane is vacated. Or there are combined tram-bus lanes with stops at sites on "islets" (this frees up the rightmost lane of the road, makes it possible to abandon the construction of "pockets" at stops, provides convenient transfers, etc.). Private vehicles are prohibited from entering these lanes, which significantly increases the speed of public transport. However, maneuverability, as an additional opportunity for buses moving along a dedicated lane, is sharply reduced.
Buses should be replaced with minibuses - they take up less space, and travel more often, and move faster. As the world experience shows, the complete replacement of public bus transport by fixed-route taxis is simply unprofitable. There is nothing to say about the convenience of passengers - a low cabin, excessively close seats, instability of some types of "minibuses", etc. Certainly, some routes can really serve only minibuses, while others and 200-seater double-articulated ones will not be enough. Route taxi is an auxiliary transport, but not the main one.
Private road carriers will serve passengers better than state ones. Not necessary. The fact is that private traders sometimes use old buses with high mileage, which does not always have a positive effect on the quality of the carrier's services.
It is very inconvenient and boring to travel in buses, especially intercity buses. In comfortable modern buses plying between cities, you can watch TV, read a book, sleep or have a snack. And nothing prevents you from admiring the landscapes outside the window - after all, the roads, unlike the railway tracks, are often not planted with dense thickets of trees.
For travel, for example, in Europe, the bus is not suitable - either it is a plane. Of course, if you are traveling on a business trip, the plane is the best means of transportation. If your goal is relaxation and new impressions, it is best to take the bus. It is both cheaper (and it does not matter when you buy a ticket - a month, a week or a day before departure) and more convenient. And bus routes are more extensive than air flights.
The best way to travel with a group of tourists is a dedicated bus. Of course, this is a matter of taste. But if you are not seduced by a trip in a tourist group along a route pre-selected by a travel agency, then on a regular bus you can take a ride around the places of interest to you. There are companies that specialize in transportation of this kind - they will advise you in detail, answer all questions (about the route, price, etc.).
There are no toilets on the bus. In many countries, buses have long been equipped with toilets that operate along the entire route. Another thing is that for very full people this service may not be available - they will have to wait for a stop.