Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the population. In our country, this is 300 thousand deaths of Russians annually and two and a half million oncological diagnoses.
Often, the term "cancer" refers to all types of cancer. In fact, medicine considers only malignant neoplasms of the epithelium to be cancer. This disease was named cancer by one of the founders of ancient Greek medicine, Hippocrates, after the association of the type of tumor with the tentacles of cancer.
Cancer is called the uncontrolled division of certain types of cells, followed by the migration of cells to the still uninfected organs through the lymph and blood. There, cells continue their uncontrolled division, resulting in tumors (metastases). The science that studies cancer and treats it is called oncology.
Cancer always dies. This is not true. Cancer doesn't always mean a death sentence. It is quite possible to cure it, and it can be completely cured. But, unfortunately, not in all cases. Several reasons influence the cure of the disease.
First, it is a type of cancer. The rate of cell division depends on this.
Second, the stage at which cancer is diagnosed is of great importance. The earlier the diagnosis is made, the smaller the tumor and, accordingly, the greater the likelihood of its complete removal.
Thirdly, a lot depends on the drugs and equipment available at the medical institution. Unfortunately, in our country, they are not produced, therefore physicians often cannot afford to use the latest foreign achievements in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. This explains such a high death rate from cancer in Russia.
A person with cancer should be isolated from others. Although the causes of cancer have not yet been established, it is reliably known that it is not transmitted by contact with a person with cancer. Therefore, cancer patients are isolated from the team only for the period necessary to undergo medical procedures.
Cancer is inherited. Partially true. The most common opinion in the medical environment about the causes and development of cancer is its viral genetic nature. That is, cancer occurs when the genome is disrupted, triggering uncontrolled cell division. The reasons for this can be both radiation exposure, decreased immunity, hormonal disorders, and hereditary predisposition. However, heredity only plays a role in some cancers (eg, breast cancer). More often, cancer occurs under the influence of external factors. The most common of these is viral infections. In 15% of cases, cancer develops precisely because of them. So, hepatitis B and C is often complicated by liver cancer, and papillomas can lead to complications in the form of cervical or penile cancer. So a hereditary predisposition to cancer is important only in some cases.
A large number of moles can indicate cancer. Indeed, if many moles or other neoplasms suddenly appear on your skin, you need to be examined by a specialist.
People with cancer remain bald. Wrong. After undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy, cancer patients do indeed suffer from hair loss. In the case of radiation therapy, the degree of baldness depends on the dose of radiation, and problems arise only with irradiation of the head. And in the case of chemotherapy, this side effect is temporary, and hair follicles regenerate over time.
Scientists have already created a cancer vaccine. Not entirely true. At the moment, there is only a vaccine against cervical cancer. Strictly speaking, this is not a vaccine against cancer, but against papillomaviruses that provoke the development of the disease. And even then it has been developed only for women under the age of 26. Nevertheless, now it is just getting widespread in Russia. In the future, this vaccination will become mandatory for all girls. In addition, vaccinations against cancer-causing viruses are widely known. For example, hepatitis B and C. Otherwise, the problem of developing vaccines against cancer remains unresolved.
Freezing can completely cure cancer. Partially true. In cryosurgery, the area affected by the tumor is frozen, as a result of which it is destroyed. It is very effective at the early stage of the disease. It also shows good results in more complex cases. In the group of hopeless patients, 7% of people undergoing cryosurgery have a chance to prolong their life. However, oncologists emphasize that cryosurgery does not solve all problems. This is just one of the methods for treating cancer. In addition, cryosurgery is often unavailable for Russian patients due to the high cost of equipment manufactured abroad, and also due to the fact that very few specialists know how to handle this equipment.
Green tea has been shown to protect against prostate cancer. Not proven. In theory, the antioxidants in green tea can prevent the development of the disease. However, in fact, in order to get the necessary amount of antioxidants for this, you need to drink an incredible amount of tea. Also, it should be fresh tea, not tea bags. However, the fact that China (where green tea is popular) has a very low male mortality rate from prostate cancer gives some hope.
The bones of apples prevent cancer from developing. It is a myth. The bones of apples contain hydrocyanic acid - amygdalin. In the 18-19 centuries, scientists tried to treat cancer with them. However, to date, research has proven the fallacy of these attempts. However, modern scientists believe that for the prevention of cancer, you need to eat not the bones of apples, but the apples themselves. More precisely, all fresh fruits and vegetables. Since they contain a large amount of antioxidants. Include up to 5 servings of different vegetables and fruits daily in your diet and you will significantly reduce your risk of developing cancer of the colon, rectum, stomach, mouth and esophagus.
Being overweight can trigger cancer. The relationship between obesity and the risk of developing breast cancer was noticed by American, Canadian and Polish scientists. According to their research, by losing weight by 4.5 kg between the ages of 18 and 30, women reduce their risk of breast cancer by 65%. In contrast, women who gain weight during or after menopause increase this risk. American researchers claim that physical activity for at least 6 hours a week reduces the risk of cancer by 20%. Modern scientists believe that 30% of oncological diseases are due to adherence to high-calorie nutrition, as a result of which metabolism is disrupted.