Chess is one of the most ancient board logic games for two on a board lined with 64 dark and light squares, 32 light and dark pieces. This game, played according to certain rules, combines elements of science, art and sports.
According to the legend told by Al-Biruni in the book "India", chess was created by a Brahmin (according to another version - by the court sage Sessa, the son of Daguer), who asked Raja Sherm for his invention nothing at all: as many grains as it would be if the first put one grain on the checkerboard square, two on the second, four on the third, etc. But when calculating, it turned out that the received grain (18 quintillion 446 quadrillion 744 trillion 73 billion 709 million 551 thousand 615 pieces) will be enough to fill the container, the volume of which will be 180 cubic km ?!
Of course, all of the above is just a beautiful legend, but the fact that a game related to chess, chaturanga, really appeared at the beginning of the 6th century in the northwest of India is an indisputable fact. Somewhat later - around the 6th-7th centuries - this game was borrowed by the Arabs, who made many changes to it. The modified chaturanga was called among the Arabs "shatranj", among the Persians - "shatrang", among the Buryats and Mongols - "shatrang" or "hiashatar". The Tajiks gave this game the name "chess", meaning "the ruler is defeated", "the ruler is dead". It is from this word that the Russian version of the name of the game comes from - chess.
It should also be mentioned that games that vaguely resemble chess existed in many countries. For example, in Ancient Greece a similar game called "petteia" appeared in the 5th century. BC, and in Ancient Rome in the I-II centuries. BC e. played "latrunculi". Similar to chess and "tau", a game common in ancient Egypt around 1270 AD.
There are three stages in a chess game:
Opening - the first 15-20 moves, the initial stage of the struggle.
The midgame is the middle of the game. It is here that the main events of the chess game take place (attack, defense, combinations, etc.), there are a large number of pieces on the board, which suggests a huge variety of plans for the development of the game.
Endgame - the final part of the game, when there are few pieces on the board, the role of pawns and king increases.
Chess is one of the sports in which there is a hierarchy of titles, a system of regular tournaments and competitions, which have been organized since 1924 by FIDE (French Federation Internationale des Echecs), which is a member of the IOC (International Olympic Committee). The assessment of the level of chess players in FIDE is carried out according to the Elo rating (a rating system developed by Professor Arpado Elo from Hungary). It should also be mentioned that chess is considered a sport only in 124 countries of the world.
Since ancient times, two people have played chess, using only 32 pieces in a duel. This is not entirely true. The predecessor of chess, Indian chaturanga, had several features: there were four players (pair for pair), and they made their moves according to the results of throwing the dice. There were actually 32 pieces, with each player having 4 pawns and 4 pieces (king, bishop, knight, chariot (analogue of a modern rook)). The game was considered won only if it was possible to completely destroy all the opponent's pieces. Only after the changes made to the game by the Arabs, the dice were abolished (players made one move at a time, strictly observing the order). There were two participants in the game (each of them received 2 sets of pieces, with one of the kings becoming a queen), a victory was awarded when a checkmate was made, a stalemate, or the game ended with a king and one piece against the king.
While spreading around the world, chess did not undergo many changes in the rules of the game. Completely erroneous opinion. In addition to the already mentioned changes made by the Arabs to the chaturanga game (as a result of which the known chess appeared), there were other modifications. In Southeast Asia, the game was apparently influenced by the cultural characteristics of the region and the board games previously available there. In China, the game was called xiangqi (in Korea, there is a slightly modified version of the game called changi) and differed from chaturanga in that the pieces were located not on the margins of the board, but at the intersection of lines. In addition, there was no castling, the knight and the bishop could not "jump" over the squares on which other pieces are located, but the "cannon" (new piece) could only beat the opponent's pieces by jumping over the piece. The Japanese version of xiangqi - shogi - is more similar to ordinary chess in both the board size and the position of the pieces. But the figures themselves are flat chips with images applied to them. The mechanism for transforming the pieces is simple - the chip is turned over to the other side, which shows the sign of the piece after the transformation. In addition, all pieces have the same color, since the player has the right to place the captured opponent's pieces on the board as his own. The belonging of the pieces determines the position of the pieces - the players place their pieces with the edge towards the opponent.
Chess appeared in Russia later than in Europe. No, chess (or rather, the Arab shatranj) appeared in Russia in 820, that is, approximately at the same time as in Spain, the first European country, in the VIII-IX centuries. got acquainted with a new interesting board game. But the changes in the rules introduced by the Europeans did penetrate Russia with some delay.
At all times there was an extremely positive attitude towards chess (the game of intellectuals) in society. Indeed, in Asian countries this game was respected, but even there it was sometimes banned, because the rulers believed that it was easier to govern an ignorant people, and chess was considered one of the paths to wisdom. In European countries, the attitude towards chess was rather ambiguous, although for a different reason. The fact is that the Christian Church (both Catholic and Orthodox) considered chess "an invention of the devil", equating it with gambling and drunkenness. Not only church leaders, but also some rulers (King Casimir II of Poland, Louis IX (Saint) of France, Edward IV of England) forbade their subjects to play this "obscene" game. This continued until 1393, when the Regenburg Cathedral lifted the ban on the game of chess.
Success in a chess game depends on unexpected massive attacks on the opponent's king and correctly placed main pieces. Indeed, the Italian chess masters were of this opinion. However, in the 18th century, the famous chess player Filidor severely criticized this position, arguing that in order to achieve success, the player must systematically build a stable position, as well as strike at the opponent's weak points. At the same time, the correct position, according to Philidor, was, first of all, in a good arrangement of pawns, which, in his words, were the "soul of chess".
Time control has always been used in chess; in fact, it was not until the 19th century that the hourglass was used to control time in tournaments, and after 1906, a player who did not make a move within the allotted time interval was used to count a defeat. After the introduction of time control in chess, the concept of time trouble (playing in conditions of tight time constraints) and a new type of game - a blitz tournament appeared (thinking time is limited to a few minutes).
For the game of chess, the personal presence of both players has long been mandatory. Most often, this was the case, but sometimes everyday worries did not allow high-ranking officials (after all, chess has long been a favorite pastime of the royal court and nobility) to personally participate in the game. A way out of such a difficult situation was found - the august monarchs sent letters to each other describing their course. Of course, it took quite a lot of time, but it was possible to think over the next move and the strategy of the future game for as long as necessary. The first correspondence party took place in 1119 between King Henry I of England and King Louis VI of France. The first chess game over the telephone took place in 1878, and the first international telegraph match between Calcutta and Liverpool was played in 1881. The first online tournament was held in 2007-2008.
The muse of chess was invented by the ancient Greeks. This is not true. The muse of chess Kaissa owes its appearance to William Jones, the British (Welsh) philologist, orientalist (Indologist) and translator, who in 1763 wrote the Latin poem "Kaissa". Speech in this fantastic work was about the passionate love of the god of war Mars for the beautiful forest nymph Kaissa. The beauty rejected the advances of the god in love with her, and only by inventing chess, Mars was able to win her love.
The game of chess presupposes the presence of at least one person competing, for example, with a computer. Indeed, at first, chess players competed with computers (and quite successfully - only in 1996 did the machine manage to defeat the world champion). However, it should be mentioned that back in 1970, tournaments were organized between computers equipped with various chess programs.
The meaning of the word "queen" is "queen". Most often, in common parlance, a queen is really called a queen (a rook - a tur or a tower, an bishop - an officer). In fact, the queen was originally a "male" figure, which was called "al-queen" (translated from Persian - "minister", "assistant", "visitor"). The queen turned into a "female" figure in 1475 - this is how the Spaniards wanted to please their queen Isabella of Castile. In addition, another change was made - the aforementioned chess piece, initially as weak and inactive as the king, in 1495 (when Isabella became one of the most influential European rulers) was able to move around the entire board.
Castling can be started with both the rook and the king. No, castling is initially considered the king's move, so you should start with it. If the player first moves the rook by mistake, he will have to move with it.
Olympiads are held in chess, which means that this game is an Olympic sport. Although FIDE is a member of the International Olympic Committee, chess is not an Olympic sport. In chess, a separate Chess Olympiad is held every two years, which is a team competition of men's and women's teams from different countries of the world.
It is best to send a child who has reached 10-12 years old to the chess section. Not necessary. Many great grandmasters started playing chess at the age of 4-6, therefore, if your kid shows interest in this exciting intellectual game from early childhood, you can safely send him to the chess section. Scientists have proven that chess promotes the development of intelligence, perseverance, logical and imaginative thinking in children of any age.
Chess is a game for two. There are team tournaments, as well as sessions of simultaneous play, when one chess player plays against several opponents at once.
Chess is a game for weak intellectuals. Indeed, the game of chess presupposes a high level of intelligence of the competitors, but in some cases the players have to demonstrate physical strength as well. For example, in competitions in chess boxing (chessboxing, chessboxing). This sport, which combines chess and boxing, appeared in 2003, when German artist Iep Rubin, inspired by a picture he accidentally saw in a magazine, depicting boxers on a chessboard, formulated the rules and procedures for the competition. The first World Chessboxing Championship took place in 2003 in Amsterdam. The World Organization of this sport has also been created.
Of the 11 rounds of chess, separated by minute breaks, six are chess and five are boxing. The duel begins with a chess game (in the "blitz-check" format), carried out on a board, which is installed right in the ring. Four minutes later, a gong sounds, the table is removed and a boxing match begins (until 2007, the rounds lasted two minutes, then increased to three), after which the athletes again sit down at the chess table. According to the Chessboxers, the most difficult thing is the transition from physical struggle to intellectual confrontation. After all, it becomes necessary to quickly restore breathing, and this is not so easy to do. So that the athlete does not interfere with extraneous sounds during the chess round, each competitor is given special headphones.
Chess players do not drink alcohol or smoke. Of course, before important competitions, chess players observe a sports regime, but it should not be argued that absolutely all professional players do not have bad habits. After all, they are people too, and each has their own way of relieving nervous tension after a responsible game.
Chess players are extremely versatile people. Of course, education and the level of intellectual development are very important for a player, but sometimes, especially for high-level grandmasters who have devoted their entire lives to chess, hobby for something else can, to some extent, become an obstacle to achieving the set goal. After all, chess, like any other sport, requires persistent daily many hours of training from a person, so that there is simply no time or energy left to do anything else.
The expression "chess is gymnastics of the mind" was coined by V.I. Lenin. No, this saying, which in Soviet times was placed on posters in all chess clubs, was invented, according to historians, in 1803 by a certain Pratt, one of the most mediocre chess players in England. And even earlier, a similar phrase: "Chess is a touchstone for the human mind," I.V. Goethe. The idea to attribute these words to the leader came from one of the organizers of chess in the Soviet Union - Yakov Gennadievich Rokhlin.