Anton Pavlovich Chekhov is a well-known Russian writer, author of: "Tolstoy and Thin", "Chameleon", "Horse Surname", "Complaint Book", "Boring Story", "Houses with a Mezzanine", "Ladies with a Dog", "Three Sisters "," Seagulls "," The Cherry Orchard ". Born on January 16, 1860 in a small house made of earthen bricks on Police Street in Taganrog. After the Taganrog gymnasium he graduated from the Imperial Moscow University. He died of tuberculosis in 1904.
A.P. Chekhov was born in the provincial Taganrog. At that time, Taganrog was an ordinary provincial city, however, shortly before the birth of Chekhov, he had to visit the role of the unspoken capital of the state, thanks to Alexander I who lived in it for some time. After the death of the emperor, the inhabitants of Taganrog not only remembered well, but also actively supported the spirit of the capital in your city. The general way of life of the southern port town was basically the same as elsewhere: shops, taverns, vacant lots overgrown with weeds, an annual noisy fair, reviews of the garrison.
A.P. Chekhov received a Greek education. In the 70s of the 19th century, Taganrog was a fairly international city, the leading role in which belonged to the Greeks: a large share of the trade turnover was in the hands of Greek merchants, chic city mansions were also built by the Greeks. Perhaps that is why Chekhov's father decided to give his two sons, Anton and Nicholas, a Greek education, and the boys studied for 1 year in the Greek "Parish school at Tsarekonstantinovskaya church" Nikolaos Wutsin.
Chekhov had many brothers and sisters. Older brothers - Alexander (1855) and Nikolai (1858) and younger brothers and sister - Ivan (1861), Maria (1863), Mikhail (1865). One girl in the Chekhov family died in infancy.
Chekhov had a difficult childhood. The writer's childhood is known from the memories of his older brother Alexander and the younger one, Mikhail. The first especially emphasized the despotism of his father, who was harsh on children and did not shun corporal punishment with rods or "sugar rope" (a special rope that was tied around sugar). Young Anton Chekhov was forced to do hard work in the shop instead of encouraging the child to study and do his homework. As an adult, Chekhov wrote in a letter to his elder brother: "Our childhood has been poisoned by horrors" (April 4, 1893). Nikolai also testified about his father's "annoyance and mockery" in relation to "Anton's writings and my drawing." In the evenings, in the Chekhov family, it was customary to arrange church choir rehearsals, which were arranged by the writer's father, Pavel Yegorovich. They often dragged on until midnight. Distinguished by reliability, Chekhov helped his mother with the housekeeping - fulfilling the duties of a cook, he went to the market for provisions, cleaned the house, carried water. At the age of 16, Chekhov suffered a new misfortune - through cunning machinations, a former tenant of the Chekhovs took away their house for debts. The whole family ended up on the street, and the father of the family was forced to flee from the debt hole to Moscow. Anton himself was left alone in someone else's house, penniless.
Chekhov greatly appreciated nature. Best of all, the writer himself said about this in the story "Gooseberry": "Whoever caught a ruff at least once in his life or saw migratory thrush in the fall, as they rush in flocks over the village on clear, cool days, is no longer a city dweller and until his death will be sip at will. " For Chekhov, the change in weather was equivalent to any social phenomenon: he often writes about his observations of it in letters, his mood is subject to weather changes, in his stories he shows the influence of nature on the human psyche, writes about the daily communication of man with nature that surrounds him in city or in the country.
Chekhov began reading early. Pavel Yegorovich loved to read newspapers aloud, but he loved even more when his children did it, from whom he later demanded a retelling of what he had read. In addition to newspapers, Anton Chekhov actively read as a child and religious literature, such as "Read the Menaion" and "Bible".
The reality surrounding the writer was reflected in the work of Chekhov. There are plenty of examples. The element of semi-cultural philistine speech, gravitating towards an intelligent language, but unable to escape from the vernacular, was imprinted in the vast gallery of speech portraits of Chekhov's stories. The Flying Islands is a Chekhovian parody of Jules Verne, whose Doctor Oaks was published in 1872 by Chekhov's readable Azov Bulletin. The humorous illustrated magazines were distinguished by the detail that Chekhov later used in his work. The theater also had a great influence on the artistic style of Chekhov, where high school students penetrated by all available means. The members of the Chekhov family who had left after the devastation to Moscow were huddled in one room, six of them, which is quite possibly reflected in the 1886 story "At the Mill".
Chekhov began publishing during his university years. Starting from the first year, Chekhov began to work in magazines under the pseudonym A. Chekhonte. It is noteworthy that then none of Chekhov's fellow students knew about this, since they were simply not interested in anything like that.
Chekhov wrote a lot about everyday life. This was due, first of all, to a good knowledge of the material. In the shop, he had to calculate the value of the goods down to a penny, after the ruin - to sell property for a pittance, put up with poverty and at the same time still manage to send money to his parents. Chekhov took most of the plots and details from life: for example, the story "Tomorrow Exam" (1884), in its plot content, strongly resembles the living conditions of the novice writer Chekhov. Even the subject matter of the illustrated humorous magazines, in which Chekhov began, was everyday from and to - both in its literary themes and in the external reflection of the life of the editorial board, whose editor-in-chief, in a dressing gown and house slippers, at that time did not surprise anyone.
At the beginning of his creative career, Chekhov received very little. Relationships in the editorial offices were built on the principle of "owner - worker". In this case, the writer received money for his work depending on the goodwill of the editor, often even bypassing the accountant. There is a known case when Chekhov was not paid for the story only because his brother Nikolai had previously owed the editor a very meager amount. Quite often people paid for work with goods, for example, furniture. For the first stories, which occupied about 3 newspaper spreads, in 1884-85. Chekhov received 3 rubles. For comparison: a year later, in Novoye Vremya, he was paid 25 times more for similar work.
Chekhov began with very "small" genres. Both in terms of the external: comedies, aphorisms, thoughts of people of different professions, historical figures, anecdotes, jokes, puns, and in terms of internal content: the genre of the comic calendar and various "prophecies". This was due to his work in the press, where these genres were most in demand. However, the genre of "trifles" very early became a burden to Chekhov. He especially did not like to make captions to drawings: "It is easier to find 10 themes for stories than one decent signature" Chekhov wrote in a letter dated November 4, 1885.
Chekhov's brothers were no less talented than himself. This question is quite controversial. On the one hand, the eldest, Alexander, had an undoubted talent for writing, but he fully revealed himself only in the epistolary genre, but he could not combine his sparkling observations of reality into a single whole, unlike Anton Chekhov. For the "small press" this was enough, but for the big literature it was negligible. The fate of Nikolai Pavlovich was even more tragic. He also, like the brothers, worked in illustrated comic magazines, but only as an artist. While observing material accuracy, Nikolai Chekhov's drawings were distinguished by a special emotional individuality. It was this unusual component that was not needed by the genre of drawing with a caption, to which standard requirements were imposed. Nikolai could not stay in the mainstream of his individuality and eventually fell into the general cage, ceasing to write serious things at all.
Chekhov received his medical education. In the last year of the medical faculty of the Imperial Moscow University, A.P. Chekhov did an internship at the Chikinskaya zemstvo hospital on the outskirts of Voskresensk with Dr. P.A. Arkhangelsky. On June 16, 1884, Chekhov was awarded the degree of a doctor. After graduating from university, Chekhov continues to work in the Chikinskaya hospital, taking patients every other day, goes to forensic autopsies, in Zvenigorod he replaces a zemstvo doctor who went on vacation for two weeks. In 1892, in his own Melikhovo estate, the writer also conducts medical activities, treating the poor, and with the onset of the cholera epidemic in the summer of the same year, he began to work as a doctor in the Serpukhov district free of charge.
Chekhov wrote in a state of general course of life. The writer had no relation to literary work, as to work, which must be done from call to call. He just lived, periodically being distracted by guests, mushroom hunting, fishing, but at the same time, he did not stop thinking about creativity and, if necessary, retired to write. Having got used to writing a strictly defined amount of material in his youth and submitting it on time, Chekhov subsequently became a high-level professional: the writer thought out the initial idea together with other matters, then he sat down to work and wrote with concentration.
Chekhov was engaged in journalism. With short breaks for two years, Chekhov constantly conducted a feuilleton review "Fragments of Moscow Life" in the "Oskolki" magazine. On the pages of his column, he wrote about everything that surrounded him, from insurance of livestock against the plague and ending with embezzlement in a bank.
Chekhov's artistic principles were developed in the first five years of work. The lack of a preliminary detailed description of the situation, the past of the heroes, direct entry into the action, into the ongoing dialogues of the characters, the absence of explicit author's reasoning, the everyday collision at the heart of the work, the famous Chekhov's landscapes - all these principles were formed in the first five years of Chekhov's literary work.
Chekhov's transition to serious literature was due to the letter of A.S. Suvorin. The editor and owner of Novoye Vremya, one of the most famous newspapers of that era, after reading Chekhov's stories, asked him to publish under his real name and for the first time began to seriously talk with the writer about literature. Subsequently, A.S. Suvorin provided all kinds of support to Chekhov - in difficult years he helped him with money, published collections of his works and published in Novoye Vremya everything that Chekhov gave to the newspaper.
Chekhov's plays were initially not accepted. The writer's plays were very different from their predecessors, primarily in that the construction of characters in them did without the usual motivation and explanation. That is why Chekhov's plays at the very beginning were not accepted not only by critics, but also by his friends, and by the actors themselves. Even the premiere of the famous "The Seagull" on October 17, 1896 turned out to be a deafening failure - the audience literally booed the play they did not understand. Two years later, the first performance of "The Seagull" at the Moscow Art Theater was already received extremely benevolently and favorably, however, reviews of the play for a long time continued to be generalized, excluding a deep understanding of the work.
Chekhov's trip to Sakhalin was connected with the desire to "pour gunpowder under him." After the death of his brother Nikolai, who had already achieved a certain literary and material well-being, Chekhov felt that his life lacked the usual intensity of work and events, and decided to artificially provide himself with what was missing. For three months spent on Sakhalin, Chekhov, without the help of anyone, made a census of the entire island (about 8,000 people), while the writer talked not only with ordinary residents, but also with political prisoners, conversations with whom were prohibited. The trip to the "island of convicts" shook Chekhov a lot. After her, he wrote a number of stories, the story "Duel", "Ward No. 6" and his impressions of Sakhalin.
Chekhov knew about his illness, but did not want to be treated. Realizing that the treatment regimen of a tuberculosis patient excludes strenuous creative work, Chekhov tried not to pay attention to his deteriorating health.
Chekhov spent the last years of his life in Yalta. He did not like the resort town, but the doctors' opinion was unchanged - the writer should live in the south. However, the Yalta dacha turns out to be poorly made and heated - in winter it is unbearably cold, the food is unusual, the evergreen trees add boredom with their restaurants, and Chekhov practically cannot write in such a bleak environment.
Chekhov got married very late. A.P. Chekhov met actress Olga Leonardovna Knipper six years before his death. The wedding took place in secret in a narrow circle of the family (Chekhov did not want publicity and mass congratulations), the family, as such, did not work: Chekhov lived in Yalta, Olga played in Moscow, together they were much less than apart.