Darts (from the English darts - "darts") is a game, more precisely, a set of games in which players throw darts (length - no more than 30.5 cm, weight - no more than 50 grams) at a round target 451 mm in diameter, fixed at a height of 1.73 meters from the floor. It is divided into 20 sections (most often black and yellow (white)), each of which is assigned a number from 1 to 20.
The center of the target, called "bull's-eye", is colored red (hitting it brings the player 50 points), around it there is a green ring (25 points). Also on the target there are two narrow rings of green and red colors. The outer one is called "double" (from the English double - "to double") and means doubling the number of the sector, the inner one is called "treble" (from the English treble - "triple"), which means tripling the number.
If the dart hits the space behind the outer ring, it does not score the player. Athletes are at a distance of 2.37 m from the target.
This game originated in the British Isles. The first mention of it dates back to 1314. For a long time, only residents of foggy Albion and America played darts, but in the middle of the 19th century, this game became more widespread.
Nowadays it is not only a traditional fun in pubs in many countries (Great Britain, USA, Netherlands, etc.), but also a sport.
In 1927, the first official darts tournament took place, and after the establishment in 1992 of the Professional Darts Corporation (PDC), at first called the World Darts Council (WDC), world-class competitions (World Championships, World Matchplay , Grand Prix, etc.).
The name "darts" comes from the word "dart". The origin of the name of this game is still debated. According to one version, the word "darts" comes from the English word dartboard ("dartboard"), made up of dart - "to pierce" and board - "board". According to another version, the name of the game comes from the words dart and butt ("barrel") or butts ("target") - after all, at first the bottom of the barrel served as a target for playing darts.
Darts arose among soldiers who threw short arrows at the bottom of a barrel or a sawn tree trunk (while cracks spreading in a dry tree formed sectors). This is just one of the versions of the appearance of this game. It is believed that darts were invented by hunters who checked bows and arrows while sitting in one of the pubs. Attaching their tail to the tips of the arrows that had broken in the process of checking, the hunters began to throw them into the bull's hide hanging on the wall (according to another version, in the bottom of an empty wine barrel), competing in accuracy. According to another legend, darts was invented by one of the kings of England, whose wife, due to illness, could not take part in the hunt. Wanting to console the queen, the monarch invited her to pass the time by throwing shortened arrows at the skin of a bull hanging on one of the castle walls.
You can play darts in any outfit. No, there are a lot of requirements for players' equipment. First, jeans or other clothing classified as “denim style” (eg denim or corduroy shirts) is strictly prohibited. Secondly, the wearing of any headwear is not allowed (this rule does not apply to Sikhs). Third, the players' uniforms must be recognized by the BDO. In addition, vests or sweaters must not be worn over the club (national) uniform. Violation of the above requirements will result in the player being excluded from the competition.
At darts competitions, as in many other sporting events, you can see a lot of billboards and logos of various companies (for example, on the players' uniforms). This is not entirely true. To advertise and conduct the tournament, the organizers are allowed to use any advertising media, they also have the right to protect the interests of sponsors. However, neither players nor even spectators have the right, without the written permission of BDO, to use equipment or clothing that advertises a commercial product or a manufacturing company. If any logo or slogan on the players' equipment still exists, the referee may demand to close it, and in case of disobedience, remove the player or team from the competition.
It is forbidden to drink alcohol during darts competitions. Yes, this is so - the players and officials who are in the premises where the competitions are held are prohibited not only from drinking alcohol, but also from smoking. Moreover, the ban applies not only during the competitions themselves, but also at openings, presentations, awards ceremonies, broadcast on television. This state of affairs is intended to help popularize darts as a sport.
Darts develops the ability to control emotions. Darts really helps to develop many positive personality traits, such as psychological stability, and also helps to improve concentration, eye, rhythm, micro-coordination, verbal counting, etc. But it is not necessary to hide emotions in this sport - at the moment of success or failure, players can openly express their feelings.
Good darts equipment is the key to success. According to experts, especially at the initial stages of mastering darts, attention should be paid not to the acquisition of the most expensive equipment of the most famous manufacturers, not to copying the throwing manner of professional players, but to regular training under the guidance of an experienced coach. To this should be added visits to sparring in the club at least once a week - and then even on an ordinary sisal target with tungsten or brass darts, you can achieve considerable success. But even in this case, one should not hope for super-fast results - mastering darts will take some time and remarkable patience.
Efforts to win or not is a personal matter for every darts player. According to the rules, if a player (or team) is convicted of intentionally losing a set (leg or match), he is subject to disqualification. The decision on the period of ineligibility on a case-by-case basis is made by the BDO Board of Directors.
The throw should be performed while standing opposite the center of the starting block. The starting block (height 38 mm, length 610 mm), located at a distance of 2 m 37 cm from the target, indicates the place from which the throws must be made. But where exactly to be - exactly in the center or slightly to the side - the player decides for himself. The main rule is not to step on the bar, not to step over it (or beyond the imaginary line, i.e. the continuation of the back edge of the starting bar), since all results achieved when throwing from an incorrect position are canceled.
In order for the dart to rotate in flight, you should make a rotational movement with your fingers when throwing. No, the effect mentioned is the result of a correct grip, not a "twisting" movement of the fingers or hand.
Remove the darts from the target with a rotational motion. Yes, and if we are talking about an electronic dart target, you need to rotate the darts clockwise (this helps to increase the duration of the target's life).
If the dart falls out of the target, the player has the right to make a second throw. No, it’s not. Darts dropped or bounced off the target do not count and do not qualify for an additional throw.
A series of darts throws consists of 3 darts. Yes, if the conditions of the competition do not provide for the possibility of ending the set (match) with fewer throws. In addition, it should be remembered that if during the execution of a series of throws the player touches any dart in the target, the series will be considered completed.
In the series, the maximum number of points should be collected. No, each player strives to score only a certain number of points required to complete the streak. In the event that more points are scored, the rule of “burning out” points (“brute force” rule) comes into force - all points for the indicated series are canceled.
To warm up, each player has the right to throw 3 darts at the target before the match. Yes, if the competition is held in a circular pattern. In other cases, during the warm-up before the start of the competition, players may throw 6 darts at the target intended for the match. There may also be special targets in the room to warm up the tournament participants.
The player who is on the line of the throw has the right to receive advice from the referee, and at the end of the match to receive information about the scoring. Indeed, during the competition, only the player who is on the line of the throw can ask the referee questions (the rest of the competition participants, spectators and members of the referee team are obliged to remain silent and have no right to give any prompts). However, the player will not receive any advice from the referee on how to throw a dart to end the match, as well as an answer to the question of keeping score or calculations made during the game.
During the throw, you can not follow the stance and position of the hand, the main thing is to think about which sector you need to get into, and minimally control the work of the body, which itself knows which movement is best done to achieve the result. There is indeed a common belief among aspiring athletes that the above dart throwing method produces the best results. However, more experienced dartsmen deny this. They are convinced that in order for everything to work out "by itself", one should first carry out a long, painstaking work to choose the correct stance, grip, gaze direction, breathing rhythm (all these factors have a rather tangible effect on the results of the throw). Only in this case, a consciously practiced skill turns into a skill, and manifests itself automatically under certain conditions.
The main thing before the start of the competition is to try to be as calm as possible. The best results are shown by players whose level of stress in everyday life and before the start of the competition is approximately the same. Psychologists call the above-described state "starting indifference" and argue that an athlete, although he will demonstrate the level of readiness achieved during training, does not realize reserve capabilities. If the tension increases and reaches its climax at the moment of the start of the game - we are talking about a state of "combat readiness" - in this case all reserve capabilities (volitional, intellectual, motor, etc.) will be maximally realized. If the tension reaches its maximum long before the start of the competition, it can turn into tension, characterized as a "state of starting fever." Some athletes tolerate it quite calmly, demonstrating excellent results, while others of this kind only interfere with demonstrating their potential. The worst option is the so-called "starting apathy" (most often occurs in the case of a sharp transition from the state of starting stress to complete immobility), when the level of mental stress drops sharply. It is in this state that the athlete usually cannot demonstrate even the results that took place during training.
It is best to opt for darts with a smooth handle. Misconception. It should be noted that during the competition the athlete's fingers may sweat (from excitement, high temperature in the room, etc.), as a result of which the dart can easily slip out of the hands. Therefore, it is advisable to give preference to darts with a notch and use a special lubricant that improves the grip of the dart with the fingers.
The weight of the dart should not exceed 50 grams. Yes, when it comes to semi-amateur or professional competitions. In this case, the use of a dart, the mass of which exceeds 50 g, may result in the player's disqualification or become a reason for not being allowed to compete. Most often, professionals prefer darts, the mass of which is 19-25 g. If the competition is amateur, the use of heavy darts (made to order) is quite acceptable.
The best darts are titanium. Professional athletes really prefer darts made of titanium or tungsten, or alloys (for example, an alloy of tungsten and nickel), since they are more durable, have the same weight and have a smaller needle thickness than brass darts, which allows you to achieve greater accuracy hits. Novice players can opt for darts made from brass or stainless steel. Although there were times when brass darts did not become an obstacle for an experienced player. You also need to pay attention to what the dart shank is made of. Titanium and aluminum will last the longest, which can only bend slightly under external influences. However, it should be taken into account that, firstly, darts with aluminum shanks vibrate during flight, and secondly, a change in the curvature of the shank as a result of external influences can affect the flight path of the dart. Nylon or polycarbonate shanks are cheaper but break quickly. Combination shanks, consisting of a metal mount and a plastic threaded portion, will last longer as the most exposed upper portion is easy to replace. If the goal of the player is to achieve maximum accuracy of hits and extend the life of the dart tail, he should opt for darts with spinning shanks.
Different targets will require different darts. Yes it is. Darts differ not only in the size of the needles (18, 25 and 36 mm), shape (drop-shaped, cylindrical, mixed), but also in the method of attachment. For playing on classic targets, darts with needles fused into the barrel are suitable. If the competitions are conducted in both classical and electronic darts, darts with replaceable needles (steel and plastic) are needed. And for electronic darts it is better to choose the same darts - plastic needles break quite often. In order to increase the accuracy of hits, darts with "floating" needles based on a spring-loaded connection are used. For magnetic darts, only darts with special magnetic needles are suitable (this guarantees their attachment only to the magnetic field of the target).
If the dart needle is dull, you will have to purchase a new dart. No, steel needles can be sharpened with a special sharpener. But plastic needles for electronic darts cannot be sharpened, and they break quickly. But they can simply be replaced with new ones.
It is best to give preference to hard plumage. Many professionals agree with this statement. However, it should be borne in mind that it is the soft plumage of the darts, created from flexible plastic and fastened with a special glue, that can be easily restored - you just need to squeeze the gap with your fingers. And to protect the plumage from delamination, they use special protection for the plumage. Hard ones, made of polyester, bonded under the influence of high temperatures, will be simply impossible to repair. Feathers made from nylon fibers will last longer, and feathers with a convex texture (such as dimplex) will slow down the flight of the dart, which sometimes improves game performance.
There are many varieties of dart targets. It really is. There have long been many types of darts, and targets were most often made by the players themselves in accordance with the rules of this or that game developed by them. The prototype of the modern target, with a sector 20 at the top, was made in 1896 by Brian Gamlin, a carpenter from Lancashire, England. However, many other modifications have been used for a long time in various regions. The dimensions of a modern target are standardized: the width of the rings is 8 mm, the diameter of the bull's-eye is 12.7 mm, the diameter of the outer central ring is 31.8 mm, and the total diameter of the target is 451 mm.According to the scope of application, the targets are divided into training (with reduced rings of "doublings" and "triples"), "quadro" (in addition to the rings of "doublings" and "triples" around the bull, there is one more ring that quadruples the points), as well as targets for electronic darts (especially popular in Japan), characterized by the "ability" to count the points scored. After 2000, targets of increased complexity appeared (in addition to the usual wire separators, special wiring was used in their design, increasing the number of dart bounces from the target, and the meaning of some sectors was changed). Darts targets are made from a variety of materials. The cheapest one is made of compressed paper, but it is suitable only for those who see only entertainment in darts and are not going to do this sport seriously. Competitions are not conducted on these targets and training is not recommended. A more durable target is a synthetic fiber target. The classic sisal target has been made from compressed agave (sisal) fibers since 1932. Since 1984 the center of the target has been attached without the use of staples, as a result of which the percentage of dart bounce has decreased. Magnetic dart - a light and small target made of magnetic cloth (fabric interspersed with magnetic chips). Differs in compactness, flexibility, moreover, it is safe, since the darts are attached to a magnetic field. Electronic dart targets are made of plastic with recesses for dart needles. Finally, dart machines equipped with coin acceptors are used in entertainment centers and bars.
It does not matter which wire is used in the manufacture of the target. The cheapest option is regular round wire. From a target made with this wire, darts will bounce quite often. A smaller percentage of rebound is provided by a three-edged wire, hitting which the darts slide along the edge to one of the sectors. But this pleasure will also cost a little more. The lowest bounce percentage is provided by the very thin (and most expensive) spacer wire used in professional targets.
There are many varieties of darts. For example, dartsmen can play Bull for warm-up - only hits to the bull's-eye and the green ring around the center of the target are counted.
• "Hockey" - in order to start collecting points ("pucks"), which are awarded to the player when he hits the doubling of the sectors he has chosen, the athlete must first hit the bull with at least one of 3 darts. Otherwise, the move goes to the opponent.
• In the "Round of doublings" only hits in the doublings of all sectors in turn are taken into account. Whoever spends the least number of darts on this is the winner.
• In the game "301" ("501", "1001", "2001"), each player starts a lag (five lags make up a set, in which the player must win 3 lags) with 301 (501, 1001, 2001) point, the task of the contestants is to reach the score of 0, completing the game with a mandatory throw to the "bull's eye" or "double". The game "7 lives" is played according to the same rules, with one difference - if the player scores less points than the opponent, 1 life "burns out" for him. When the "lives" limit is exhausted, the athlete is eliminated from the game.
• In the game "27", initially the players also receive a certain number of points (27) and they are assigned a specific task: to hit the first sector with the first three darts (each hit gives 2 points), if the athlete misses, 2 points are subtracted from 27. In the next league you need to get into the "doubling" of sector 2, and each hit now brings 4 points, and in case of a miss, points are again deducted from 27, etc. If the player has less than one, he is eliminated from the competition, and the one who has the maximum number of points remaining when throwing into the "doubling" of sector 20 wins.
• "Thousand" - the task of the players is to score 1000 points (the rule of enumeration applies), and only hits in the "green ring" or in the "bull's eye" are taken into account.
• In the "Round" the contestants must alternately get into sectors from 1 to 20, then into the "doubling" and "tripling" of the twentieth sector and, finally, into the "bull's eye" (this brings the player a victory). Similar rules apply to the game "Around the clock".
• The dart player with the most points wins in the "Big Round", which follows similar rules. Shanghai also challenges the players to alternately hit sectors from 1 to 9 (hitting a sector gives 1 point, doubling - 2, tripling - 3, alternately hitting the indicated parts of the target brings additional 6 points).
• In the variant of the game called "All fives" the goal of the players is to score the maximum possible number of points, which is a multiple of 5 (a series of throws that gave a number that is not divisible by 5 simply does not count). Moreover, getting into sector 5 gives 1 point, 10 - 2 points, etc. The winner is the one who gets 51 points first.
• "Five Lives" - the game is so named because each player can make mistakes no more than 5 times. The main task is to score more points than the previous player has (with the exception of 180 points).
• "Sector 20" - only hits in the specified sector are counted. Moreover, each player performs 10 series of throws of 3 darts (30 throws in total), trying to score the maximum number of points ("doubling" sector 20 gives 20 points, "tripling" - 60).
• "Diameter" - the task of the players is to line up the darts along any imaginary line connecting two opposite sectors of the target. For example, “doubling” sector 14, “tripling” sector 14, “green ring” or “bull's-eye”, “tripling” sector 10, “doubling” sector 10. The winner is the one who is the first to cope with the task.
• "Cricket" - points are awarded only from the moment when the player "closed" the sector, ie. hit it three times (or hit the "triple" or "double" and once - in the desired sector). The following sectors participate in the game: "bull's-eye", 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20. The winner is the one who closes the above sectors first, gaining more points. Competition in Halve-it is similar.
• "Baseball" - players try to score the maximum number of points in 9 rounds by throwing 3 darts in sectors from 1 to 9 (ie, first only in 1 sector, then in the second, etc.).
• There are also competitions that use several types of darts. Such is, for example, the "British Pentathlon" - an even number of players (the best option is 20 players of approximately equal skill level, competing on 10 targets - 1 on 2 players). First, 2 legs "501" are played, then - 1 leg "1001", 1 leg "2001", then - "Shanghai" from 1 to 9 sectors, "Halve-it" and, finally, "Double round" from the first to twentieth sector.