Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon, which was formed at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at extremely high pressure and temperature, about 600-650 million years ago. At all times, people have been attracted and bewitched by this mysterious stone, striking the imagination with its hardness and purity, pleasing the eye with its brilliance and beauty.
Many peoples of the world knew and appreciated this stone, gave it names that most accurately convey the best properties of a diamond. The Greeks called him "adamas" ("invincible") or "adamanthos" ("indestructible", "irresistible"), the Chaldeans - "hudan" (divine), the Arabs - "almas" ("hardest"), the Jews - "shamir" , Hindus - "fariy", Romans - "diamond" (from Sanskrit dyu "luminous creature"). In ancient Russia, the diamond was called "adamas" and "adamant".
Legends and legends were composed about this in all respects remarkable stone, various miraculous and magical properties were attributed to it. For example, the inhabitants of India since ancient times believed that 5 creative elements (earth, water, air, sky, energy) gave life to a diamond. The Indians deified the diamond, worshiped it. In their opinion, a diamond is able to heal from any disease, protect from enemies and evil spirits, protect from injury, evil eye, damage, bestow the ability to clairvoyance and predict the future. In addition, the diamond gives its owner strength and invincibility in battle, protects against despondency, depression, madness, epilepsy, etc.
The inhabitants of the Ancient East believed that the diamond brings happiness, strength, good luck in love, and the largest stones, which were the property of the rulers, were considered as a guarantee of the invincibility and prosperity of their states. The warriors of medieval Europe decorated weapons with diamonds, as they believed that this stone could give the owner courage and courage. In addition, women believed that a ring with this stone (especially having a greenish tint and revered as a symbol of motherhood) is an excellent helper during childbirth and is able to protect a young mother from all adversity. But not all stones were "lucky" talismans - some diamonds (for example, "Hope" and the infamous "Hope") brought their owners only misery, pain and suffering.
What does this stone actually carry, how to make the right choice and find a reliable friend in the diamond, and not a strong evil enemy? How can you tell a real diamond from an artfully crafted fake? What is true in the stories about the origin and properties of diamonds, and what is fiction? We will try to find answers to all these questions.
Diamonds are formed deep in the bowels of the earth. Indeed, the vast majority of diamonds are formed at depths of over 80 km at very high temperatures (1100-1300 degrees Celsius). But in some places, the corresponding conditions arose on the surface of the Earth - for example, when huge meteorites hit (this is how the diamonds found in the Arizona meteorite crater were formed). Sometimes precious stones fall on our planet from space (for example, a diamond found in the Novo-Urengoy meteorite).
Diamond and brilliant are synonyms. Indeed, these words are most often used interchangeably, but there is still a difference in their meaning. Diamond is a rough stone, a raw material for the production of jewelry. Diamond ("brilliant") is a word denoting the shape of a stone (and not necessarily a diamond). The "brilliant" cut is the polishing of a fairly large number of facets - from 18 to 57. Since this kind of work in manual cutting takes about two years, brilliant cutting is used to cut valuable diamonds. Ordinary glass or rhinestone is cut diamond to create duplicates of unique diamonds, which are often exhibited in museums instead of originals. Diamonds for which other forms of cutting were chosen ("rose", "briolette", "jubilee", "marquise", etc.) are not called diamonds.
The diamond is extremely durable - it cannot be broken. In the old days it was believed that a diamond could not be broken even with a hammer on an anvil. Not all stones have withstood this "strength test". Indeed, despite the fact that a diamond is the hardest of the minerals (you cannot scratch it with anything but another diamond), it is quite fragile, so you can still break this stone.
It is easy to estimate a diamond - the price of a carat must be multiplied by the number of carats. This is not so - when evaluating diamonds, the "Tavernier rule" is used: the cost of a diamond is equal to the product of the square of the mass (weight) of the crystal in carats (1 carat - 0.2 grams) by the base price of one carat. The price of a stone of one carat is approximately the price of 100 grams of gold. A 2-carat diamond is 3 times more expensive, a 3-carat stone is 10 times more expensive, etc., up to 5 carats. A 10-carat diamond is 100 times more expensive than a one-carat diamond. Stones weighing more than 25 carats are quite rare, therefore they are assigned their own names. ("Cullinan", "Orlov", "Hope", "Koh-i-nor" etc.)
Natural diamonds are not colored. This is not true. Firstly, absolutely colorless stones are very rare. Most often there are diamonds of "clear water" with a bluish, grayish or yellowish tint. Secondly, gem-quality colored (fancy) diamonds are found in nature, although much less frequently than colorless ones. The diamond can be colored yellow, orange, cognac, purple, pink, red, green, purple, cyan or blue. The most famous fancy diamonds are blue "Hope" (42.5 carats), pale yellow 53-carat "Sancy", "Dresden green" in the color of Antonov apple, "Hope" in sapphire color, yellow-brown "Golden Jubilee" (545 carats) ). These rare stones can cost up to $ 1 million per carat. It should be borne in mind that the price changes significantly due to small variations in color. For example, the cost of pink and red diamonds with a brown tint, blue and light blue with a gray tint, and green with a yellow tint are falling quite sharply. And vice versa - the price of brown stones with an orange tint rises. At the same time, it should be remembered that it is easier to synthesize a large diamond crystal with a thick yellow-brown color than a colorless one. Using modern technologies, it is not difficult to change the color of a natural crystal to a trendy bright yellow or green. At the same time, traces of refining are outwardly completely invisible without special equipment. Therefore, the authenticity of the color of any yellow, yellow-brown or brown diamond must be checked in gemological laboratories.
Black diamonds are fiction. Indeed, many experts are of the opinion that black diamonds are unworthy to be called diamonds - after all, these stones are completely opaque, reflect light only on the surface, do not sparkle and do not "play". Until recently, black diamonds were considered a purely technical raw material, their cost did not exceed $ 10 per carat. However, rarely found in nature, extremely durable, evenly colored and relatively inexpensive black crystals are gaining popularity, especially among men who do not want to wear jewelry or cufflinks with ordinary diamonds. However, it should be remembered that some firms, under the guise of black diamonds, offer customers defective low-quality diamonds, "blackened" by annealing or irradiation, or even black artificial moissanite.
Diamonds are primordially feminine jewelry. Women began to wear diamonds with the light hand of Agnes Sorel, the favorite of the King of France Charles VII (it was since then that large diamonds began to receive their own names). Until then, this stone was considered an exclusively male jewelry.
Diamond cutting has been practiced at all times. In fact, diamonds were first cut only in the 14th century. Until then, natural stones, which are known to have the shape of an octahedron, were only polished.
You can cut a diamond pretty quickly. Hand-cutting a diamond, especially of irregular shape and large size, takes from a year to 3-5 years.
The diamond has always been the most valuable stone. No, in ancient times the diamond was put on a lower level than rubies, pearls, emeralds. The reason is that the craftsmen did not know how to process this stone - and after all, only a successful cut can reveal all the beauty of a diamond, showing the world its beautiful iridescent shine. But it was still considered a precious stone and was used for making jewelry, inlaying household items, weapons, etc.
Real diamonds continue to glow for a while in complete darkness. Indeed, diamonds can phosphoresce (i.e. glow in the dark for some time after turning off the light source). However, this property is inherent in stones to varying degrees. In some, the glow appears brightly and for quite a long time, in others it is barely noticeable and for a short time.
A real diamond immersed in water is not visible. In pure water, a diamond is visible, since the refractive index of water (1.33) is by no means identical to the refractive index of diamond (2.42).
Under the influence of ultraviolet light (for example, in a tanning bed), real diamonds glow with a bright blue light. Indeed, diamonds glow (glow) when exposed to UV radiation. The most common color is blue, but the glow can be green, yellow, orange, red, milky white. And some diamonds are inert to UV radiation (i.e. they do not glow at all).
A finished diamond ring is cheaper than a custom made ring. This is not entirely true. Comparing prices in stores and the prices offered by dealers for purchasing a diamond from them and then making a piece of jewelry, you can see an obvious difference. Buying a finished product will cost you more than purchasing a certified stone and paying for the services of a jeweler. But you should take into account some of the features of making products to order. On the one hand, you can personally participate in the process of making the coveted jewelry and choose any design you like. On the other hand, you will have to make a lot of effort to correctly convey your idea to the master completing the order.
The cheapest diamonds are in Dubai. It is a myth. Cheap stones, most likely, where they are cut, and not in the city of boutiques and millionaires littering money left and right.
The best cut of diamonds is Indian, because this country has been engaged in the extraction and sale of jewelry for thousands of years. Indeed, for a long time India held the palm in diamond mining, but the craftsmen of this country could not boast of the high quality of cutting. Little has changed in Indian jewelry these days - the cut quality leaves much to be desired. The term "Indian cut" is most often used to refer to poor quality work of a jeweler, and not necessarily Indian.
If you put a diamond in your mouth, your teeth will collapse, and if you swallow it, your guts will rupture. This myth, which arose around the 7th century, is based on the fact that the diamond had great destructive power - it cut any other stones. In addition, according to legend, the deposits were guarded by poisonous snakes. In fact, a diamond (especially an uncut one) cannot have any destructive effect on the body - this was proved by the workers of the diamond mines, who often hid the found diamonds in ... their own belly. The stones left the body in a natural way, without causing the slightest harm to the person.
This stone will bring happiness, health, good luck to any person wearing a diamond. Since ancient times, wearing a diamond presupposed the observance of certain conditions, for this strong and durable stone, according to our ancestors, could become a source of both great happiness and grandiose victories, as well as hopeless grief and crushing defeats in all spheres of life.
Firstly, in order to achieve the best health and protective effect, the stone had to get to its owner only in an honest way. Thieves, swindlers, swindlers do not like diamonds and can harm them. In addition, it was believed that the purchased diamond would start "working" only after 7 years. Therefore, it is good if the stone is donated, or even better, it will be inherited from a successful and rich ancestor (at the same time, it was necessary to know the history of the stone, because there are diamonds that bring failures, illness, death to the owners - it is better not to deal with them).
Secondly, the diamond will decide for itself whether to help its owner or not. If a person is strong, proud, confident in himself, strives to occupy a high position in society, longs for fame and honor - a diamond will suit him. But this stone is contraindicated for those who live on the principle of "the quieter you go - the further you will be".
Third, a diamond is best worn after 30 years of age. In this case, he will help to gain fame and recognition, increase wealth, strengthen self-confidence, develop the mind and intellect of the owner who "liked" him, and the hostess will help get rid of sexual problems and make her irresistibly attractive.
Astrologers believe that it is good to put on a ring (preferably gold) with a diamond on the left hand, and wear a necklace or pendant so that the stone touches the neck. The diamond is ideal for people born under the sign of Aries and Leo. However, people born under other signs with the above-described character traits and temperaments can also wear this stone and hope for its help.
Natural stone is very difficult to distinguish from fake. Indeed, fancy (colored) stones are so skillfully forged that only a specialist can draw appropriate conclusions under laboratory conditions. And, nevertheless, each buyer should have certain information that will help to recognize the most crude and obvious fake.
1. Through the diamond inserted into the ring, the finger on which the jewelry is worn is not visible, and if you look through the stone at the light, only a luminous point is visible. The reason for this effect is the cut - the light entering the stone through the crown is completely reflected from the back faces, like from mirrors.
2. A drop of hydrochloric acid will not damage the diamond. If a dark spot remains on the stone, then you have a fake zirconium in front of you.
3. The diamond will scratch glass and any other stone.
4. Immersed in water (glycerin, methylene iodide or monophthalene monochromide) diamond is visible, while counterfeits made of spinel, sapphire or lead-rich crystal glass simply will not be visible in liquid.
Diamonds are best cleaned in ultrasonic baths for cleaning stones and jewelry. Indeed, this is one of the best methods for cleaning diamonds, but such baths are not suitable for some other gemstones. In this case, you can use special solutions for cleaning jewelry, or just a soap solution (or a solution of dishwashing liquid). However, the last of the described methods is completely unacceptable if pearls are present in the jewelry.