Equestrian sport is a competition in which riders demonstrate the art of riding. In this case, a person actively interacts with the movement of the horse, which is sensitive to the movement of the rider's weight, loosening or tension of the reins, compression of the hips, voice commands (prohibited in some equestrian sports).
Various types of horse racing have been known since ancient times. For example, even 729 years before the first Olympics, on the sixth day of the Panathenian agons (Great Panathenes - a festival (games) dedicated to the goddess Athena), horse rides (competitions) on chariots were held. This type of competition was included in the program of the XXV Olympiad. After the revival of the Olympic Games, dressage according to a special program was included in the list of competitions in 1896 (Athens). But only in 1912 equestrian sport (show jumping - overcoming obstacles, dressage - a competition in which the rider demonstrates the art of horse control, triathlon - a 3-day competition that includes field trials, overcoming obstacles and dressage riding) was officially recognized as Olympic.
In addition, there are such equestrian sports:
Vaulting (from the French voltiger - "to flutter") is a gymnastic exercise performed on a horse that moves in a circle with a diameter of 12 m.
Dzhigitovka (from Turkish. "Dzhigit" - a skillful and courageous rider) - a horse ride, and the rider at full speed performs acrobatic numbers, shoots at the target, etc.
Steeple-chase (English steeple-chase - "jump with obstacles") - horse racing on a specially equipped track, on which there are many obstacles (about 30, up to one and a half high and up to 7 meters wide) from ornamental shrubs, wooden beams, channels filled with water, etc.
Horse racing - tests for agility, jumping ability, endurance of pedigree riding horses.
Trotting - allows you to determine the endurance and running speed of horses of trotting breeds.
Distance equestrian runs - reveal the rider's ability to correctly distribute horse power in the field over a long distance over rough terrain, where natural obstacles may occur (bushes, steep ascents and descents, ditches, etc.).
Driving - horse teams (single, double, quadruple) participate in this type of competition. The question of including driving in the Olympics program was raised.
Types of driving:
Manege riding - assessment of departure rate;
Marathon - assessment of the health and fitness of horses, as well as the ability of the driver to control animals;
Parkour (from French le parkour - "obstacle course") - evaluates the speed and coordination of a horse moving along a route with obstacles.
Western sport is a type of horse riding that originated among cowboys, characterized by the use of a special type of harness and saddle, more loose fit, etc. There are several types of Western riding: Reining Class - dressage, spin version of the pirouette - horse spinning, slclassing stop - quick stop after gallop, roll back role - horse turn 180, change legs at a canter (lead change), back up (back ap) - upsetting the horse.
Ladies 'riding - horseback riding in a ladies' saddle, which involves a certain position of the rider's body. For this type of riding a special suit ("Amazon") is required.
Polo (English polo) is a team sport with a ball, in which participants move around the field on horseback and, controlling the movements of the ball with a special long club, try to throw it into the opponent's goal. The homeland of this game is Central Asia, the modern version of polo was created by the British (military personnel who visited India).
Baiga is an equestrian sport, popular among the Turkic peoples, which is subdivided into long-distance (up to 50 km) races on rough terrain (alaman baiga), foals' races (kunan baiga), amble races (zhorga zharys).
The child should be accustomed to the saddle as early as possible - only in this case he will be able to achieve high results in equestrian sports. The optimal age for starting this sport is 10-12 years. If a child starts horse riding at an earlier age, health problems may arise (for example, there is the possibility of damage to the fragile pelvic bones).
Equestrian sports lead to curvature of the legs (especially in girls). Erroneous opinion - horseback riding is not capable of ruining naturally beautiful legs.
Tall people, characterized by excessive thinness, the road to equestrian sports is closed. There are no strict restrictions on height and weight in equestrian sports, however, it should be remembered that it is difficult for very tall or overweight people to find the right horse.
Iron (for example, gnawing at the mouthpiece) in the horse's mouth can provoke stomach ulcers, push the tongue down the throat, and cause pain to the animal. This is not true. First, iron is not perceived by animals as food, and, therefore, cannot provoke the secretion of gastric juice. Secondly, the gnaw of the mouthpiece has the appropriate shape and spreads over the tongue, so that there can be no talk of any "pushing into the throat". Thirdly, the bridle (or halter) is selected in accordance with the structure of the animal's mouth individually, therefore, if the rider behaves correctly, he will not cause any pain.
For sport horses, the extreme teeth are removed to make it easier to control the animals. The fact is that the edge of the mouth of all horses (both wild and raised in captivity) is toothless, therefore, there is no need for dental operations. An animal's teeth are removed only for medical reasons, and certainly not in order to "lie better".
Iron is used in sports for painful effects on horses. After all, in horses that participate in competitions, foam and saliva come from the mouth - a sure sign that the animal is suffering. The main purpose of iron is communication, and foam and saliva are just a sign of the horse's mouth working properly, and not at all an indicator of the pain he is experiencing. Although, of course, there are exceptions to any rule - athletes who show cruelty in dealing with animals are sometimes met (although quite rarely).
To make the horse jump, they put on strict iron and headbands that tighten the jaws. No, the aforementioned animal controls do not affect jumping. In addition, on the cord or in the springarten, the jumping of horses is carried out without the use of iron.
Only a bridle is suitable for controlling a sports horse, using a halter can lose control of the animal. In fact, you can control a horse (both sports and riding) using any means to which it is accustomed, be it a bridle or a halter.
Horse's aggressive behavior is not a reason for punishment. It all depends on what caused the animal's aggression. If the horse is properly cared for, the training is correct and aimed at winning, the above behavior should be nipped in the bud. It should be noted that an aggressive animal, whose behavior cannot be predicted, is not able to demonstrate high results in competitions requiring concentration of attention, synchronization of actions of the horse and the athlete, excellent coordination of movements, etc.
The horse itself will not jump over obstacles - this is not characteristic of its nature. Wild horses simply bypass obstacles in their path. If things were like this, then the horse, fleeing from predators and meeting a small ravine on the way (a stream, a fallen tree) simply would not have a chance. Horses know how to jump, and some do it completely independently, without any coercion from the trainer.
The horse obeys the rider for fear of punishment for disobedience. In fact, the horse will obey the person he respects. And if the animal is afraid, it is constantly in tension, therefore, there can be no question of any sporting achievements.
You need to play with the horse - this will help make the relationship with it more harmonious. Quite a common and very dangerous misconception. It should be remembered that most often games with this rather large and strong animal end in serious injuries.
Horses are not at all competitive. Of course, the characters of horses are very different, there are calm, peaceful individuals, and there are hardworking fighters showing true strength of mind and will to win. In addition, during the competition, animals, being side by side with their own kind, are struggling to overtake each other.
The sweat that appears on the horse's body during training signals that the animal is overstrained. Sweating in a horse is a sign that the body's thermoregulation is OK. In addition, some horses may sweat with excitement, and sweating is common in warm weather.
To stop the horse, pull on the rein or use a blow to the teeth (snip). It should be remembered that the control of the horse is carried out through the complex use of the leg, rein and body, while in order to stop the animal, the impact of the leg, waist and sustained rein is enough. You don't need to hit the horse's teeth or pick up the reins.
If you pull the reins in the right direction, the horse will turn in the right direction. No, this kind of influence will only lead to a certain positioning of the animal's head.
The best and most painless way to steer the horse is with a cordeo. Most often, it is the aforementioned means of controlling animals that is called the most humane. However, it should be remembered that it is the cordeo that can (even accidentally) pinch the horse's trachea, thereby causing an attack of suffocation.
Excessive exertion cripples horses, and the jockey's whip causes severe pain to the animals. Sports horses often feel good if all conditions of keeping the animal are met and the training schedule is correctly constructed. And the whip, which is used on races, produces mainly noise effect, providing only minimal pain.
For a sports career, a horse is prepared as a foal. Animals are really accustomed to the halter at a very early age, but they begin to "call in" for sports at the age of two or three: first, they teach how to work on the line, later - under the saddle.
Many sports horses have a whole bunch of diseases (injured back, legs, etc.). And in order for a sick animal to participate in competitions, special doping preparations are used. Misconception. Firstly, a horse with sore legs and back will not show outstanding results, and secondly, according to the FEI rules, the animal is allowed to compete only after passing the mandatory doping control and veterinary examination.
Show jumping is the most traumatic for horses. According to statistics, in this sport, falls, and even more so, animal injuries, of course, do occur, but not so often.
In order for a horse (naturally calm) to demonstrate a certain type of behavior in a rodeo, a stun gun is used, as well as straps, spurs, whips, etc. that cause discomfort and pain to animals. Animals get into rodeos if they are unsuitable for sports or other purposes due to a certain temperament: they prefer to throw off the rider. It is this feature that is developed in the animal during preparation for the rodeo, and the horses themselves know well when it is necessary to throw off the rider (work), and when to relax. In between performances, these animals are ridden.
During races or competitions, they try to "squeeze everything out" of the horse, therefore they often drive the animal to death. No athlete sets out to drive a horse, especially one showing good results. Between races, which are held every few months, they try to prepare the animal so that the load of the competition is quite feasible for it. Moreover, training takes place at small and medium gaits, and not at the maximum capabilities of the horse. Accidents at races, when the animal gives all the best, certainly happen, but not so often.
Horses do not like to be bridled and resist. In such cases, athletes use force. Much depends on the nature of the animal, but in the overwhelming majority of cases the horse is calm about bridling, opens his mouth, without causing any inconvenience to the horseman. In addition, professionals warn: in no case should you beat the animal, teaching it to the bridle, since in this case the horse may stop letting anyone near him, and it will be absolutely impossible to bridle it.
An injured horse participating in a competition is killed. Not necessarily - many injuries are successfully cured, after which the animals are used for training beginners, as well as producers, or sent out of the city "retired" as everyone's favorite "veterans".
Most often, equestrian athletes do not understand anything either in physiology, or in anatomy, or in horse psychology. They are only interested in medals, not the health of the animal. If a person has been engaged in any kind of activity for quite a long time, neither theory nor practical features of the work he has chosen is a mystery to him. Professional equestrians can completely independently choose the mode of feeding and training a horse, carry out simple medical procedures, clean hooves, calm the animal when necessary, etc. In addition, it should be noted that any victory in a competition is the best indicator of a horse's good health (which an athlete simply cannot ignore) and well-structured training.
It is possible to start practicing equestrian sports only after receiving a higher hippological education. This factor is, of course, desirable, but by no means necessary. At the initial stage, it is quite enough to visit the equestrian sports section, study the theory and practice of riding, carefully observe the behavior of the horse, referring to the advice of an experienced trainer.
The essence of equestrian sports can be fully comprehended in three, maximum four years. Completely erroneous opinion. Even a person with tremendous intuition and extremely talented, will not be able to understand and comprehend in such a short period of time what the recognized masters take dozens of years, or even their whole life.
People with an inferiority complex come to equestrian sports - because here they can fully enjoy the power over other creatures. Of course, the reasons that prompted a person to engage in the aforementioned sport are different, but most often athletes have a slightly different character and attitude towards life in general and others in particular. Such people treat horses with love and respect, with genuine interest they give themselves completely to work aimed at unleashing the potential of the animal, and also compete with other athletes, demonstrating their ability to control a horse.
Athletes are afraid of their horses, therefore, when going to an unfamiliar place (forest, meadow, city, etc.), they must take a whip with them, use iron, etc. In this case, we are not talking about fear, but about caution.After all, any animal in an unfamiliar environment can behave in a completely unpredictable way, obeying instincts. Of course, a lot depends on the character of the horse, but sometimes the quietest and most calm animal, for example, being frightened, can become a potential source of danger to others. In this case, sometimes it is necessary to use rather harsh means of influence (whip, shout, etc.).
Even people with chronic alcoholism can be successful in equestrian sports. No, they cannot. Such people most often do not differ in good health, discipline, and they do not have the means necessary, for example, to purchase the appropriate equipment.
An excellent tool for the prevention of prostatitis is equestrian sports (or cycling), during which the perineum is massaged. An erroneous opinion has been made. These sports not only do not have the aforementioned positive effects, but can also cause erectile dysfunction, since the saddle compresses (and sometimes injures) the arteries passing from the perineum and providing blood supply to the corpora cavernosa of the penis.