Figure skating is a complex coordination type of speed skating, in which the main task of an athlete (couples, groups) is to move around the ice rink on skates, which involves changing the direction of movement and performing various elements (steps, jumps, rotations, supports, etc.) to music ...
At first, figure skating was practiced only in winter, on the ice of frozen water bodies. However, today, competitions in this sport are held on artificially created ice rinks, the size of which can vary from 51x24 m to 61x30 m.The Olympic standard for a figure skating rink is 60x30 m, the corner radius is 8 m. The ice temperature should not be below from -3 to -5 ° C to ensure good grip on skates of athletes.
Ice skating has been known to man since time immemorial. The most ancient skates made of horse bones were found by archaeologists near the Southern Bug River, not far from Odessa, and by the time of their creation date back to the Bronze Age. A mention of skates made of animal tibia is found in the Chronicle of the Noble City of London, written by the monk Stephanius in 1174.
Over time, the design of skates gradually became more complex. In the chronicles of the XIV-XV centuries. you can find information about wooden skates with metal blades attached to them (at first - from iron or bronze, later - from steel). There are also prints of this kind of ice skating.
Holland is considered the birthplace of figure skating - a considerable number of canals, which in winter turned into excellent jogging tracks, caused the lively interest of the inhabitants of this country in ice skating. Moreover, the Dutch did not only figure skating, which in those days consisted in skillfully drawing various, sometimes rather complex, figures on the ice (the skater himself had to maintain beautiful and stable poses), but also made short journeys along the frozen beds of reservoirs.
However, the first ice skating club was founded in Edinburgh (UK) in 1742. In the same country, rules for holding figure skating competitions were developed, and in 1772, the book "Treatise on Ice Skating" was published (by Lieutenant of the British Artillery Forces Robert Jones), which contained the above rules, as well as practical recommendations for figure skaters and skaters.
The first international figure skating competition took place in Vienna (Austria) in 1882. The program of these competitions formed the basis for the current performances of figure skaters. In the beginning, the athletes performed compulsory figures and a free program. Short programs, in which figure skaters must demonstrate their ability to perform the most difficult elements to music, appeared only a century later.
In Russia, skates appeared in the time of Peter I. It was he who made some improvements in their design - he proposed to attach skates directly to the sole of the shoe. Since the front of the wooden "runners" was sometimes adorned with a horse's head skillfully carved from wood, "Dutch fun" began to be called "skates".
In 1838, a manual for figure skaters was published in St. Petersburg - "Winter fun and the art of ice skating with figures", written by the gymnastics teacher of military educational institutions G.M. Pauli. The first public skating rink in Russia was opened in 1865 in the Yusupov Garden (St. Petersburg), and here in 1877 the Society of Ice Skating Lovers was formed.
The first international figure skating tournament, which received the status of an unofficial world championship, was held in the winter of 1890 in St. Petersburg. In the same city, 6 years later, under the auspices of the International Skating Union (ISU), created in 1892, the first official world figure skating championship was held. There were only four participants - exclusively male athletes.
The European Men's Singles Figure Skating Championships were held in 1891 in Hamburg. Women began to take part in competitions of this kind since 1930 (the first European Championship among figure skaters was held in Vienna).
In 1906, the first world figure skating championship for women was held in Davos (Switzerland). And the first joint championship, in which both female figure skaters and male figure skaters took part, was held only after the First World War.
In 1976, the World Junior Figure Skating Championship was held for the first time in Medjeve (France). Figure skating competitions were included in the program of all Winter Olympics.
Figure skating categories:
- Single skating (male and female), in which the main task of athletes is to demonstrate a high level of mastery of the basic elements (jumps, spirals, rotations, steps, etc.), as well as plasticity, artistry, the ability to coordinate movements with music. The competition is divided into two stages: short program and free program;
- Competitions of sports couples - held since 1908, for the first time took place in the Yusupov Garden of St. Petersburg. Athletes not only demonstrate the level of mastering the main elements, both traditional and characteristic only of this type of figure skating (supports, throws, todes, etc.), but also try to give the impression of unity of actions through the synchronous execution of various movements. This type of competition also has two stages: short and free program;
- Sports ice dancing - this type of competition appeared in Great Britain in the late 40s of the last century. It was included in the list of categories of competitions of the European Championship in 1952, in the program of the Winter Olympics - in 1976. Unlike pair skating, ice dancing does not involve performing throws, jumps, etc., as well as long separation of partners. This direction of figure skating is the most spectacular, since the smoothness of movements and the attractiveness of the couple's appearance, as well as the harmonious combination of the dance pattern with the rhythm-melodic characteristics of a musical piece, is of decisive importance here. The program of this type of competition includes compulsory, original and free dances;
- Synchronized figure skating is not an Olympic sport. It gained worldwide fame in the late 80s of the XX century. Especially popular in the USA, Canada (this is where the annual championships in this category of figure skating have been held since 1983), England, Sweden, Finland. Usually a team consists of 16 people (and there can be no more than 6 men), however, according to the regulations of some competitions, the number and composition of the performers may vary. Sportsmen in this category of figure skating are divided into "Novisov" (age - up to 15 years), "Juniors" (15-18 years old) and "Seniors" (over 18 years old). Competitions are held according to the standard figure skating rules on a regular hockey rink. In 2007, synchronized figure skating was included in the list of competitions of the Winter Universiade as a demonstration sport;
- Skating "fours" - a competition that differs from pair skating only in that there are 4 athletes on the ice at the same time (ie 2 pairs). Performances of this kind were first held in 1914, and took place regularly until 1964. After a long hiatus, riding "fours" resumed in 1981 and nowadays is extremely popular in the USA and Canada.
The most famous world figure skating competitions held under the auspices of the International Skating Union:
- European Figure Skating Championship - has been held since 1891, annually, usually in January;
- World Figure Skating Championships - has been held since 1896, once a year, most often in March;
- "Four Continents" or the Four Continents Figure Skating Championships - has been held annually since 1999. It is analogous to the European Championship for non-European countries. Athletes from four continents (Australia, Asia, America and Africa) compete in these competitions;
- World Junior Figure Skating Championships - held since 1976. Skaters between the ages of 13 and 21 participate in these competitions. Competitions are held annually in late February - early March;
- World Cup in synchronized figure skating - held annually, starting in 1983;
- The World Synchronized Figure Skating Championship has been held since 2000;
- The ISU World Team Trophy in Figure Skating is a tournament held since 2009 in which teams from six countries that have demonstrated at the competitions of this season under the auspices of ISU is the highest level. This type of competition was organized on the basis of the "Japan Open" tournament held in Japan since 1997 and was more like a show (the teams were invited not according to their rating, but according to their popularity in Japan). The main task of the competition, held every 2 years in April, is to stimulate the development of all types of figure skating. Moreover, if the skaters refuse to participate in the aforementioned competitions, various penalties are applied to them (for example, a ban on participation in the next World Championship, as well as any performances and shows taking place until April 26 inclusive, etc.).
In Holland, the homeland of figure skating, all the mandatory figures performed by athletes during a performance were developed. Indeed, this sport originated in Holland. However, all the mandatory figures, like the rules of the competition, were created and developed in the UK, since it was there that the first skating club was formed.
There is an international figure skating federation. No, skaters do not have their own international association and are part of the International Skating Union (ISU). All world-class figure skating competitions are held under the auspices of the above-mentioned organization.
Skaters performed in long skirts until the early 20th century. Misconception. Back in the 19th century, at the initiative of the English princess Mary, skaters' skirts were cut in half.
Until 1906, women did not participate in world figure skating competitions. Yes it is. But in 1901, an athlete from England Madge Sayers, as an exception, was given the opportunity to participate in figure skating competitions on a par with male athletes.
Skaters are professional athletes. This is indeed the case these days. However, in those days, when figure skating was just in its infancy, this sport was considered just fun and a pleasant pastime, which not every layman could afford to do for a long time and seriously. Therefore, the most famous skaters were scientists, engineers, public figures, artists and actors. For example, the famous Russian writer Leo Tolstoy often visited the skating rink, and subsequently reflected his impressions in detail and truthfully on the pages of his own works. The wisdom of figure skating was also extremely successfully mastered by the mathematician Sofia Kovalevskaya under the guidance of Lefler, professor at the Royal University of Stockholm. And in France, Queen Marie Antoinette was considered the best figure skater, surpassing many men involved in this sport on the ice field.
Figure skating, as a winter sport, is included in the program of the Winter Olympic Games. Yes, but at first figure skating was included in the program of the IV Summer Olympic Games in 1908 (London, Great Britain), although the creation of an artificial ice rink (one of the first in Europe) required a lot of effort from the organizers of the games.
Skater boots should be one size larger. No, this rule only applies when choosing skating shoes. For skaters, shoes are selected size by size, with the expectation that it will be worn on a woolen sock. In order to prevent the legs from dripping during training, it is recommended to put or hem a special foam pad under the tongue of the boot - this should also be taken into account when choosing shoes.
Skater's boots should be high and very stiff. Indeed, the figure skating shoe is about 20 cm higher than the regular shoe. This design feature is due to the fact that when performing some complex figures, the maximum possible unity of the skate, boot and skater's legs is required. The stiffness of shoes of this kind should take place, but sometimes the heel of new boots is extremely stiff, and rubs the foot during training on ice. In this case, it is recommended to stretch the heel with your hands.
For beginners, boots of any color are suitable. Yes, however, according to routine, skaters prefer white boots, skaters prefer black.
The skates should be secured as firmly as possible before the first exit on the ice. This is not entirely true. Initially, only a few control screws are used for fastening, and only after the skater completes the testing of the skates on the ice rink, they are completely fixed to all screws and, if necessary, are shifted to one side or the other. Some experts believe that the blades of the skates should be offset inward from the center line of the boot, in which case skating will help to strengthen the ankle.
You need to lace up your shoes very tightly. No, in this case the mobility of the foot will be impaired, which will negatively affect the well-being of the skater and the quality of the movements he performs. Before the bend of the foot, the boots are laced rather tightly to avoid leg numbness and hypothermia during training. A simple knot is tied at the fold, the ends of the lace are turned over to improve the fastening of the tightening, and the lacing is continued, making it less tight.
At the beginning of training, you can use kits for mass skating. Shoes intended for visiting the rink several times a year for entertainment purposes are not recommended for young skaters or amateurs. The fact is that such shoes do not have a high level of strength, they are made of materials that are too soft, which do not provide reliable fixation of the leg in the area of the ankle joint and heel. Therefore, there is a risk that the shoes will either tear very quickly, or cause injury to a novice athlete. And the blades in "riveted" sets do not have the required curvature, and the shape and quality of the teeth are far from perfect, which, firstly, will not allow the athlete to learn how to maintain balance, and secondly, it will make it extremely difficult to perform even the simplest elements of figure skating. Therefore, it is best to purchase special shoes for figure skating and blades for them, and entrust the fastening of the skate to the sole to an experienced master or trainer.
The most effective workouts are those that take place on the ice rink. Experts say that first, young skaters should practice on less slippery surfaces - for example, on a plank floor, and at first the movements are practiced in ordinary shoes, and only then in sheathed skates. Various kinds of imitation exercises (jerking, sliding, etc.), which are often used not only by beginners, but also by experienced athletes, are very useful. After such training, a person will feel much more confident on the ice.
During training, you should avoid falling by all means Certainly. However, not everyone can do it.Even experienced athletes sometimes lose their balance while mastering difficult jumps and elements. Therefore, coaches from the very beginning teach young skaters to fall correctly. The ability to group up when falling, which protects athletes from serious injuries and bruises, is useful not only during training, but also in everyday life (for example, during icy conditions, when people fall on the streets quite often). It should also be taken into account that the skater must be able not only to fall correctly, but also to stand up quickly and correctly - during the performance, this ability will allow him not to get out of the musical rhythm.
Figure skating injuries are quite common. Since figure skating does not require any protective equipment, injuries do happen to athletes. The musculoskeletal system is especially vulnerable, in particular the lumbar region, knee joints and ankles, and fractures are quite rare, but sprains of ligaments and tendons are extremely common. It should be noted that the greatest number of injuries occurs in pair skating, when skaters make mistakes while performing jumps with the support of a partner (most often in training, while mastering new complex elements). Ice dancing athletes have the least injuries.
Beginners should learn to stand on skates leaning against the rim of the ice rink. In some cases, some novice skaters really do just that, while others, on the advice of a coach, use a chair as a support or ask for support from older comrades who are more experienced in this sport. However, experts warn that this state of affairs does not at all contribute to rapid acclimatization, therefore it is best to take the first steps on the ice rink away from the side and without outside help.
To speed up movement on the ice, skaters use body movements. Completely erroneous opinion. Athletes move on the ice rink exclusively due to the legs bent at the knees, while the body remains motionless at this time, the back is straight.
Beginners often do not know where to put their hands - they only interfere with finding balance. Most often, this happens - a person who is accustomed to the fact that his hands move in time with his legs (most often when he steps with his left foot, his right hand swings and vice versa), once on the ice, he realizes that this method of movement is absolutely not suitable for sliding on skating on a flat surface of the site. Therefore, young skaters first of all learn to hold their hands correctly, slightly spreading them to the sides, palms down. It is their position that helps the athlete to find a stable balance.
In order to move in an arc, the skater has to make a lot of effort - it is much easier to ride in a straight line. This is not true. If you observe the skaters, you will notice that they do not move in a straight line, but in large arcs. Beginners sometimes turn their backs to the movement. You should not be surprised at this - this state of affairs is due to the special design of skates for figure skating, which differ from both hockey and running skates. Looking closely at the blade of the ridge, you can see that it is carved in the form of a groove with ribs (raised sharp edges) and somewhat curved. It is thanks to this shape of the skate that it is easier for a skater to slide along an arc than in a straight line (provided that he slightly tilts his body in the direction of the center of the circumscribed circle - without this simple maneuver, movement in a circle is simply impossible). And to perform rotations, sudden stops and many complex elements, sharp teeth are used, placed on the front of the skate.
To increase speed while skating on ice, you should tilt your torso slightly forward. This rule is valid in speed skating, but not in figure skating. If the skater wishes to gain speed, he will keep his torso straight without leaning forward or bending back. Indeed, only in the case when the center of gravity of the body is located above the center of the ridge of the supporting leg, you can develop a fairly high speed without the risk of catching on the ice with the teeth of the skates, which leads to a stop. However, it should be borne in mind that for the implementation of some elements and figures, athletes can use the body bends forward and to the sides.
The teeth on the front of the skate blade help the skater to stop almost instantly. The use of teeth in combination with a torso bend, or other methods of braking (for example, jumping) will certainly lead to a stop. However, it should be remembered that the inertia of the skater's movement will remain, and it will be the greater, the greater the speed of the athlete. Therefore, an instant stop is simply impossible.
The simplest and less important elements in figure skating are steps. For some time, it was believed that steps in figure skating were just different ways to help an athlete achieve faster movement along a certain trajectory and in the right direction. However, in reality, the role of steps is by no means exhausted by the above. Firstly, it is the steps that tie together the elements or parts of the composition, secondly, they reveal the rhythmic features of the musical work, and also contribute to the demonstration of the artistry and technique of the skaters, and thirdly, the steps are included in the compulsory program, which serves as an indisputable proof of their recognition. complex elements of figure skating. And, finally, it should be remembered that it is this element that allows to show the originality of thinking of both the skaters themselves and their coaches - after all, the steps included in the mandatory and free program of athletes should not repeat those invented earlier. Most often, the effect of novelty is achieved by changing the rhythm and various combinations of the constituent elements of the step.
You should start figure skating at an early age. Indeed, experts believe that the wisdom of this sport should be comprehended from the age of 4-5, when the ligaments and muscles are most elastic, and the fear of falls has not yet developed.
The more often a young skater trains, the more hardy, healthy and smart he will grow up. Yes, regular figure skating activities can improve coordination, mobility, energy, and academic performance. In addition, children become more disciplined and purposeful. However, if training takes place too often - daily, or even twice a day (morning and evening) - the health of young athletes not only does not improve, but sometimes worsens (for example, lethargy, headache, lack of appetite may appear, which often indicates overwork). In addition, young skaters can completely lose interest in this sport. Therefore, experts believe that the optimal training regimen, especially at the initial stage of training, is no more than three lessons per week.
It is easy to compose a musical program for a skater - you just need to pick up several excerpts from various works (best of all, classical ones) that correspond to the rhythmic pattern of the future performance, and put them together. Experts believe that, firstly, the music for the performance should be selected taking into account the age of the skater, since in some cases the use of deep and serious symphonic music to accompany a short or free program can negatively affect the formation of the musical taste of a young athlete. Secondly, a person who knows the laws of the development of a musical work should be engaged in the creation of a composition from various musical excerpts. If, in such a complex matter, rely only on intuition, the composition will turn out to be imperfect and disharmonious. And, finally, one should take into account the general laws of preparing musical accompaniment for performances by skaters of different categories. For example, in short programs, short pieces of music with different rhythm and melodic characteristics are most often used. In some cases, the compulsory program is performed to the music stipulated by the competition regulations, etc.
The free program can be increased or decreased by 10 seconds. In some cases, such admission is indeed permitted. However, it should be remembered that, in general, the rules of the competition do not allow a decrease or increase in the skating time, therefore, for every 5 seconds of underrunning (or rolling) in an arbitrary program, the skater receives 1 penalty point, for 6-10 seconds - 2 penalty points, etc.
If the skater's performance is interrupted for any reason, he has the right to repeat the program. According to the rules, if, in the event of stopping music, damage to equipment, or due to other factors, the performance is interrupted, the participant receives three minutes to eliminate problems or obstacles. After the expiration of the specified period, at the signal of the referee, the athlete continues the performance from the place where it ended. The entire program cannot be repeated.
The difficulty scale of figure skating elements sometimes changes. It really is. For the most difficult elements (for example, triple and quadruple twists, double axel, etc.), an athlete is awarded more points today than a few years ago. The thing is that these movements are difficult to perform, as a result of which they are used by athletes quite rarely, and an increase in the base cost encourages skaters to include these elements in the program of performances at competitions of various kinds.
All jumps in figure skating begin with a sharp jerk from the edge of the skate. There are 6 types of jumps in figure skating:
- toe loop (English toe loop jump - "jump with a loop from the toe") - appeared in the 20s of the last century. The triple toe loop was first performed in 1964, the quadruple with errors in 1983 and 1988, and the clean one in 1991. It is this difficult jump that today brings the athlete the greatest number of points - 9 (while triple - 4, double - 1.3, ordinary - 0.4);
- lutz (lutz) - the second most difficult cog jump. It got its name in honor of Alois Lutz, the Austrian figure skater who first performed this element in 1913;
- flip (English flip - "somersault, loop") - a jump starting with a jerk with a tooth of the right leg;
- salchow - named after the Swedish figure skater Ulrich Salchow, who first performed this jump in 1909;
- rittberger ("loop jump", English loop - "loop") - one of the most difficult edge jumps. It got its name in honor of Werner Rittberger, a German figure skater who, according to some sources, was the first to perform this element in 1910. However, the famous figure skater from Russia Nikolai Panin-Kolomenkin argued that the author of the above jump was not Rittberger at all, but the Russian athlete A. Lebedev, who performed the loop jump back in 1890. The triple rittberger was first demonstrated by male figure skaters in 1952, by women in 1968;
- axel jump - the most difficult jump. Unlike the others, it is performed when moving forward, as a result of which the number of revolutions in it is not whole (1.5, 2.5, etc.). Named after the Norwegian figure skater Axel Paulsen, who first performed this jump in 1882. Most often, the axel is performed by male athletes, and only occasionally by women.
The first three (toe loop, lutz, flip) relate to the so-called toe (toothed) jumps - pushing off the ice is done by the tip of the skate. The last three jumps belong to the rib jumps, since during their execution the skaters are repelled by the edge of the skate.
In addition, there are jumps that are used only as links in combinations of other jumps, but do not have the status of independent elements of figure skating. For example, an oiler (English half loop - "half loop") is most often a link between two sequential sheepskin coats, and a jump jump ("cadet", "flying three" or waltz, English waltz jump) is preparatory to an axel.
The pseudonym of the famous figure skater Nikolai Kolomenkin was his own invention. Yes, the skater mentioned did indeed compete under the name of Panin. However, this pseudonym was not invented by the skater himself, but "presented" to him by his friend and student Sergei Krupsky (and Kolomenkin was Krupsky's coach not in figure skating, but in cycling). After a severe injury, Krupskiy was forced to end his sports career. It was then that he persuaded Kolomenkin to use the pseudonym "Panin", since he considered this surname happy.
Figure skating is better for weight loss than fitness. During this sport, the body burns about 400 kcal per hour, while those muscles of the body (especially the legs) are also involved, which are very difficult to work with even using various simulators. It should be noted that the effect is exerted on many muscle groups at the same time, as a result of which a considerable amount of time is saved (which would be required to work out each specified muscle group separately by means of one or another exercise or simulator) and funds. Therefore, figure skating is indeed a fairly effective means of getting rid of extra pounds. The main thing, especially at first (as in fitness), is not to overdo it, so as not to earn DOMS. And in no case should you try to master complex figures (especially jumps) without the help of a coach - this is fraught with falls and injuries.
Before the competition, the skaters go on a strict diet. Changes in the diet of skaters during this period do take place. By reducing the total calorie content of the diet (per 1 kg of body weight - 30-35 kcal, despite the fact that usually the calorie content of the diet of skaters is 60-65 kcal / kg), reducing the consumption of proteins and fats, and also excluding some products from the diet (baked goods, potatoes, side dishes, etc.) and using a salt-free diet (in the first 2-3 days), athletes achieve a decrease ("cut") in body weight. But these kinds of restrictions are the exception rather than the rule. Most often, the regulation of body weight of skaters is carried out gradually, over a long time, and includes not only the subordination of nutrition to certain rules, but also various kinds of thermal procedures, as well as training at different levels of intensity.
Most often, changes in the diet of skaters before performances are aimed not at weight loss, but at the development of the so-called "supercompensation" (maximum muscle saturation with glycogen). After all, muscle fibers with a maximum glycogen content become stronger and able to withstand heavy loads for a long time. It is with the aim of achieving the above effect, a week before the competition, athletes change the training schedule (the first 4 days they train no more than 1-2 hours a day with medium intensity, in the next 3 days they reduce the duration of training to 30-60 minutes) and consume little carbohydrates (no more than 350 grams per day).