Football (English There are 11 people in a team, including a goalkeeper. A specially marked rectangular field - a field (110-100 by 75-69 m - for official matches) usually has a grass cover. The circumference of the ball along the diametrical section is 680-710 mm , weight 396-453 g. Playing time 90 minutes (2 periods-times 45 minutes each with a 10-15 minute break). Unlike other games with the ball, only the goalkeeper is allowed to touch it with his hands (within the penalty area), the rest to players - when the ball is thrown into play from the sideline.
The offside rule significantly affects the tactics of football - an athlete who is in the opponent's half of the field has the right to receive the ball from a partner, provided that there are at least two opponent players, including the goalkeeper, between them and the goal line. For violation of the rules, penalties are imposed on a free-lying ball (if the opposing team's players are at least 9 m away from it); for violation in the penalty area - an 11-meter kick (penalty) on the goal, protected only by the goalkeeper standing on their line. The regulations of some football competitions provide for extra time or a penalty shootout in the event of a tie to determine the winners; for matches of children and youth - reduction of playing time and field size.
Football is the most popular and popular sport in the world. Today there are more than 300,000 professional clubs in the world. Due to the popularity of the game, there are many varieties of football, mostly with fewer players. The most famous are mini football, futsal, beach football. In this way, sports have their own federations and play their own competitions, up to the World Championships. There are also exotic varieties of the game - swamp football, football freestyle, football-tennis. There are songs, films, books, a lot of media devoted to football. For some, football is a form of commerce, while for others it is a hobby and health improvement. This game is in plain sight, however, there are more conjectures and myths around it, some of which we propose to consider.
Football was invented by the British. It seems that this statement is absolutely unshakable - after all, everyone considers England to be the birthplace of football, and the British as the founders of the game. This is also confirmed by numerous documented facts and even legends that the ancient British loved to drive the heads of the defeated Vikings onto the battlefield. However, how to relate to this fact - during the Zhou dynasty, even before our era, the Chinese were already running after the ball, kicking it. On the field were the referees, the goal and the players who defended them. The game was governed by the rules, which consisted of 25 chapters. The losers were ridiculed or beaten, and the winners received expensive gifts. What are the rudiments of professionalism? It is not clear why, but in the 9th century AD, the traces of this game finally disappeared. Now China is making up for its lag, so far unsuccessfully. Traces of the game are found everywhere, which allows us to assert the emergence of similar games among different peoples. In Ancient Egypt, drawings of both the ball game itself and the objects themselves were found. Both Greeks and Romans played ball with their feet. Even the Eskimos have traces of such a game. The size of their site was huge - up to 400 meters in length, and even women with children became participants. Chasing a ball-like object, depending on the result of the duel, the Eskimos somehow determined the future weather. The Italians claim that football originated from the Florentine game "calchio", the French from the medieval game "la sul".
Similar games existed in the Middle Ages, characterized by extreme cruelty. The players came out in knightly armor, with weapons in their hands, so no one was surprised by the wounded and killed. The chronicles say that in 1583, two Britons were so eager to take the ball away from the enemy that with their strong blows to the chest they broke all the ribs of the poor fellow, killing him right on the field.
The year 1863 should be considered the official birth of football. Indeed, at this time the first rules were documented in English universities and the first association was created. Although, in fairness, it should be said that disputes over the rules have been going on in England since the beginning of the 19th century, which gave rise, along with football, to the rugby game, in which it is allowed to play with hands.
Women's football emerged at the end of the 20th century. Men are dismissive of women's football, they say, this is not their business. And this sport appeared, it seems, quite recently. However, the first mentions of a game resembling football, with the participation of the fair half, date back to the very beginning of our era. In China, women played "tsu ju", the name of this game meant "to kick the ball," and the goal was to make the most accurate shots. However, then traces of the game are lost, and in the Middle Ages, such games in China for women were even banned. The next mention of a ball game between women dates back to the 17th century. In Scotland, a duel took place between married and unmarried ladies. England also became the official ancestor of women's football, it was in it that the first women's club, British Lady Football Club, was formed in 1895, and the first official match took place in March of the same year.
However, men were rather skeptical about such entertainment of their girlfriends; in 1912, women were forbidden to play in stadiums where matches of men's leagues are held. Football gained popularity during the First World War, when, in the absence of men, women unexpectedly liked this rough game, where it was possible to take out all the pain, resentment, anger on the ball, or even on the opponent. In 1917, a football match between women's teams in Preston attracted a record audience of 10,000 fans. In 1920, the first international duel between British and French women took place. However, the development of women's football was again stopped by men who considered the sport too rough for wives and mothers. Sport got its third breath in the 1960s, with the development of feminism. In 1969, the European Federation appeared, and in the early 1970s in Italy the first professional women's league.
The gradual development and popularization of women's football has led to the fact that this sport has been widely recognized. In 1991, the first Women's Football World Cup took place, and soon this sport became an Olympic sport.
The best footballers are Brazilians. But this statement is hard to argue with. Even simple statistics are on the side of "football magicians". Thus, the Brazilian national team won the World Cup more often than others - 5 times. Pele was officially recognized as the best player in history (although FIFA shared the first prize between him and Maradona). In 2008 alone, 1,176 players went to play for foreign clubs, which is 8% higher than last year. No other country in the world can boast of such an export volume. Most of these players continued their careers in Europe (762 people), 222 people left for Asia, and 15 Brazilians even moved to Africa. The number of departing footballers is constantly growing, 30 years ago, only 87 people left Brazil. International scouts are looking for more and more diamonds in the country, often exporting even underage players. However, the fact that Brazilian teams are not the strongest can shake the validity of the statement. Of course, it is difficult to compare the game, say, “Sao Paulo” and “Manchester United”, as they play in completely different tournaments, having a chance to meet only once a year at the World Team Championship. However, even in such a rare face-to-face competition, victories have recently been increasingly on the side of representatives of the Old World. European football is characterized by a great deal of tactical savvy, if the Brazilians are more technical, then the Europeans are more athletic and cunning. It is no coincidence that at the same world championships, the Brazilians are often beaten, and the pragmatic Italians became champions not much less - 4 times. Yes, and the southern temperament interferes with the professional development of the players, the Brazilians have long been famous for the mood players, they can drop everything and fly to the carnival in their beloved Rio, citing a fictitious injury, these players often return from vacation late and overweight.
Balls on the head are harmful, and the mental abilities of football players are reduced from this. I would like to dispel this myth, but everything is not so simple here. Doctors say that each blow of the head to the ball causes damage to the nerve cells of the brain, similar to a concussion or swelling. Such damage is difficult to detect only with the help of neuropsychological tests. In the future, it may be possible to determine them with the help of a blood test, according to the content of beta-protein S-100 in it. Scientists say that neutrons react to such light shocks with changes in structure and properties, and can lose their electrolytic balance. Cells recover only within a few months, but repeated damage during this period can lead to serious consequences. In addition, the constant impact of the ball on the head leads to the aging of neutrons. Scientists observed 88 Dutch footballers and 11 of them found lesions comparable to a real concussion. The average footballer receives 800 to 1200 such micro-injuries per season. Most of them are harmless, but they can manifest themselves later, like in boxers, 20% of whom show signs of deterioration in brain activity by the age of 30. If a football player has the Aroe-4 gene, then the risk of brain impairment will increase by 4 times. For example, the famous English footballer Jeff Astle died in 2002 at the age of 59, his death was associated with numerous brain injuries. In the 60s, this footballer became famous as a master of hitting the ball with a head, and balls were heavier at that time.
This problem is general in sports, as in 1996 the International Hockey Federation banned hockey players from playing without a helmet, and in 2002 players were prohibited from hitting the head. In Norway in 2001 professional boxing was banned altogether. And the football authorities are fighting these phenomena, the referees have become much more strict about elbow strikes in the horse fight for the ball. In Holland, children under 16 were banned from boxing and hitting the ball with their heads while playing. Major league footballers themselves will undergo a series of neuropsychological tests at the beginning and end of the season.
The first hooligan football fans began to appear back in the 14th century. This is true, and football hooliganism finally took shape in the late 50s of the 20th century. At the turn of the 70-80s, hooliganism overstepped the boundaries of Britain and took on a European scale. In the mid-1980s, English clubs were even temporarily suspended from participating in European club tournaments. Today, a peaceful atmosphere reigns at the stadiums in England, and the majority agree that, like in England, they do not get sick anywhere - it is difficult to convey in words the feeling when the whole stadium in a single burst sings songs dedicated to your favorite club. I remember the 2005 Champions League Final, when the English “Liverpool” were losing 0-3 at half-time to the Italian “Milan”. It was the fans with their famous anthem "You are never walk alone" that inspired the British to storm, which allowed them to level the score, and later to snatch victory.
The best fans are in England. And many will disagree with this statement. However, it is a fact - in 2005, in the final of the English League Cup, a record for noise in the stadium was recorded. After a goal from Liverpool player Riise against London's Chelsea, fans yelled at 130.7 decibels. This unique achievement was listed in the Guinness Book. What is considered a fan criterion? Just a scream? The most attended is the German Championship, which, on average, attracts a little about 37,000 fans per match. The English Premier League, for example, holds the record for television contracts, although its attendance is less than the German league, with about 35,000 fans per match. In France, on average, a little over 20,000 people go to a match. The record-breaking stadium in terms of attendance was the Brazilian Maracanã, which gathered 200,000 fans in 1950. Someone thinks that the best fans are those who are most furious in their feelings for their favorite team. It is the English fans who are known for their dedication to the game.
In 1942, a "death match" took place in German-occupied Kiev. The story goes that in the summer of 1942, Dynamo Kiev in the occupied city was forced to play with the Luftwaffe team, reinforced by professionals. During the meeting, the Germans, in an ultimatum, demanded that the Soviet footballers lose the match. Despite the arbiter atrocities, the rudeness of the German players, Dynamo defeated the enemy. On the same day, Soviet players were arrested and destroyed. Later, the death toll was reduced to 3-4, and with the light hand of the writer Kassil, this match became known as the "death match". In fact, the story is as follows. As a result of the hasty retreat of the Soviet troops, a large group of people remained in Kiev who did not have time to leave the city. Among them were footballers of different Kiev teams. Soon they got a job at a bakery, whose owner was passionate about football and created his own football team "Start". The players played matches almost every week - for the Germans this was an indicator that a peaceful life was established in the city, and for the football players it was an extra means of earning money. It is documented that during the summer of 1942, "Start" played 7 international matches, of which - 3 with the Hungarians, and 4 - with the Germans. It is curious that the Soviet football players won all the meetings, often even devastatingly, and after the matches they posed with their opponents in front of the cameras. All matches were served by German referees. This is how the newspaper "Stalin's tribe" from 1946 describes one of the episodes of the match: "Our goalkeeper firmly takes the ball, punched by forward Schmidt. The German kicks him in the head with his boot, and then pushes the unconscious goalkeeper into the goal along with the ball. The referee scores the goal. ". However, eyewitnesses, in particular the newspaper "New Ukrainian Word" dated July 19, 1942, note, on the contrary, the referee's favor towards the "Start" players: "Two goals scored into the gates of the German team should be attributed to the referee, because they were scored from the net" offside. "In general, the work of the judge did not differ in accuracy and precision." In general, the matches were held in a friendly atmosphere, the eyewitnesses recalled only one thing when they removed the German for pushing our player. The surviving footballers even remember that they themselves play roughly on purpose, trying to achieve victory. Where did the "death match" come from? In Kiev, there was another, similar to the "Start" team under the leadership of a certain Shvetsov, called "Rukh". After another victory over the Germans, the match "Start" - "Rukh" took place, which ended with a score of 8-0. This greatly offended Georgy Shvetsov, who banally informed the Germans that the players of the bakery's team lead a free life, and many of them before the war were in the departmental society "Dynamo", which was associated with the NKVD. The players were allegedly left for underground work. It is known that as a result of the arrests four football players died, while Nikolai Korotkikh was tortured by the Gestapo as an NKVD employee back in 1942, and Trusevich, Kuzmenko and Klimenko were shot in the camp along with many other prisoners only on February 24, 1943.The reasons are not known for certain, but it could have been violations of the camp regime, and the activation of partisans and the approach of Soviet troops. Thus, no "death match" existed in nature; it was invented by Soviet propaganda. This myth was fueled by publications, books, films. The players' testimonies gradually came to a common, "official" denominator. To confirm the myth, its participants were awarded medals, and in 1971, a memorial monument was erected at the Start stadium. Already in the 90s, journalists began to conduct research, which finally and refuted the myth, the Germans also conducted their own investigation since 1975, which was finally closed in 2005. No connection has been found between the shooting of the players and the football match.
Soviet football was one of the strongest in Europe. Nostalgic for the past time, many sigh - oh, there was a time. First of all, I remember the victories of Kiev and Tbilisi Dynamo, the successes of the national team in tournaments in the 60s and 80s. However, what determines the strength of football and the championship in general? Of course, first of all, the comparative assessment. They say that our players are both technically and tactically better "savvy". However, in the USSR there was practically no information about foreign championships; "Soviet Sport" printed extremely meager truncated reports. Several dozen people could watch the matches live. That is, even experts did not have the opportunity to compare the level of development of football in the country and in Europe. Another criterion is the results we show in the international arena. It should be noted that after the generation of the 60s there were rare bursts in the history of Soviet football, but there were no stable successes at all. If in the 50-60s the USSR team won the European Cup, the Olympics, and entered the top four at the World Championship, then in the 70s the national team did not have significant success at all. Only at the end of the 80s the national team flashed, having won the second place at the European Championship in Germany, having conquered the Olympics in Seoul. At the level of club competitions, 3 Cup Winners' Cups were won. However, having participated in three European club tournaments for more than 20 years and won only three of the most insignificant trophies - an indicator of only 8-10 countries in strength. In terms of the number of European Cup victories, the USSR is inferior to both Scotland and Belgium and Portugal, not to mention football monsters like Italy and England. The Dutch performed much more successfully both at the club and at the national level. A significant indicator is the table of UEFA club coefficients, where the USSR climbed high, in the top five only in its last years. The USSR national team, by the way, showed good success in informal meetings and was even nicknamed "World Champion in Friendly Matches." Alas, we must admit that our football was not advanced. Soviet football was characterized by character, charisma, it combined diverse schools and coaching thoughts, but the constant rotation in its "own juice" hindered its progress.
There are also UEFA coefficients, where the USSR has climbed very high in its last years, constantly dwelling in the top five (maybe this pushed the myth-makers to the birth of their creation?), But being constantly fourth, third, second means being a loser. As well as excellent results in training games, where the USSR national team had no equal, as they said then - the world champion in friendly matches.
Alas, there was no Soviet football in the European leaders. But what happened was identity, charisma, diversity of schools and trends. Everything for which they love sports. That's why I would like to see matches between modern “Spartak” and Kiev “Dynamo”, CSKA and “Shakhtar” and many others. But life requires realism and the return of the USSR championship is impossible.
The church condemns football. Probably, the illiteracy of the population regarding religion and church gave rise to this myth. The general attitude of the church towards sports is generally benevolent, if the competition is not associated "with the rampant of some unclean passions and the waste of huge money." To maintain their own health, many priests even engage in physical exercise. The fact is that a sedentary lifestyle noticeably affects the figure, therefore there are priests who are engaged in both running and swimming. As for football, this game conquered even in the Vatican at St. Peter's Stadium! Teams compete for the Holy See Cup, which is a metal-cast soccer ball mounted on two boots and topped with a wide-brimmed hat. This cup is also called the Vatican Championship. More than 300 football players from fifty countries participate in it, representing even such exotic countries as Gabon, Rwanda and Papua New Guinea. The players represent the Catholic educational institutions of the Vatican, and the teams are divided not by nationality, but by the belonging of their players to various Catholic orders: Franciscans, Dominicans, Capuchins.
A great footballer becomes a great coach, and only a famous player can become a successful coach. There are many examples to refute this myth. It would seem, who else can become a coach if not a football player who knows the "kitchen" from the inside. But in order to become a trainer, you need to take appropriate courses, pass exams, and obtain a license. Of course, this path is easier for a former footballer who is familiar with the system and the subject of training. However, nothing prevents a person from becoming a coach. The most famous examples are Arrigo Sacchi and José Mourinho. The first, having played a little amateur football, seemed to have thoroughly devoted his life to the shoe business. In 1972 he became the coach of the local amateur team, then his career took off and in 1987 he became the coach of Milan, with whom he won both the championship and 2 European Cups and a bunch of other titles. In 1991, Arrigo was appointed coach of the Italian national team. Another example is the Portuguese Mourinho, who did not play at a professional level, but started his football career as ... an interpreter. Soon, the curious employee liked the legendary Bobby Robson, became his assistants, and soon went on an independent coaching swimming. Mourinho won the UEFA Cup and the League Champion with a relatively modest by the standards of the grandees “Porto”, moving to English Chelsea, immediately made him a champion after a 50-year break. Today Jose Mourinho is perhaps the highest paid coach in the world. As for the other part of the legend, you can see that the two main legends of world football - Pele and Maradona - have not achieved anything in the role of coaches. Having recently given up football, Zinedine Zidane generally preferred activities outside of sports. If you take the list of the Golden Ball holders (the prize is awarded to the best football player in Europe) over the past 30 years, then none of these players have become great coaches. Some may have everything ahead, while others turned out to be a mediocre leader. Still, the specifics of the work of a football player and a coach are quite different.
All footballers are poorly educated people. There is even an anecdote that modern football stars write more books than they read themselves. Of course, it should be borne in mind that players most often receive education in absentia, in parallel with playing sports. Professional football leaves little time for intellectual development. And if in the USSR it was considered necessary for an athlete to get some kind of education, at present it is more a hobby than a necessity. Many even deliberately refuse to study, devoting all their strength to a career. However, getting a profession in parallel with football is a common thing. Players are thinking about their post-football careers. Someone becomes an economist, someone becomes a functionary, and someone becomes a fashion designer, like the Russian star Andrei Arshavin. Of course, the “stars” can live comfortably on the capital earned in contracts worth millions, they don't need to study, but most players still try to get an education in order to continue making money outside of football. Some are even making scientific advances. So, the legendary Socrates became a doctor of philosophy.
Football rules are pretty much the same. This statement is not true, as the rules are constantly being changed as the game develops. The original set of rules consisted of 13 articles, three of which explicitly prohibited touching the ball with your hands. Now the rules consist of 17 articles. So, although the size of the football field was generally approved in 1863, it was only 12 years later that the final size of the goal was established. In 1880, it was decided that on the field from each team there should be 11, not 12 people. Initially, the judge sat on the podium and resolved only controversial moments. Over time, the referee appeared in the field and acquired two assistants. Currently, FIFA is considering the issue of attracting two more referees to serve the matches, as well as the possibility of video viewing of controversial issues. The penalty was introduced only in 1891, and the mark for striking only 12 years later. In 1894, a new, noticeably updated version of the rules was approved. Among the last significant changes, it should be noted the introduction of replacement rules in 1968, and yellow and red cards in 1970. Thus, along with the evolution of the game, the rules gradually evolve, making the game more and more attractive.