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Gastritis

Gastritis

Gastritis is a disease characterized by inflammation of the inner lining of the stomach wall. The process of food digestion is disrupted, which is accompanied by rapid fatigue and a decrease in a person's working capacity. The general condition of the body is deteriorating.

There are two forms of gastritis: chronic and acute. Chronic gastritis is characterized by the fact that the gastric mucosa is either inflamed or has undergone degenerative changes.

Gastritis is one of the most common diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (gastrointestinal tract). This disease affects about half of the world's population. In accordance with this, the problem of treating gastritis is relevant for everyone. Gastritis has two forms: acute and chronic gastritis. Acute gastritis occurs for the first time. Its course is stormy. Chronic gastritis is characterized by frequent relapses.

Acute gastritis can occur for many reasons. Acute gastritis is an acute inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach itself, as well as the duodenum (the initial part of the small intestine). Chemical, bacterial, thermal and mechanical factors can provoke acute gastritis. The scheme of development of the disease is not very difficult to understand. Damaged glands and superficial cells of the mucous membrane of the organ lead to the appearance and development of inflammation. Diseases of the pancreas, gallbladder, and liver can provoke acute gastritis. Improper nutrition, metabolic disorders, food allergies to certain foods and exposure to certain medications can also cause acute pancreatitis.

Symptoms of acute gastritis are detected in the patient very quickly after the moment of exposure to the causative factor. Relatively fast. Four to eight hours elapse between exposure to the factor that causes the disease and the appearance of its first symptoms. The latter include a feeling of heaviness in the epigastric region, nausea and vomiting, dizziness and weakness, and diarrhea. Symptoms of acute gastritis are, in addition to the above, pallor of the skin, a grayish-white coating on the tongue, dry mouth, or the exact opposite phenomenon - salivation.

Chronic gastritis is a common condition. Various medical studies suggest that about half of the world's population suffers from this disease. If we consider the percentage that chronic gastritis takes in the structure of diseases of the digestive system, then it is 35%. Chronic gastritis is caused by inflammatory changes in the stomach lining. The cause of the development of chronic gastritis can be diseases of the liver and gallbladder, as well as the pancreas, which cause a violation of the production of hydrochloric acid. Symptoms of acute gastritis are pain in the epigastric region, intestinal and gastric disorders. Also, very often in persons with this disease, irritability, a decrease in blood pressure, and general weakness of the body are noted.

Stress is one of the predisposing factors for the development of chronic gastritis. Stress disrupts the natural, biologically determined rhythm of life. This could be a lack of adequate sleep or work at night, or some other reason. Other factors include inappropriate eating conditions such as dry food, on-the-go, etc .; smoking; alcohol abuse; infection with bacteria Helicobacter pylori and some others.

Chronic gastritis B is the main form of gastritis. It occurs in 70% of cases of the total number of chronic gastritis diseases. Chronic gastritis B is caused by a special microbe. We are talking about the microbe Helicobacter pylori. With this type of gastritis, the secretory function of the stomach is greatly reduced (up to failure). Chronic gastritis A is quite common. This type of disease accounts for about 16% of all cases of chronic gastritis. At the beginning of the development of the disease, patients do not have any complaints, since the stomach continues to produce gastric juice. Complaints and, accordingly, the need for treatment of this type of gastritis appear after the secretion of gastric juice is significantly reduced. This is due to the development of an inflammatory process in the gastric mucosa. Other forms of chronic gastritis are much less common.

Helicobacter pylori gastritis is a common phenomenon. And quite harmless. The fact is that it is caused by a bacterium that has entered the stomach, which multiplies intensively. The result of its activity is damage to the gastric mucosa. The production of gastric juice changes - erosion occurs. All this is quite capable of leading to stomach ulcers.

Type A gastritis is a chronic autoimmune gastritis. This disease is largely associated with a violation of the immune processes in the human body. Type A gastritis is often hereditary. There is autoimmune gastritis somewhat less frequently than other types of gastritis. According to various authors, type A gastritis occupies from 1% to 18% in the structure of all chronic gastritis.

The causes of type A gastritis are not fully understood. The scheme of the development of this disease, as the researchers believe, includes damage to the gastric mucosa, after which the mechanism of autoimmune processes, which is hereditary, comes into play. Type A gastritis is accompanied by a deficiency in the body's immune system, which is associated with insufficient production of immunoglobulin A. Autoimmune gastritis is accompanied by the formation of antibodies to the cells of the stomach itself. We are talking about the parietal cells (they produce hydrochloric acid). Also, antibodies to gastromucoprotein are produced - this is the main component of the protective barrier of the stomach. The result of all of the above is atrophy of the mucous membrane of this organ. The fundus and body of the stomach are the frequent parts of this organ in which the autoimmune process begins. It is in these parts of the stomach that the parietal - lining - cells are concentrated. Gastromucoprotein, to which antibodies are formed in type A gastritis, is also responsible for the absorption of vitamin B12 in the stomach. As a result of the disease, the absorption of this vitamin in the organ is significantly reduced, which leads to the development of B12-deficiency anemia.

Pain is the main symptom of autoimmune gastritis. Not at all. With type A gastritis, pain in the epigastric region (characteristic of gastritis) is quite rare. Most often there is heaviness in the stomach, its fullness after each meal, as well as belching with air. The latter acquires a bitter taste over time. Heartburn with autoimmune gastritis is also common. With the development of the disease, a decrease and loss of appetite occurs. Weight loss is observed in patients with severe atrophy of the gastric mucosa. On the part of the intestines in a patient with autoimmune gastritis, gurgling and rumbling in the abdomen, constipation and diarrhea are frequent. Over time, type A gastritis produces many unpleasant consequences. These include visual impairment due to vitamin A deficiency in the body, as well as brittle nails, hair loss, and bleeding gums.

The diagnosis of type A gastritis is made after many tests. These include gastroscopic examination of the stomach, fluoroscopy of the organ, histological examination of the stomach and its sounding. Intragastric pH-metry is used, as well as mandatory immunological examination of the patient's blood.

Hypertrophic gastritis is a disease associated with overgrowth of the gastric mucosa. Hypertrophic gastritis leads to the formation of huge folds in this organ, which can even be compared with cerebral convolutions. The giant folds of the stomach are covered with copious, viscous mucus, as the stomach lining contains a large number of mucus-producing cells. Microscopic examination of the mucous membrane of the organ reveals many pits that are filled with mucus. In hypertrophic gastritis, the gastric glands become cystic cavities. Complaints of patients with this disease are mainly directed to pain in the stomach. Moreover, the pain can be very severe and occur after each meal. Patients experience a decrease in appetite and, as a result, weight loss. Swelling of the extremities is a frequent occurrence in hypertrophic gastritis. The latter are associated with the fact that the body loses a large amount of protein in this disease. Hypertrophic gastritis is often accompanied by diarrhea and vomiting, which may contain blood. With the help of X-ray methods, as well as fibrogastroscopy, the correct diagnosis is established.

Granulomatous gastritis is not able to develop on its own. This disease can accompany Crohn's disease, tuberculosis, mycoses, etc. Granulomatous gastritis can also be triggered by a foreign body entering the stomach. The clinic of this gastritis practically coincides with other chronic gastritis. To make an appropriate diagnosis, it is necessary to study the areas of the organ's mucous membrane under a microscope. The main treatment for granulomatous gastritis is to treat the underlying disease, which is accompanied by gastritis.

Eosinophilic gastritis is a rare disease. Eosinophilic gastritis can develop in patients with bronchial asthma, allergic diseases. A characteristic feature of this disease is the accumulation of eosinophils in the gastric mucosa and in other layers. Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell. Eosinophilic gastritis does not lead to a decrease in gastric secretory activity. The diagnosis is made on the basis of a histological examination of particles of the mucous membrane of this organ.

Lymphocytic gastritis is a disease associated with the accumulation of lymphocytes in the gastric mucosa. This disease can develop with disorders in the human immune system. Lymphocytic gastritis in some cases may be associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. The disease is characterized by swelling of the folds of the gastric mucosa, erosion and nodules can form on the folds. This disease often spreads to the entire mucous membrane of the organ. Sometimes it captures only the body of the stomach. The data of histological and fibroscopic examination are often sufficient for the diagnosis of lymphocytic gastritis.

Reactive gastritis develops as a result of exposure to adverse factors. This effect is on the gastric mucosa. This can be the ingress of the contents of bile, duodenum into this organ, as well as the effect on the stomach of certain drugs.

Polypoid gastritis is a type of chronic gastritis. Polyps are an overgrowth of the mucous membrane of this organ, bleeding may begin from their surface. For polypous gastritis, secretory insufficiency is characteristic. It is possible to diagnose polyposis gastritis on the basis of fibrogastroscopic and X-ray studies; the treatment of this disease is carried out surgically - the patient undergoes fibrogastroscopy. Thanks to special endoscopic techniques, polyps are removed.

Chronic gastritis has no clear symptoms. Indeed, this disease does not have specific symptoms, so the clinical picture of chronic gastritis can be different in different people. However, the main signs of chronic gastritis are pain in the epigastric region, as well as belching, upset stools, vomiting and nausea (that is, dyspepsia). Moreover, the fact that it is prevalent in the patient (pain or dyspepsia) depends on the chronic gastritis itself. If we are talking about this form of this disease, when secretory insufficiency is observed, then a characteristic sign of chronic gastritis is dyspepsia, both gastric (nausea, vomiting, belching) and intestinal (stool disturbance, rumbling in the abdomen, etc.). If the secretion of gastric juice is preserved (or even increased), then the characteristic symptom of the disease is already pain in the epigastric region, which can also be localized in the right hypochondrium. The pain itself is more pronounced after a meal (much less often on an empty stomach or does not depend on food intake at all) - when the walls of the stomach stretch, it tends to increase. Pain also depends on the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. If its production is increased, then the pain is quite strong, if, on the contrary, it is lowered, then the pain is much weaker than in the first case.

Alternative medicine for the treatment of gastritis recommends the use of aloe juice. The juice of this medicinal plant is drunk 1-2 teaspoons 2 times a day half an hour before meals. The course is designed for 1-2 months.

Watch the video: Chronic Gastritis: Causes, Types u0026 Clinical Features (October 2020).