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Immunity

Immunity

Immunity (lat. Immunitas - release) - immunity, resistance of the body to infectious agents and foreign substances. Immunity is provided by the protective properties of the skin and mucous membranes, cells of the immune system, humoral factors, interferon, etc. Distinguish between innate and acquired immunities.
The concept of "immunity" was introduced by the Russian scientist II Mechnikov and the French microbiologist L. Pasteur. Initially, immunity was understood as the body's immunity to various kinds of infections. However, in the middle of the twentieth century, the English researcher P. Medavr proved that immunity protects the body not only from microbes, but also from any other genetically foreign cells (for example, implanted and tumor cells) and parasites.
At the moment, the main function of immunity, according to most scientists, is to maintain the internal constancy of the multicellular structures of the body.

A child kept in sterile conditions will have less pain. Some parents think so and try to protect the child from the external environment as much as possible - they sterilize children's things, dishes, feed the child with expressed sterilized milk, do not kiss, do not go out with him, etc. Of course, basic hygiene measures should be observed when there is a small child at home, but you do not need to overdo it, since the excessive sterility of the environment interferes with the normal formation of immunity, which is formed in the womb. Parents can boldly kiss a child without a mask and take him in their arms, just having previously washed their hands with soap and water (especially after the street and visiting the restroom), and it is enough to wash and douse the children's dishes with boiling water. And walks in the fresh air are not at all harmful for the baby.

Immunity problems are the root of all diseases. Wrong. Most often, for the development of the disease, several factors are needed, one of which may be a decrease in immunity. With any disease, many organs and systems are affected, just as malfunctions in the operation of individual systems can lead to problems in other organs, because everything is interconnected in the whole human body.

Infections can be left untreated - the body's immune system will do just fine. This opinion is not entirely correct. The immune system copes with many viruses and bacteria, preventing them from showing their pathogenicity, however, it may not resist large numbers of viruses, bacteria, protozoa or worm eggs. In addition, there are pathogens, even small amounts of which are enough to make a person sick (for example, cholera, typhoid fever, dysentery, chickenpox, measles, etc.). If the disease has begun, it must be treated. In some cases, treatment can be of an auxiliary, general strengthening nature. For this purpose, vitamins, adaptogens (ginseng, eleutherococcus), interferon are used for viral acute respiratory infections. For the treatment of bacterial diseases, antibacterial drugs are used (bacteriophages (special viruses, to destroy "bad" bacteria), antibiotics).

Immunocorrection is dangerous as it can damage the body's immune system. It should be remembered that immunocorrection does not replace the work of the immune system, but only helps it in difficult cases, stimulates (normalizes) its work, gives the correct direction of activity. After serious illnesses (influenza, dysentery, measles, pneumonia), surgery, radiation exposure, during chronic stress (hard work, long-standing diseases, some chronic infections), as a result of weakened immunity, there are serious failures in the body's immune system. In this case, immunocorrection is simply necessary.

Fortifying and immune drugs can easily solve all the problems of the immune system. Some immune medications (for example, immunosuppressants used in organ transplants to reduce the body's ability to reject foreign tissue) do not strengthen the immune system at all, but serve completely different purposes. Vitamins, adaptogens and other fortifying agents, as well as hardening, are certainly useful, but sometimes they are not enough to completely eliminate the problems of the immune system. The selection of immune drugs should be handled by a doctor - only in this case a good result can be achieved.

A complete picture of the functioning of the immune system can be obtained from a general blood test. This opinion is not entirely true. It should be noted that the immune system is very complex and diverse: there is general immunity (blood, lymph contain a huge amount of immune proteins and cells that circulate throughout the body), as well as local tissue immunity in all organs; cellular immunity (lymphocytes, macrophages, etc.) and humoral (immunoglobulins - proteins of the immune response). And even after passing special tests, you cannot get complete information about the state of immunity.

The head, stomach, heart hurts, various ailments are manifested - immunity has decreased. Misconception. All of the above symptoms are often signs of diseases that are completely unrelated to the immune system. Signs of decreased immunity will be frequent colds (more than 4 per year in adults and children over 5 years old, more than 6 in younger children), prolonged colds (more than 2 weeks one disease), chronic or recurring infectious diseases, a constant temperature of 37-38.

There can be no immunity from diseases that can be re-ill with. This is not true. When a microbe re-enters the body, the disease sometimes develops, but the immune system already knows how to deal with it, therefore the disease is most often mild.

Vaccinations do not need to be repeated. It should be remembered that post-vaccination immunity is not as stable as after an illness, so vaccinations must be repeated.

Only immune drugs affect the immune system. Any chemical substances have both depressing (for example, antibiotics and hormonal drugs) and stimulating (antihelminthic and antifungal drugs, as well as vitamins) effects on the immune system. In addition, prolonged use of any medication, even preparations of bifidobacteria, can weaken the body's defense mechanisms.

Watch the video: The latest on COVID-19 antibodies and immunity (October 2020).