Lermontov Mikhail Yuryevich (10/3/1814 - 07/15/1841) - the great Russian poet, prose writer and playwright, the author of "Hero of Our Time", "Mtsyri", "Borodino", numerous poems, the most famous of which are "Sail", "Going out I'm alone on the road "," Cliff "," Pine "," And boring and sad "," Clouds ". Killed in a duel on July 15, 1841.
Lermontov was raised by his maternal grandmother. Lermontov's mother, the only heiress of her mother's large fortune, was married against her will and died at the age of 21. After the death of his mother, the grandmother, E.A. Arsenyeva, took the boy to her estate of Tarkhany, Penza province.
Lermontov received a metropolitan education at home. Thanks to the firmness of character and mind of his grandmother, Lermontov, being in the provinces, received an excellent metropolitan education: he had an ordinary French governor, a German Bonn and even an English teacher. Thus, Lermontov spoke fluently both in French and German from childhood. Subsequently, in the Caucasus, Azerbaijani and Georgian languages were no less good for him (the poet used partial knowledge of the latter in his work).
Lermontov's childhood impressions were later reflected in the writer's work. The childhood spent in the manor house gave Lermontov good material for his autobiographical dramas, and the trip with his grandmother to the Caucasus preserved wonderful memories of the nature and life of this mountainous region, which were reflected in the early work of the writer.
Lermontov's interest in literature and creativity woke up from childhood. At the boarding school at Moscow University, Lermontov studied history, Russian and European culture - the best examples of poetry, prose, drama, music, painting, philosophical works. Of the writers, Lermontov, first of all, was attracted by Pushkin (especially his "Eugene Onegin", about which Lermontov himself spoke to Belinsky) and the Russian "Byronic" poem.
Lermontov was a musically and artistically gifted person. The poet played the violin, piano, sang and composed music to his own poems, painted both from nature and from memory, both static images (figures, faces) and dynamic scenes (fight, jump).
Lermontov continued the "Byronic" tradition in his work. In 1828-29. Lermontov creates poems "The Corsair", "The Criminal", "Oleg", "Two Brothers", the main characters of which are a strong personality who is in confrontation with society, its way of life and morality, up to expulsion from this society or committing a crime in its name rejection. The main motive in the "Byronic" poem in general and Lermontov's poem in particular remains tragic love, which is considered as the only option for the hero to avoid complete loneliness, but the option, alas, completely failed due to either betrayal or the death of his beloved.
Lermontov studied at one of the most democratic educational institutions. At Moscow University in the 30s of the 19th century, along with the memories of the December uprising, the spirit of rebellion and freedom-loving student community was still preserved. Lermontov in such an environment kept himself apart, but did not avoid the general opposition mood.
Lermontov's poems are autobiographical in terms of reflecting the poet's inner experiences. Lermontov did not find the discord of his parents, he could only feel it on himself and his partly orphan fate. At the age of 30-31, entering the period of maturity, Lermontov is trying to find himself as a person in the spiritual sphere. The first falling in love at the age of sixteen gives rise to love lyrics in the poet's soul, reflecting the emotions and moods of a person burning with a sincere and strong feeling. The second love and accompanying poems dedicated to N.F. Ivanova are permeated with even greater sensuality and emotionality, but at the same time Lermontov in them is already beginning to turn to real life impressions and literary-historical motives.
Lermontov was a military man. In 1832, Lermontov left the hateful Moscow University and, after the refusal of St. Petersburg University to read the subjects he had listened to in Moscow, on the advice of his relatives decides to choose the military field. On November 4, 1832, Lermontov was enrolled in the School of Guards Ensigns and Cavalry Junkers, which he graduated in 1835 with a cornet and graduated from the Life Guards Hussar Regiment.
The first significant work, according to Lermontov, was the drama "Masquerade". However, Lermontov was not allowed to publish "Masquerade", twice altered and three times submitted to the dramatic censorship. The performance on the stage was interrupted by the genre of "Masquerade", close to French melodrama and romantic drama, contrary to the official moral norms of that time and guessing a real incident in the work, which censorship did not like very much.
The first original poem by Lermontov was "Boyarin Orsh" (1835-1836). In contrast to the previous "Byronic style of writing", here the writer displays two heroes instead of one, each with his own life position. As a result, a fairly objective picture of the opposition of individual feelings and feelings of adherence to the traditional has emerged in the work. The author's emotions in this poem are pushed into the background, while the objective character, created by epic rather than lyrical features, comes forward.
Lermontov was widely known for "The Death of a Poet". Lermontov never knew Pushkin himself. All the more piercingly sounded his response to the death of the sun of Russian poetry - the poem "Death of a Poet", created immediately after it became known about the death of Pushkin in a duel. The poem contained the concept of Pushkin's life and death and turned out to be very emotional. The finale of The Death of a Poet, for which Lermontov was arrested, looked especially expressive and outwardly revolutionary. A political case was initiated against the poet about "impermissible verses", and Lermontov himself became widely known not only in Pushkin, but also in general literary circles.
Lermontov was exiled to the Caucasus several times. The first link is dated March 1837. During it, the poet traveled around almost the entire Caucasian line and the central regions of Georgia, and, despite the severity of his situation, received a lot of creative impressions and new acquaintances with the Decembrist exiles. With the troubles of his grandmother, Lermontov's first Caucasian exile ended in January 1838, after which the poet was transferred to the Grodno Life Guards Regiment and returned to St. Petersburg. The second exile came in June 1840, after Lermontov's March duel with E. de Barant, the son of the French ambassador. Already in July, Lermontov took part in numerous skirmishes with the highlanders and a bloody battle at the Valerik River, where he showed desperate courage.
Lermontov was close to folklore. The poet's interest in folk art woke up in 1837 in the Caucasus, where he recorded an oriental tale about Ashik-Kerib and created the ballad "Gifts of the Terek" and "Cossack lullaby" imbued with folk cultural tradition. Lermontov reproduces the national character and spirit of folk poetry in "Song about Tsar Ivan Vasilyevich, the young oprichnik and daring merchant Kalashnikov" (1837). And even in his famous "Demon" the poet cannot avoid turning to folklore: after six (!) Editions, the work acquires pronounced folk Caucasian features, and the plot finally plunges into the atmosphere of folk tales.
The highest achievements of the romantic poem by Lermontov were "The Demon" and "Mtsyri". Lermontov worked on "The Demon" for a total of ten years - from 1829 to 1839, and during this time the work has undergone a number of significant changes associated with the reassessment of the individualistic idea inherent in the poem. "Mtsyri", like "The Demon", completed a series of ideas born to Lermontov back in 1830-1831, and formed a special, Lermontov's poetic language that combines unusual expressiveness with prosaic, everyday speech.
Lermontov's artistic experience was concentrated in the novel A Hero of Our Time. The novel is a series of stories in the style of a specific literary tradition. In A Hero of Our Time, a typification of the hero appears, that is, a view of him as a "type" that combines the social and psychological traits of an entire generation. For the first time in Russian literature, Lermontov poses the question of the conditionality of character by social laws.
VG Belinsky saw in Lermontov the central figure of a new stage in Russian literature. Under the wing of VG Belinsky, who in 1839 became the leading critic of Otechestvennye zapiski, a new literary movement began to take shape, the central figure of which was Lermontov. Most of the poet's lifetime publications appear precisely in Otechestvennye zapiski. Interestingly, at the same time, Lermontov did not develop relations with other literary circles: his work was selectively accepted by both older and young poets.
Lermontov was presented with a state award. In early February 1841, during a two-month vacation in St. Petersburg, Lermontov was presented with a state award for bravery, but Nicholas I rejected this presentation and Lermontov was not given the award.
Some of Lermontov's best poems were written at the end of the poet's life. In May 1841, Lermontov undergoes treatment on the mineral waters of the Caucasus, where, in a burst of creative activity, he creates: "Dream", "Cliff", "I walk out on the road alone ...", "Leaf", "Tamara", "Date", "Prophet "," Sea Princess ".
Lermontov's character was very peculiar. The poet's contemporaries portray him in completely different ways: to some he seems irritable and bilious, to others - alive and cheerful. Prince M.B. Lobanov-Rostovsky recalled Lermontov: “He was kind to eye-to-eye and outside the circle of comrades, his speech was interesting, always original and a little caustic. . ".
Lermontov was killed in a duel. It happened on July 15, 1841. The reason for the duel was Lermontov's joke about his fellow cadet N.S. Martynov.