A talisman (from late Greek telesma - "dedication", "enchantment") is an object that brings happiness and good luck, and is also designed to protect a person from disasters. The first talismans appeared in time immemorial. And some ancient authors attribute the introduction of the science of talismans to Ham, the son of Noah.
Modern historians and archaeologists believe that talismans come from "objects of power", which should tell others about the military valor of a person (scalps or dried heads of enemies served this purpose), hunting successes (horns, fangs, feathers or skins of killed animals), the talent of a healer -the medicine man (roots, herbs, minerals) or the gift of the diviner (ritual objects, fortune-telling sticks, etc.). Only over time did the aforementioned items change their purpose, turning from trophies and everyday objects into certain symbols that give success and good luck to their wearer.
An amulet and a talisman are one and the same. Most often, these words are really used synonymously. But there is still a difference. Firstly, in the overwhelming majority of amulets are intended to be worn on the body, while talismans can be located at a rather large distance from the owner (especially if the talisman is an animal or a rather large object), but not lose connection with him and their magical properties. Secondly, according to experts, the amulet can protect its owner from any negative energy, even if the owner of the amulet radiates this energy. The talisman not only protects, but also generates a rather powerful flow of positive energy, enriching and purifying the host's biofield. Thirdly, the amulet is most often tuned to a rather narrowly targeted effect that is beneficial in a particular situation. And the talisman has a broader and deeper influence on a person's life, which is not so obvious.
Some items bring good luck to the wearer without even being magically affected. The above properties are possessed by objects of religious cults (holy names written on leather or parchment, seals of Spirits, icons, figurines of deities, holy books), as well as various symbols that personify divine power (lotus, shell, disc, mace, vajra) or images sacred animals (horse, lion, bull, phoenix). Some objects, according to beliefs, do not require special action and bring happiness (for example, a horseshoe) or protect the house from evil forces (needles or pins stuck in a door or doorframe, scissors suspended above the entrance to a house, etc.). They bring good luck without preliminary "charging" and classical Chinese talismans (coins with a square hole, figurines of deities and mythical creatures, various symbols, hieroglyphs, etc.), designed to attract the energy of good luck and success in a particular area to the owner's home and life ... However, in order for the mentioned talismans to work correctly, they should be placed in the apartment according to the basic principles of Feng Shui science (literal translation - "wind-water", a science whose purpose is the arrangement of buildings and things in the house in such a way as to harmonize the streams of life. forces (qi) in space and in the human body).
The talisman is stronger than the amulet. Much depends on who exactly made the talisman or amulet. In addition, it should be borne in mind that the orientation of these objects is different: amulets help to resolve very specific situations, while talismans have a more general effect on a person's life. Therefore, it turns out that amulets are more effective in resolving a certain problem, while talismans seem to be of less use. However, it must be remembered that an amulet rarely affects the life of a person as a whole, while a talisman is capable of a deeper influence, as a result of which certain situations simply do not arise or are resolved by themselves.
In order to charge the talisman, it is not necessary to contact the magician - the ceremony can be carried out independently. Yes it is possible. After the cleaning rite (the future talisman can either be held over the flame of a candle, or put in salt for a while and placed in the freezer for several days, after which it can be washed with water), one should proceed to the direct assignment of a certain quality to the object, which it will have to exhibit. In order for the ceremony to be successful, one should, first, relax, abandon all troubles, sorrows and worries. Secondly, remember a few situations in which you experienced a certain feeling that you would like to give the talisman (for example, a feeling of security or joy). At the next stage, you need to draw several pictures-situations, the successful resolution of which would give you the desired feeling. They need to be "scrolled" in front of the mind's eye, accelerating the pace, until the pictures disappear, giving way to the necessary sensation, which must be pumped into the talisman object with all our might, not paying attention to the "internal resistance" of the thing that arises at a certain stage of exposure. As soon as the feeling of resistance disappears, the work can be considered completed. However, it should be remembered that a talisman made and charged by a professional is much more effective than one created by yourself.
Much depends on what material the talisman is made of. It really is. For example, talismans made of wood or leather, even made by professionals, are valid only for a year, after which they need to be recharged. Talismans made of precious and semi-precious stones are more durable. But the most reliable, according to experts, is the kabbalistic pentacle (pantacle), provided that it is made of an alloy of precious metals by hand by a professional magician (and it takes at least a month to create such a talisman). In this case, a magic item is able to radically change the life of its owner and does not lose the power of influence throughout the entire period of its existence, which is calculated for many decades, or even centuries.
Talismans can help some people, while others can bring troubles and misfortunes. There are historical examples of the positive impact of talismans on famous people. For example, Chaliapin never parted with a diamond ring (it is this stone that gives the owner a long life and helps him to reveal talent), Bulgakov was helped in his work by a blue sapphire, the Macedonian wore a ring with hematite, which, according to the commander, endowed him with strength, courage and healed from wounds. But Pushkin's ring with carnelian (according to astrologers and jewelers, contraindicated to him in accordance with the horoscope data) instead of happiness brought a very short life with a tragic end, as well as to another famous poet - George Gordon Byron (for whom carnelian also did not fit in the Zodiac). Some things (and sometimes - animals, people, and even statements) that bring trouble are called jinx in the countries of Europe and America, they try to avoid them by all means. For example, superstitious people prefer not to talk about the future with too much certainty - it is believed that by doing so, they impose a curse on themselves and other people mentioned in the statement.
The Chicken God is a talisman stone that brings happiness and good luck to the one who found him. According to popular beliefs, a stone with a hole cut through by river or sea water brings good luck and health to those who find it. The finder can give the stone to one of his friends or acquaintances, while the gifted person must kiss the donor - only in this case he will be able to fully use the properties of the talisman. In the old days, round stones, with holes inside, sometimes called "dog god", "dog happiness", "boggaz" were hung in the hen house, because it was believed that he was able to protect birds from diseases and thunderstorms. Our ancestors placed the aforementioned talisman (the role of which could be played by both a stone with a hole and various utensils without a bottom (pots, crinkles, jugs), old bast shoes, etc.) also in a kennel, in barns or in the yard - so that dogs and other pets were not sick and slept well.
Every sports team has mascots these days. Yes, almost all modern sports teams, communities, schools, as well as events and brands have a mascot (from the French mascotte - "bringing good luck") - a mascot (person, animal, fairy-tale character, object, etc.) bringing good luck and success. For example, the mascot of the McDonalds restaurant chain is the clown Ronald McDonald, the zombie Eddie became the mascot for the famous Iron Maiden band, etc. The Olympic Games also have mascots, their history officially begins in 1972 (but the first mascot - skier Schuss - appeared at the X Winter Olympics in Grenoble back in 1968). Moreover, in some cases it may be one creature: Waldi's dachshund is the mascot of the XX 1972 Olympics in Munich (Germany), the beaver Amik is the mascot of the 1976 XXI Olympiad in Montreal (Canada), the bear Teddy bear is the symbol of the XXII 1980 Olympics in Moscow ( Russia), etc. In others, several creatures, real or fictional, are chosen as the mascots of the Olympic Games. For example, the cubs Heidi and Howdy (XV Winter Olympics 1988 in Calgary (Canada)), the kids Christine and Hakon (XVII Winter Olympics 1994 in Lillehammer (Norway)), Athena and Thevos - antique dolls (XXVIII Olympics 2004 in Athens ( Greece)), Powder hare, Koper coyote and Cole the bear are symbols of the 19th Winter Olympics in 2002 in Salt Lake City, Beibei (fish), Jingjing (panda), Huanhuan (Olympic flame), Yingying (Tibetan antelope) and Nini ( crane) - mascots of the XXIX Olympiad 2008 in Beijing (PRC), etc.
There are talismans that affect not only the life of their owner, but also the fate of all mankind as a whole. Mystics believe that such artifacts do exist. For example, Chintamani ("Orion's gift") is a wish-fulfilling stone. According to Buddhists, the aforementioned crystal is in Avalokiteshvara, and in periods of crucial importance for humanity it appears among highly spiritual people (the last owners of Chintamani were an outstanding cultural figure, artist, scientist, poet and philosopher, mystic and traveler N.K. Roerich and his son, S.N. Roerich). The legendary Holy Grail, from which, according to legend, the apostles received communion during the Last Supper, has similar properties. Legends say that even a simple contemplation of the Grail gives a mortal countless blessings, and a person who drinks from a cup gains immortality, cleansing from sins, etc.
In the legends of the Russians, Alatyr-stone (Latin, White stone, white-combustible stone) is often mentioned, which turns everything into gold, heals from diseases, gives eternal life, and is also an incomprehensible sacred center of the World. There is a legend that 9 fragments of this stone were brought to the Russian land in order to protect and protect it from enemy raids and disasters. One of these fragments - Shutov stone (or Kindyakovsky stone), which is a boulder 1.5 m long located near the village of Kindyakovo (Moscow region), not only performs the above protective functions, but can also heal childhood diseases.
The Muslims highly revered a black stone or "stone of forgiveness" (which, according to one of the legends, was sent down by God to Adam and Eve, according to another version - is a petrified guardian angel of Adam), embedded in the wall of the kaaba (a Muslim shrine, a cubic building located in the Forbidden Mosque in Mecca). According to legend, during the resurrection of the dead, the black stone will regain its original white color (it has turned black from human sins), will turn into an angel, and will be the protector of those people who correctly performed the rituals of worshiping God.
In some cases, sacred stones serve as a link between humans and divine powers. An example of such artifacts that showed God's will to people are the Urim and Thummim mentioned in the Bible (according to written sources - sparkling stones, along with 12 other stones put into the priest's confidant and showing God's will by changing the brightness of the glow), as well as the sacred stones of the Incas (special shaped cone-shaped pieces of white and red andesite, which were more valuable than gold).