Memory is the ability to reproduce past experience, one of the main properties of the nervous system, which is expressed in the ability to store information about events in the external world and reactions of the body for a long time and repeatedly enter it into the sphere of consciousness and behavior.
To memorize new information well, you need to learn before bed. For good memorization, of course, you need to get enough sleep. This is probably why there is a myth that it is best to teach right before bed. But in fact, everything is true exactly the opposite. The best time to memorize information is in the morning. Attempts to memorize any information in the evening can only worsen the effectiveness of memory, as there is a confusion of "daytime" and "evening" information. And the neurohormonal background of the brain is favorable for memorizing just in the morning. At this time, the highest ability to memorize new words, dates, etc. is observed, the person concentrates better.
You can study in your sleep. A large number of teaching methods promise fast sleep learning without wasting a lot of time. In fact, it is possible to teach some skills in sleep with the help of dreams, as well as the "pre-sleep" state and before awakening. But, unfortunately, it is practically impossible to transfer this process to an "industrial" scale. The amount of knowledge learned in a dream is beyond control. In addition, with this method, disturbances in normal sleep patterns are possible. The normal ordering of knowledge in a dream, obtained by the classical method, is a natural process. Interfering with this process through sleep learning can lead to long-term negative consequences and harm to health.
The best way to remember is by doing. Everyone used this method as a child while doing calligraphy. Of course, this method is quite effective in terms of the quality of memorization, but no less demanding on resources (material, time, etc.). For example, you have purchased a new washing machine. You will not independently study all kinds of functions and assignments of buttons, combinations of modes. Most likely, you will read the instructions and, as needed, you will open it again and again. So it is in life: it is not at all necessary to spend it on independent practical training. But in some areas, the principle of memorization through action is really necessary - playing sports, playing musical instruments, dancing, etc.
Training while sleeping is possible. There are many different techniques that promise effective and fast memorization in a dream. Theoretically, it is possible to get some knowledge with the help of dreams, as well as in the state immediately before falling asleep and before awakening. But unfortunately it is impossible to control the amount of information stored in this way. With this method, everything else can disrupt normal sleep patterns. This is due to the fact that in sleep, our brain organizes the information learned during the day, and any interference in this process (attempts to learn in sleep) can lead to long-term negative consequences.
In older people, memory deteriorates. Yes, aging also affects the brain, causing us to lose functioning neurons, and many people over the age of 80 suffer from Alzheimer's disease. But for some reason, not everyone understands that memory must be constantly trained, starting from youth. And then, with age, there will be practically no signs of deterioration.
If a person remembers quickly, then he has a good memory. The fact that you quickly recall the necessary information does not mean a strong memory. The speed of recall is associated with such a memory parameter as retrievability, but the time during which memorized facts are stored depends on the stability of the memory. And these two quantities are not related in any way. Even if we remember quickly, we cannot develop memory stability. Such a misconception exists, perhaps due to the fact that during learning, usually the information that is easier to remember later is remembered better and for a longer time.
If you learn it well once, the information will never be forgotten. This is one of the most common misconceptions about memory. In fact, our long-term memory can store information for a very long time, even for several decades. Of course, it can be assumed that for most people, the storage period of information in half a century can be considered eternal, but from the point of view of physiology, any information tends to be forgotten over time, even in long-term memory.
Our memory is "dimensionless." This misconception probably arises in high school. According to research by scientists, the volume of the human brain is still limited. Although it is possible, one person in a million can memorize the entire Encyclopedia Britannica. In addition, for the long-term memorization of significant amounts of information, a huge number of operations in the human brain are required. And according to statistics, most people remember only about 100 thousand facts in their entire life. And it should be borne in mind that memorizing too much information increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease.
Mnemonics is a unique and effective means of memorization. This is partly true. With the help of mnemonic methods, it is really easier to remember more information in a shorter period of time. But one should not think that information is simply enough to present in the most convenient form using mnemonics, and automatically it will be remembered forever. Such methods allow you to reduce the number of repetitions when memorizing, but they will not be able to force you to instantly memorize large amounts of information.
Man does not forget anything. There are various training programs (for example, a foreign language), which are based on the statement that everything that a person ever learned remains in his memory forever - you just need to be able to find this information. But in fact, you can forget any information, and even your own name. Of course, the probability that this will happen is negligible, but it still exists.
Memory is given to us from birth, and it cannot be changed. Some grasp everything on the fly, but there are people who need a significant amount of time to memorize. Hence, there are beliefs that everything depends on heredity, on parents and other factors. Even some famous psychologists, such as William James, were of this opinion. However, studies have shown that memory can and should be developed with constant training. More capable learners, as a rule, simply know how to transform the information they receive into the form that is easier to remember. Smart people quickly analyze information and organize it so that they remember it quickly and for as long as possible. Everyone can learn this, but the more capable ones do it subconsciously. After completing a one-week course in mnemonics, most students improve their memorization skills. Their brains do not undergo any radical changes, they just learn to handle information more competently. Repetition is the mother of learning.
Thoughtless repetition can negatively affect the memorization process. And the information acquired earlier may suffer from this. Repetition can be effective at specific intervals and with long pauses in between. And everything is purely individual.
Memory can be improved with pills. At the moment, there are no pills that directly improve memory. All drugs considered as such simply improve overall health. They contain small doses of sugar, caffeine, etc. However, you should not count on them.
It is interesting. Renowned professor Jimm Tully has done a lot of research to get a memory pill. And he created something similar. However, such a pill does not capture any specific memories or areas of knowledge, but all memory, all impressions, all muscle, short-term memory - all reactions for a certain period. In psychological science, there is a dilemma of "stability or plasticity". Nature decided it in her own way, and it is very difficult to change.