Man has long since realized the fragility of his life. Global cataclysms that occur from time to time on the planet killed numerous living species. The ideas of the coming apocalypse have always accompanied our civilization. At first, people believed that the gods could kill all mankind for sins, then we began to fear tsunamis, asteroids and epidemics.
But with the development of technology, it turned out that humanity is capable of destroying itself. Nuclear weapons proved to be so powerful that they can destroy entire cities. In those years, people built bunkers, built warehouses in case of a disaster, and learned how to survive in the face of a possible nuclear war.
Today her threat seems to have passed. People, on the other hand, feed on myths about a possible nuclear apocalypse, sometimes exaggerating its danger, sometimes minimizing it.
In the course of the end of the world, everyone will inevitably die. Think how likely it is that you will find yourself right in the middle of a nuclear explosion? From the moment the rocket is launched, the other side overseas has about 40 minutes to react. Do not forget about anti-missile measures that can shoot down a warhead. And at the moment when all means of communication suddenly turned off, the main thing is not to panic, but to think about survival. If possible, you should visit the nearest store and stock up on food. At the same time, it should be understood that cooking with electricity most likely will not succeed. It is worth considering that if this place can be the target of the next blow, then it is worth leaving it. Walking away or hiding between mountains will greatly increase your chances of survival. Many people die simply from injuries caused by broken glass. If you cannot leave the affected area, then you need to attend to the search for a reliable home where you can hide from radioactive fallout. It is true that the salvation of a drowning man is the work of the drowning man himself. Those who really want to survive in the face of an unfolding nuclear catastrophe should take care of this, and not sit idly by.
Most of the people will die in an explosion, heat or radioactive radiation. These factors will quickly destroy about 35% of all people who find themselves in the affected area. Radiation and injury will claim about 40% of people over the next five years. Thus, scientists have come to the conclusion that five after the "end of the world" will survive about 20% of the population. Half will die not at all because of the direct consequences of an atomic catastrophe. The causes of death of most of the population are cited as hunger, disease and anarchy. At the time of the apocalypse, many will live outside the destruction of weapons, while others will generally find themselves in areas untouched by dangerous radiation. So there will always be a small group of people who can restore life to the planet.
You can build a suitable shelter right in your basement. For a number of reasons, basements are not always able to provide the required level of protection. These places can be compared to a board on the water, which is clearly inferior to a lifeboat. Above the basement there will be some planks, a layer of paint, carpet, ceiling sheathing, and tiles. This will not provide the level of protection that a deep earthen cellar or concrete bunker can provide. If you build your own shelter in case of a disaster, then you should create it at least three meters underground and so that there is at least a meter of soil above your head. One of the most overlooked problems is ventilation - there is a risk of carbon dioxide poisoning. Experts advise against building basements near gas pipelines or flammable places. The heat wave from the explosion can cause a fire, which will be difficult to extinguish in a cramped basement. Basements have their advantages - from here it is easy to access the necessary food and clothing that are stored in the house. Being close to home is easier to endure psychologically. But all these advantages fall short of a well-equipped survival center.
It is necessary to filter the air in the shelter to remove unwanted elements. This myth is common about nuclear shelters. People are afraid that the air itself will become radioactive. In fact, this is not true. There will indeed be some contaminated particles in the air, but a carefully designed air intake, even for an unprotected home, will remove most of the problems even before air enters the room. If the problem is so dire, then it is advisable to put a filter on the air intake. The easiest option is to use a damp piece of paper. There are air intakes with automatic valves that react to an explosion. Otherwise, the fresh air supply must be shut off for a few minutes after the bright flash of the explosion. Ventilation ducts should be closed if something is burning nearby - this will protect the room from carbon oxides. True, most shelters do not have the described precautions. The main danger here is carbon monoxide poisoning. So survival experts recommend not to worry about "radiation particles" in the air, but to make the basement reliable and place it away from possible fires.
The water will become radioactive. There are clear instructions for equipping the shelter. You need not only an air pump and a radiation detector, but also a supply of water. It is recommended to store about 60 liters of water for each person accommodated. There is a myth that water will become radioactive, like air. In fact, charged particles in the water are suspended, and that is why it is worth staying in the shelter and using the liquid supply for this period. After reducing the radiation level, it will be possible to use ordinary water, removing sediments from it by distillation and making sure that it is safe. However, in the first stage, it is necessary to use the stored liquid for life.
The radioactivity will quickly disappear. To appreciate the full range of safety issues after a nuclear disaster, you need to be a professional. Nevertheless, the simplest conclusions can be drawn. Some people will probably decide to get out after a few days in cramped conditions, because the dosimeters will show a low level of radiation. However, the error may lie in the fact that the vital organs of a person will be higher than the radiation source. It is known that children receive less radiation simply because of their height. Healthy people can allow babies to play on the ground. This is fraught with illness and quick death. But adults will remain healthy. It's just that the vital organs of children will be for some time longer and closer to weak sources of radiation than the organs of adults.
Radiation sickness is not contagious. This myth states that you should not be afraid to help the victims. On the one hand, it is really impossible to get infected with radiation sickness. But on the other hand, it is really dangerous to be near such patients - radiation does not kill viruses. The radiation attacks white blood cells, which protect the body from infections. Sick people begin to get sick with things that in real life they could easily bear. So the defeat of radiation sickness turns into the danger of epidemics. So during such a period, one must be careful about sanitary measures and observe quarantine.
Radiation makes many foods inedible. Post-nuclear food can really be a problem. But most of the products that are in the house will not be contaminated with harmful radiation. Alpha and beta particles are too small to see. They can be simply washed off the surface of food products with protection - eggs, bananas, vacuum packaging, canned food, potatoes. Foods like cereals in open jars or bags can really suffer. It is better to eat something from a closed container or with a natural covering. It is better to rinse the product under running water and place on a cleaned surface. Before handling food, make sure that both hands and nails are thoroughly washed. The radiation of these particles is so weak that they cannot penetrate the cellophane. It is worth being afraid of getting the smallest particles into the biological system, where they will cause a lot of trouble.
You can protect yourself from radiation with a special suit. Movies often show how you can walk in contaminated areas in special radiation suits. Such a suit is actually a fake, even garbage bags wrapped around the legs and head will be more effective. At least these clothes are disposable. The main purpose of wearing a suit outside is to protect the home from contaminated particles. However, if you take off the robe inside, then the task will not be completed. There are methods for cleaning a suit, but what is applicable in peacetime loses its meaning in wartime. Gamma rays are another matter. They penetrate everything and no radiation suit will protect against them. You need such a thick matter that it will be difficult to lift it, not just walk in it. That is why it is better not to leave the shelter at all during the period of intense radiation.
In the years to come, new food cultures will emerge that will not be radioactive. Food grown on contaminated soil or exposed to radioactive fallout will absorb unwanted particles and become dangerous. The biological food chain shows itself to be an excellent filter and concentrator of radioactive isotopes. For example, in Almagordo, New Mexico, contaminated substances have entered nature. And traces of them were soon found in Utah. And this is about small volumes. And an atomic war or a nuclear explosion not only throw out a huge amount of energy, but also produce essentially new matter, unstable isotopes. Some of them release their energy in seconds and minutes, while others take hours, days, months, or even centuries. The half-life is short for most, which is why it is impossible to survive in the epicenter of an atomic explosion. The isotope of iodine-131 that turned out to be in Utah was absorbed by the bacteria and concentrated by them. Then the substance began to spread along the biological chain, even getting into milk. The isotope eventually ended up in the thyroid glands of children in another state.
You need to have a radioactive pill. Any emergency kit supplied to Russia, Denmark and Sweden contains a simple tablet. But in America it is not for sale. It's actually simple to make. It is necessary to buy potassium iodide at the nearest pharmacy and start pouring it slowly into a quarter glass of water. Do not be afraid to pour. After a while, it will become clear that the substance in the water no longer dissolves, but accumulates at the bottom. This indicates that the water has become saturated. A couple of drops of such a solution should be given to a child, and the dose for an adult should be twice as much. The supplement should be taken once a day for three months after a nuclear explosion. In fact, this is a good defense during this difficult period. The thyroid gland will receive the iodine it needs and give up harmful isotopes.
There are pills for any radiation. I would like to believe in the existence of such a useful product, but it simply does not exist. The aforementioned pill simply blocks the thyroid from being damaged. It is worth remembering that after a nuclear explosion, decay products will be active for days and weeks, and no medicine by itself will protect you from danger.
Radioactivity will persist for thousands of years. When talking about isotopes that have been active for thousands and hundreds of thousands of years, one must understand that they are not particularly harmful. For example, you can draw an analogy with heat. When asked to survive the hit of a million calories, it seems deadly. And the impact of one calorie per year for a million years, we will not notice. The situation is similar with radiation. Most isotopes get rid of radiation like a flare, this happens near the epicenter. Others glow like a light bulb. They need some time to burn, and a person needs protection if he is around. Still others are like nightlights in an apartment - they are barely noticeable and can shine for a long time without much harm to humans.
The radioactivity will disappear in a couple of years. There are some isotopes that do not fit into the categories mentioned. A person knows how to deal with this problem, but these solutions are not easy. The danger of such isotopes lies not in direct exposure to humans, but in their ability to enter the food chain. And they have a relatively short half-life of five to thirty years. This means that these isotopes will be especially active throughout our lives. Fortunately, they are quite rare and dispersed throughout the planet, so the consequences can be ignored. You can protect yourself from getting cesium-137 and strontium-90 into food. So, when growing plants, you should use lime, gypsum or organic matter with calcium. And it is necessary to cultivate those crops that will absorb exactly calcium, and not strontium. There are well-known methods of processing and purifying milk, but the world is not particularly interested in them yet.
A two-week supply of food indicates preparedness for a nuclear disaster. It is very important to know what measures should be taken in advance. What to do after those two weeks? The harvest will soon fail due to climate change, the ozone layer, crop adaptation, crop failures and social disruption. Man knows two main foodstuffs that have no expiration date - wheat and honey. The seeds found in the pyramids were able to germinate. To take care of babies, you need to stock up on powdered milk - it should be understood that it will be difficult for mothers to feed. Nor should salt be underestimated as an important preservative. In addition to wheat, honey, milk powder and salt, it is better to stock up on a variety of seeds. It is equally important to develop certain skills, in particular gardening and hydroponics. It will be useful to learn how to dry and freeze food. So the preparation for a possible apocalypse must go much deeper than just stockpiling random foods.
To survive, you need to be self-sufficient. The best thing a person can come up with for survival is to team up with other skilled people. No man can know everything in the world. Someone is a specialist in agriculture, another is in medicine, and the third is in technology. The equipment that is in organizations is not available to individuals. And during the construction of a shelter, additional expenses for an extra person are small. In a small group, the death of one person greatly reduces the overall chances of survival, and in a large group, support can always be found. The more successful the team is, the more homogeneous it is, from the point of view of individual views on religion, society, and economy. But one should not expect democracy from the refuge, one must unquestioningly obey the elder. The conditions will be tough, but this is how the team can survive, which is unlikely to be possible alone.
The rest of your life will have to be spent underground. There is no clear opinion on how long you will have to live in the shelter. If it is a dugout, then it is unlikely that it will be possible to stay in it longer than absolutely necessary. If we are talking about an underground bunker in the city, then you can live there for the rest of your life - the situation here is similar to the usual. Someone will prefer to live in a shelter for a year or two, until normal houses are built elsewhere. Young children and pregnant women are advised not to rush out of the shelter.
It's not worth living after the atomic apocalypse. Some believe that the world will change a lot, wanting to see it. Others believe that nothing will remain and life will lose its meaning. But how many rich and famous people in life who have all the possibilities, but prefer to commit suicide out of boredom? And someone suffers from physical disabilities all their lives, but finds their charms in existence. Finding the meaning of life and happiness in it is everyone's personal business. Perhaps the catastrophe will give birth to a new Human, disinterested, realizing his true nature? So why not get involved?
There is no need to prepare for a catastrophe - we will either survive or die. A person's thinking rushes from one extreme to another. Either we believe that everything is in our hands, or else we leave fate at the mercy of outside forces. In fact, there is something in between. Nothing can be achieved solely by the will of God. He simply sets some boundaries within which we influence the result.
Modern bombs are so powerful that they will destroy the entire world. In fact, there are enough nuclear weapons in the world to destroy all of humanity. But don't expect the full potential to be exploited. In any case, missile defense, powerful electromagnetic radiation, failures in satellite systems will prevent this. It is difficult to imagine what awaits us in the future, but humanity has come to its senses in recent decades and is doing everything not to perish in a nuclear war. This also applies to the reduction of the arsenal of nuclear weapons.
The government provides the population with adequate training. Even Americans, with their budget, complain about the inaction of the authorities. Colleges are curtailing courses in radiological defense, equipment is no longer being produced, and plans for large-scale evacuation have been destroyed. The authorities spend much more money on military purposes, I don't think about protecting the civilian population in case of defeat. Even if the government found out about an impending nuclear strike, it would prefer to remain silent so as not to create panic. So do not rely on the country's authorities in this matter.
There will be no warning. The fact that the government will not be able to warn its citizens and will not be able to provide them with help does not mean that people are left in the dark. There are many signs that can be perceived and interpreted. Reading this article is already a warning. In an explosion, those who are not in the immediate vicinity will have ample time to save themselves. You just need to be prepared for this.
The first targets of the missiles will be nuclear power plants. Some people have come up with a great excuse for why they shouldn't prepare to survive. Someone thinks that there are so many weapons in the world that everyone will die anyway. But not all of it can be used. Something will be destroyed by the other side, some will misfire. And some believe that they live in an area subject to the first wave of attack - near nuclear power plants. But a bomb detonated next to it will not fundamentally change anything - the amount of radioactive material will not particularly increase. And the station itself will simply be destroyed. If it loses computer control, then a chain reaction will simply begin and an additional release of contaminated particles into the atmosphere will occur. In any case, humanity has no specialists in surviving a nuclear war. Everyone thinks it will be scary, it will take six months just to bury all the dead. But there will remain those who will do this!