Peru (the Republic of Peru, if we talk about the official name of this country) is a state of the South American continent. Peru shares borders with the following states: Chile, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia and Ecuador.
The Peru River gave its name to this state. "Peru" in translation from the language of local Indians means nothing more than "river".
Lima is the capital of the Republic of Peru. The area of this country is 1,285,216 square kilometers. The Pacific Ocean washes Peru on the west side.
Peru has a republican form of government, with a president at the head of state. The supreme legislative body of Peru is the unicameral Congress, and the supreme executive body is the government (which is also headed by the president). Twenty-four regions and one hundred fifty-nine provinces form the administrative units of the Republic of Peru.
Spanish is the official language. English is spoken only in big stores, great hotels and some developed cities.
Ninety percent of the population is Catholic. The ethnic composition of Peru is as follows: half of the population are Peruvians and about forty-nine percent are Indians. Peruvians include Creoles, Mestizos, and Hispanics.
The population was estimated at nearly thirty million as of July 2010, with an annual growth rate of 1.2 percent. Seventy-one percent of the population lives in cities.
New salt is the national currency of Peru. New salt is equal to one hundred centimos.
The average air temperature on the Peruvian coast varies from fourteen to twenty-seven degrees Celsius with a plus sign. In the highlands of the country, the average temperature ranges from nine to eighteen degrees Celsius. It's hot in the jungle: the air, on average, warms up to twenty-five to twenty-eight degrees Celsius.
The largest rivers in Peru are the Marañon and, of course, the Amazon; the largest lake is Titicaca. Peruvians are open-minded and unusually cheerful. All kinds of holidays are often held in Peru.
The national cuisine is also original. Indeed, it is based on the best culinary traditions of almost all continents.
The tourist infrastructure of Peru is very well developed, thanks to which traveling around the country will be distinguished by comfort and, of course, fun. Gratuities, as a rule, are already included in the bill of hotels and restaurants, bars, hairdressers.
Peru is a state with a long history. The history of this country is ranked among the oldest on earth. According to certain data, the first settlements appeared on its territory 10 thousand years ago. One of the oldest civilizations in the world - the civilizations of the Chico tribe - laid the foundation for the Indian history of Peru. The Kingdom of the Incas was the end of the Indian history of this state. The following cultures also left their mark in his chronicle: the Vari, Nazca, Chavin, Paracas, Chimu, Mochica cultures. Currently, there are about one hundred and eighty museums in Peru. A large number of archaeological parks are also located here. These include the Machu Picchu Park (indeed, another wonder of the world, famous all over the world), the mysterious lines of the Nazca desert, as well as almost ruined cities lost in the Andean valleys.
You need a visa to enter Peru. If the duration of the intended stay in Peru (we are talking about a tourist stay) does not exceed ninety days, then the citizens of the Russian Federation can do without a visa. It is also not necessary to apply for a transit visa in advance if the duration of the trip is two days or less. When crossing the Peruvian border, you need to have a passport and return tickets. The passport must be valid for at least six months at the time of entry into the country.
Several vaccinations are recommended before visiting Peru. First, the malaria vaccine. Secondly, when visiting territories with a height of less than two thousand three hundred meters, as well as the Selva region, it is necessary to get vaccinated against yellow fever, in addition, when visiting this area there is some risk of contracting hepatitis B and D. In some areas there are natural foci of the spread of such diseases like rabies and typhoid. As a preventive measure, it is recommended not to buy food in cheap stores or directly on the streets of cities, and also drink only pasteurized milk and bottled water. Despite all this, Peru is one of the safest countries in the South American continent in terms of tourist visits.
Lima is the largest city in Peru. This is so, and the Peruvian capital is at the same time the cultural, political and economic center of the Republic. Lima's area is over eight hundred square kilometers. Together with the suburbs, the area is four thousand three hundred and ten square kilometers. The population of the Peruvian capital is approximately 7.8 million people (together with the population of the suburbs). And this is about thirty percent of the total population of the country. Lima is inhabited by Quechua Indians, Hispanic Peruvians, Japanese, Europeans, mestizos, and Chinese. The official language is recognized not only Spanish, but also the Quechua language.
Peru is an agricultural country. But nevertheless, the mining industry is developed in Peru. The manufacturing industry is also actively developing. Peru is rich in the following natural resources: copper, timber, hydropower, phosphates, coal, iron ore, oil and gas, gold, silver, fish. Per capita gross domestic product as of 2009 amounted to 8.6 thousand dollars. According to this indicator, Peru is in one hundred and fifteenth place among the countries of the world. Unemployment for the same year was nine percent. In 2006, approximately forty-five percent of Peru's population (nearly half) was below the poverty line. The service sector employs seventy-five percent of the working population and accounts for sixty-seven percent of the gross domestic product. Among the crops cultivated by agriculture: corn, potatoes, rice, sugarcane, cotton, cocoa, coffee, asparagus, grapes, peaches, lemons, apples, bananas, guavas, pineapples, oranges, coca, coconuts, medicinal plants, barley, mango , tomatoes, wheat beans. Fishing, meat and dairy farming, poultry farming, and guinea pig breeding are well developed in Peru.
Peru is a country of unique natural resources. This is indeed the case. For example, Peru is home to ten percent of the world's species of mammals and reptiles, twenty percent of all bird species, and eighty-four out of one hundred and four biological zones existing on Earth are located in Peru.
The Republic of Peru is a country of natural contrasts. The length of the sandy coast of the Pacific Ocean (in the language of the Peruvians it is called Costa) in the west of Peru is almost two and a half thousand kilometers. Awesome, but this is one of the driest areas on the planet. The reason for this amazing phenomenon is the cold Humboldt Current (or Peruvian Current) washing the coast. Here, on the edge of the Pacific Ocean, there may not even be a little rain for several years. Thorny bushes and cacti - plants typical of deserts - are buried in the local sands. The Peruvian current is the reason not only for aridity, but also for the abundance of fish waters. The fact is that the bottom waters, which are distinguished by the richness of mineral substances, rise upward - just here a huge number of tiny living beings feel great. The latter are nothing more than fish food. Dozens of rivers, the length of which is not long, cut through the deserted coast. There are oases in the valleys of these short rivers. Fruit trees, cotton and sugar cane grow here. The landscape of the desert Costa is diversified by the beauty of the Peruvian Andes. The mountain system is actually enormous. The world of snow avalanches, glaciers and rocks appears before your eyes. This is the sierra, that is, the mountains. From north to south, the entire central part of Peru is made up of the Sierra. Huascaran is the highest peak. Its height is 6768 meters. The Amazon - the greatest river on the planet - originates here. Thus, the western foothills of the Andes are a tropical desert. As for the eastern foothills of the Andes, they are the complete opposite of the western ones. The eastern foothills are humid equatorial jungles. And if in the west there is no precipitation for several years, then in the east up to 2000 mm of precipitation falls annually. This is selva. A wide variety of exotic animals live here.
The Republic of Peru is the most "Indian" of all American countries. Indians are a significant part of the population of Peru. They communicate with each other in Quechua. Moreover, it was the Quechua tribe that greatly influenced the formation of the ancient Inca culture. In the basin of Lake Titicaca, about eight thousand years ago, the Quechua Indians formed an agricultural center, which is now recognized as one of the oldest on the planet. The Indians even grew potatoes on arable land, and as they developed, they developed cultivars of cotton, peanuts, beans and corn. The Quechua Indians managed to tame the llama. Thus, a center for animal husbandry emerged in America. In the period between the fifth and eighth centuries, the Quechua Indians mastered the construction of stone, and after a few more centuries they created irrigation canals, the length of which not only reached one hundred kilometers, but sometimes even exceeded this value. There was also a water supply. The Indians learned to smelt metals from ore, to mold vessels from clay. They used an alloy of gold with copper and silver, as well as bronze, for the manufacture of various objects. The potter's wheel was not used. In addition to clay vessels, the Indians made figurines of people and animals. An interesting fact is that some of the roads built by the Incas five centuries ago can be seen today. The width of the two main roads is four to five meters. Kipa belongs to the inventions of the Quechua Indians. In their language, this word means "knot". The kipa is, in this case, a stunning knotted letter. Quechua took a thick cord or stick. They tied shoelaces to him (or her). The color of the latter could be different. At different distances from each other, knots were tied on these multi-colored laces. Often, the bundle contained an object. It could be a bean, grain, or a small pebble. It is interesting that in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries professional kipu reciters worked, they understood the "books" of Quechua. Currently, the Quechua Indians have settled mainly in the selva and the Sierra. Crafts and agriculture are their activities. The Indians make amazing pottery: after all, they use the centuries-old skills of this skill. Many Quechua Indians are employed in factories and mines.
Peru is good to visit in summer. This is not true. With the onset of May, Peru has a dull season. The most unfavorable month in this regard is August. Late autumn, winter and early spring (in Peru) are periods of inhospitable weather. At this time it is cloudy, the sun does not come out from behind the clouds at all. Visitors always have a feeling that it might start to rain, but locals know that it won't rain for several months. This is due to the saturation of the air with moisture. In August, air temperatures often drop below thirteen degrees Celsius. Dampness due to 100% humidity permeates everything and everyone, creates an atmosphere of cold. It is surprising that in such a nondescript weather, sometimes there are days when the sky is blue. These days the sun is incredibly strong. Peruvians, of course, refuse winter clothes, which they were forced to wear because of the cold, and take out sunglasses from secluded places. Thus, there can be only one day between "winter" and "summer" in Peru. Most often, nature gives local residents such gifts at the end of June. Moreover, in Peru there is not only a contrast of natural conditions in time, but also their contrast in the geographical dimension. The fact is that the canopy of heavy clouds drags the sky almost only over the Peruvian coast. Indeed, this canopy is not wide at all. If you drive only twenty to thirty kilometers away from the coast towards the mountains, then the cloudy day will suddenly change so hot that a person will not think about how to dress warmly, but about where to find a shade to hide from the scorching sun rays.
Cusco is a city where two cultures intersect. So it was five hundred years ago, and it remains so to this day. The city has a lot to tell about its colonial past. On the streets of Cuzco, you can see many churches from the colonial period. The area around San Vlas has remained unchanged for several centuries. Many artisans and artists lived here. The fact that Cusco is an ancient city is reminiscent of its architecture. Cobbled streets and red tiled roofs add color to Cusco. The Urubamba Valley stretches twenty-eight kilometers from the city. She is nestled at the foot of Chicon Peak, snow-covered and majestic. The Urubamba Valley was protected by mountains on all sides. The climate is mild. It has a beneficial effect not only on the cultivation of vegetables and fruits (agriculture for the inhabitants of the valley was commonplace long before the Spanish expansion), but also has a very beneficial effect on human health and well-being. And thirty kilometers from Cusco, you can get acquainted with another city of Peru. This is the ancient city of Pisak (on the slope of the mountain you can see the ruins of a fortress built long before our century). It is small in size, located in the valley of the Villaconta River. The nature of the city is amazing. However, not only it attracts tourists to visit Pisak. There is a Sunday market here. Knitted bags, ponchos, runners, homespun carpets and other products of labor of Indians from the mountain villages are welcome purchases for many tourists.
Manu is a National Park in Peru. In terms of area, this park occupies one and a half million hectares. The National Park contains thirteen species of monkeys. Among them are seven types of macaques. Alligators, jaguars, eagles and other animals also live in the park at large (in natural conditions for animals). The Inca Trail runs through the territory of the National Park, which adds attractiveness to Manu in the eyes of tourists.
Puno is a city of unchanging appearance. The year of its foundation is considered to be 1668. Since the seventeenth century, indeed, not much has changed. Semi-handicraft production, one-story houses, small population - all this is evidence of urban history. The Spaniards, Aymara and Quechua are three peoples, at the intersection of whose cultures the city of Puno emerged. Puno is currently the center of the department. Puno is interesting in historical and archaeological terms; the necropolis of Silustani is located thirty-four kilometers from the city. The area of the necropolis is four thousand meters. The local landscape in the best way possible emphasizes the majesty of the twelve-meter buildings, which are round in shape and built of stone.
Nazca is a mysterious desert.It is located in the south of the Republic of Peru. The Nasco Desert has been hiding its secret for more than one century. Could people, in previous times, passing through the desert, think that they had geometric shapes and amazing drawings under their feet? These people could not think in this way because from the earth's surface (from the height of human eyes) figures and drawings are invisible. They are gigantic in size. You can see them only when you rise above the surface of the earth. Without doing this, it is impossible to understand that the lines under your feet mean something, go somewhere and generally represent something. Nazca keeps a real monument of antiquity. The giant drawings, which were only seen in the twentieth century, depict a spider, monkey, whale, birds, even a human figure. The archaeologist M. Ksespe became the discoverer of the drawings. In 1927, a Peruvian explorer unexpectedly saw them from a steep mountainside. This event caused the emergence of all sorts of theories trying to explain the phenomenon of drawings; even talked about foreign interference. One such theory was that drawings in antiquity were something vaguely reminiscent of modern runways. In 1939, P. Kosok, an American historian, began to study the mysteries of the Peruvian Andes. Thanks to his work, drawings of the Nazca desert became widely known - some of them were captured in photographs from an airplane. P. Kosok put forward a hypothesis according to which the mysterious lines represent the astronomical calendar. The lines of ancient drawings, in his opinion, show the way to some stars. Another explanation for the drawings that existed in the twentieth century is their magical purpose. Some researchers were convinced that during religious rites, ancient people climbed up in balloons. The symbols that remained on the ground were clearly visible to them from a bird's eye view. Some researchers came to the conclusion that drawings are a path, that is, a kind of ritual route, having passed which, people got the opportunity to penetrate into the essence of the image depicted in a particular drawing.
The territory of Peru is professionally interesting for archaeologists. This is true. The following fact can be cited in confirmation of this statement. In 2008, a unique letter was found in Peru. Its age is about four hundred years, but it was written, most likely by a Spanish author, in a language practically unknown to science, and then it was lost for several centuries. This language was used during the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries by some peoples of the Peruvian territory. It took about two years to decipher the meaning of what was written. The compiler of the letter translated Spanish numbers into an unknown language. Most likely, the basis for this unknown language was the language of the Quechua tribe.
The national cuisine of the Republic of Peru is distinguished by its diversity. It is perhaps worthy of being included in the Guinness Book of Records. The national cuisine of Peru retains the traditions of both Inca and Spanish cuisine. A tourist who comes to Peru should try sebiche. The base of this dish is either raw fish or crustaceans. The latter are served with a vegetable side dish or onions, and in lemon juice. The ahi de gallina dish is especially popular in Peru. It is made from chicken and served with a slightly spiced sauce. Kui is meant for the thrill-seekers. It is made from guinea pig, which is either fried or stewed. Saltado is popular in the Republic of Peru. The basis of this dish is vegetables. They are cooked in the oven with the addition of various spices. Peruvian cuisine has a rich assortment of all kinds of dishes to suit all tastes. Kaarpuchu is a spicy potato soup. Costa Brava is a seafood soup. Peas and onions are added during the cooking process. And the main ingredients for the next dish - huancaina papas - are processed cheese, potatoes and lemon juice. Among the drinks in Peru, yerba mate (or just mate) is widely popular. It is tea. Mint tea. This tea is not only delicious, but also helps to improve the functioning of the digestive tract. Very often mate is poured into special containers. They are vessels made from pre-dried pumpkin. They drink this drink through a straw. As desserts in Peru, fruits are often used, which are abundant in this country. It is a tuna cactus, a nut-like delight fruit, a juicy green chirimoya fruit. A fruit pudding called Masamorra morada has been known since the colonial period. Pudding often completes a meal and is one of the locals' favorite foods.