Mumps (mumps) is a viral disease. The disease is spread by airborne droplets.
The incubation period of mumps in most cases varies from fourteen to twenty-one days - the risk of infection with mumps takes a period from two days before the increase in glands in size and ending with the patient's complete recovery.
Children are more susceptible to mumps. In infants, however, in the first months of their life, immunity from mumps from the mother is preserved. After suffering from mumps, strong immunity is developed against this disease.
Statistics show that about fifty thousand people get sick with mumps every year in the Russian Federation.
Mumps is one of the most common infectious diseases. Mumps infection is transmitted from one person to another by airborne droplets. Usually, the mumps virus is excreted along with saliva, but it can also be transmitted through infected objects (for example, dishes, clothes, toys). The virus can be transmitted from mother to child in utero.
Mumps is a childhood disease. It is much more common in childhood than in adults. Mumps disease is highly susceptible to children aged three to fifteen years. More often boys get sick with mumps - about one and a half times more often than girls. However, adults under the age of 40 can also get mumps, in this case, as a rule, the course of mumps is more severe (than in childhood).
For mumps, the presence of a prodromal period is characteristic. The prodromal period does not last long. This period is accompanied by fatigue, irritability, and headaches. The patient's appetite decreases, sore throat appears, and the temperature rises. There is some swelling of the parotid gland.
The onset of mumps is acute. The temperature rises sharply and varies from 38 ° and above. Mumps is characterized by moderate intoxication. This means that the child feels weak and unwell, he sometimes has a toothache in addition to a headache. Pain can occur in joints and ears. Suppuration of the glands, as a rule, is not observed in patients with parotitis.
With parotitis, the left side is affected. This is typical for the very onset of the disease. However, after a period of one to three days, the second side is also affected - as a rule, the second side is affected. The disease can spread both to the parotid glands and to the sublingual and submandibular glands. On the fourth or fifth day of mumps, the temperature begins to decrease. The patient complains less about the general condition. The salivary glands return to their normal size.
Mumps can cause complications. They are mainly associated with the fact that the pathological process begins to cover other glands of the body (not only the salivary glands) - for example, the pancreas. Its inflammation is characterized by pain in the upper abdomen. Vomiting is common. As a result, diabetes mellitus sometimes develops. One of the complications of mumps is pancreatitis. The disease can develop four to seven days after the first signs of mumps appear. It is characterized by severe abdominal pain. A common occurrence is nausea and vomiting, which is repeated many times. Fever is also common in patients. Some patients may experience symptoms of peritoneal irritation. The symptoms of pancreatitis persist in the patient for a period of seven to ten days. However, the increased activity of urine amylase can persist for a month. Lesions can affect the central nervous system. In this case, meningitis (that is, inflammation of the lining of the brain) may occur. The course of meningitis is most often benign. Sometimes (quite rarely) the auditory nerve can be affected. If this happens, your hearing may be impaired. The defeat can also affect the genitals: in the event that mumps occurs during puberty (or in adulthood). As a result, it leads to orchitis - inflammation of the testicles - in boys, to inflammation of the ovaries - in girls. Thus, mumps can have a negative effect on the salivary glands, the endocrine system of the body, and the nervous system.
The peak of the disease with mumps occurs in the autumn and winter. This is due to the fact that the causative agent of mumps at low temperatures can be in an active state for a long period of time. When the pathogen of mumps enters the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, it begins to multiply intensively. Then the causative agent of this disease enters the bloodstream, thanks to which it spreads throughout the body. The causative agent of mumps accumulates in the gonads and salivary glands, causing inflammation.
Mumps leads to male infertility. Not always. In the event that mumps gave a complication and orchitis developed, then in 10% of cases, in fact, an inability to fertilize, that is, infertility, may develop.
Inflammation of the salivary glands is dangerous. Rather unpleasant. Mumps as such is not dangerous, but its complications are dangerous. True, they do not appear so often, but they do occur.
Mumps get sick once. Indeed, after suffering from mumps, there is a persistent immunity to this disease. However, cases of repeated illness with mumps are still known, although they happen extremely rarely.
Mumps requires hospital treatment. This is not always the case. Mild to moderate mumps can be successfully treated at home. However, if mumps is severe, hospitalization is necessary. Absolutely all patients in whom mumps are accompanied by damage to the central nervous system, orchitis or pancreatitis are subject to hospital treatment. In all children's institutions in which at least one case of mumps is detected, quarantine is established within twenty-one days.
Treatment of mumps is aimed at eliminating the cause of its occurrence. Not at all, on the contrary, etiotropic (just aimed at eliminating the cause) treatment of mumps is not prescribed. The most important step in treating mumps is to prevent complications of the disease from developing. It is recommended that bed rest be kept for at least ten days after the onset of the disease. Statistics show that those men who in the first week gave up bed rest have a risk of orchitis three times higher than those who followed bed rest. When mumps occurs, it is important to maintain proper nutrition - in order to prevent the development of pancreatitis (a dairy-plant diet is desirable. If pancreatitis has not been prevented, then the treatment of this disease includes a liquid sparing diet, cold on the stomach, atropine, papaverine. As a rule, favorable.When meningitis occurs, the patient is prescribed a course of treatment with corticosteroids.
For the prevention of mumps, a live vaccine is used. Vaccination is mandatory for children aged fifteen months to seven years, who. Naturally, mumps were not transferred to an earlier period of time. The mumps vaccine is done once and can be done either by the intradermal method or by the subcutaneous method. Those children who have been in direct contact with a sick mumps and do not have persistent immunity to this disease can be urgently vaccinated against epidemic pancreatitis. The duration of the vaccine is approximately twelve years. Vaccination reactions usually do not occur. Contraindications to vaccination against mumps are allergy to aminoglycosides, immunodeficiency states, pregnancy.