Pablo Ruiz Picasso (1881 - 1973) - Spanish painter, sculptor, graphic artist, ceramist, designer. The founder of Cubism (the volumetric body was depicted in the original manner as a series of planes combined together) together with Georges Braque (French artist).
Picasso is recognized by experts as the most expensive artist. In 2008, sales from his paintings totaled $ 262 million. The painting "Nude, Green Leaves and Bust" was sold at Christie's on May 4, 2010 for $ 106.482 million and became the most expensive work of art ever sold in the world.
According to the results of a sociological poll conducted by the newspaper "The Times", Picasso was named the best artist among those who lived in the last century. His paintings rank first in "popularity" among kidnappers.
Picasso was born dead. Not certainly in that way. The birth was difficult, and the baby was born so weak that the midwife considered him dead. She left it on the table and went to tell her mother the bad news. The nephew was saved by his uncle, Don Salvado. Seeing the motionless child on the table, he blew cigarette smoke into the boy's face. The newborn began to cry.
The artist's full name is Pablo Ruiz Picasso. According to Spanish tradition, he received two surnames, according to the first surnames of his parents: father - Ruiz and mother - Picasso. The full name that the artist received at his baptism: Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuseno Maria de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santisima Trinidad Martyr Patricio Ruiz and Picasso.
Picasso started painting very early. Yes it is. At the age of 9, he painted his first serious oil painting, Picador, which he never parted with throughout his life. The painting depicted a rider on a horse who took part in a bullfight. At the age of 15, Picasso opened his first "academic painting" - it depicted his family at the altar. The boy had no other talents. Even by the end of school, he read and considered poorly. But the drawings of the young artist delighted everyone.
Picasso was a terrible student. Yes it is. His father sent Pablo to study at the Madrid Royal Academy of San Fernando. Picasso surpassed his fellow students and even senior students in talent. But he was irritable, did not tolerate orders from teachers. For which he was often punished and sat in a special isolation ward "calaboose". It was a completely white room so that nothing would distract the guilty from thinking about his behavior. Pablo really liked being there - after all, in this room no one interfered with his drawing. However, he quickly threw the academy and went to conquer Paris.
Picasso stole the Mona Lisa. No, it’s not. In 1911, the famous painting "Mona Lisa" by Leonardo da Vinci was stolen from the Louvre. The police arrested the poet and friend of Picasso, Guillaume Apollinaire (French poet, real name Wilhelm Albert Vladimir Alexander Apollinary Vonge-Kostrovitsky). And he pointed to Pablo. Picasso was questioned. But since the information was not confirmed, he was released. In fact, "La Gioconda" was stolen by the carpenter Vincenzo Perugia, who worked in the museum. He took out the picture, hiding it under his clothes. The canvas was found in 1913. The piece was kept in a double-bottom suitcase; the thief was unable to sell it.
The artist was afraid to get his hair cut. In adulthood, Pablo did not like to get a haircut, and talking about a haircut made him panic. The longer the hair grew, the more difficult it was for Picasso to decide on a trip to the hairdresser. He ended up locking himself in the room and cutting his own hair. He never threw away his cut hair and nails, but kept them, since he considered it a divine part of himself.
Picasso was cowardly. In order not to go to the army, he begged his father to bribe an official. When the uprising began in Cuba, the artist fled to the mountains to sit there until everything calms down. Most of all, Pablo was afraid of getting cancer. And Françoise Gilot, one of his close companions, had to convince him of this every day. He was afraid to be ridiculed (the figure was disproportionate), therefore he was afraid to go to tailors, and his clothes were often worn out to holes.
Pablo Picasso was superstitious. Here are some of the signs that the brush master believed in. He never gave his things to anyone, believing that he could turn into the person to whom he gave them. He believed that an open umbrella in the house brings trouble. And if someone opened an umbrella, the artist made the poor man walk around the room with fingers joined together and shout "Lagarto! Lagarto!" Throwing a hat on the bed for Picasso was a sure sign that someone in the house was about to die.
The artist led a promiscuous sex life. Picasso began visiting brothel at the age of 14. Not shining with external data, he enjoyed success with the ladies. He had a kind of sexual magnetism and always used it. In brothels, the "pop-eyed little man" (height 158 cm), as he was called there, learned all kinds of depraved love. This lifestyle led to the fact that at the age of 20, Pablo got syphilis and problems with potency. A long treatment followed, the artist began to work to the point of exhaustion. The venereal disease has left its mark on the artist's worldview. Pablo began to write on the margins of his drawings depicting "nude" the phrase ("Cuando tengas ganas a joder, jode" ("When you want to <...> go, - <...> is")), which many biographers interpret as life principle of sexually preoccupied Pablo Picasso.
"Sacred monster" - that is what Picasso was called. Yes it's true. His love for women was cruel and sadistic. Many beloved Picassos committed suicide or went crazy. Maria-Teresa Walter - hanged herself, Jacqueline Rock - went to the monastery, and shot herself at speed, Olga Khokhlova - went crazy. He loved passionately, but his love killed women. When one of the last mistresses, Genevieve Laporte, left the genius, Jean Cocteau told her that she made such a decision in time and this decision, perhaps even saved her life. For Picasso, there were two types of women: goddesses and foot rags. In the beginning they were all goddesses, but not for long. As soon as a woman became pregnant or fell ill, the "monster" immediately lost interest in her. For example, Françoise Gilot, who bore him two children - a son, Claude and a daughter, Palom, was constantly bullied by Pablo. When she fell ill, the artist kept repeating that he hated sick women. He easily deleted wives and mistresses from his life. And he believed that every time you change your wife, you need to "burn" the previous one.
Picasso invented Cubism. In 1906 - 1907, Pablo Picasso, together with his friend Georges Braque (artist, graphic artist, set designer, sculptor and decorator) created a new avant-garde direction in painting - "cubism" (the objects being drawn are presented in the form of combinations of regular geometric volumes: a cube, a ball, a cylinder, cone). The first painting by Picasso in this style "The Maidens of Avignon" (1907). The term "cubism" arose and was firmly entrenched thanks to the art critic Louis Vausel (1908), after he called Braque's paintings "cubic quirks" (fr. Bizarreries cubiques).
The artist was fabulously rich during his lifetime. Pablo Picasso said that he didn’t care if he ever became rich or not. The main thing for him was to live like a millionaire. Picasso made millions of dollars annually. He was a workaholic, during his life created 1,885 paintings, 1,228 sculptures, 7,089 drawings, 30,000 graphic works, 150 sketchbooks and 3,222 ceramics. After his death (1973), he left real estate, which was estimated at $ 1.1 billion. Almost all his creative life (and success came to him at the age of 13), Picasso enjoyed luxury and celebrity. His paintings are still invaluable today.
Pablo Picasso was distinguished by an unusual stinginess. The artist did not want to share his wealth and fame with anyone. He never lent to anyone, did not do charity work. Rarely was it possible to persuade him to help very close people. Marina Picasso, the artist's granddaughter (memoir "Picasso. My Grandfather") recalled how one day, when she was nine years old, she was taken to a doctor. Marina then fell ill from exhaustion. The doctor was surprised that the granddaughter of such a wealthy grandfather was exhausted and sent her to a medical center. My grandfather paid for the treatment, but it took a very long time to persuade him. Picasso parted with his first wife Olga Khokhlova in 1935, but did not dissolve the marriage until her death (1955). So that as a result of the divorce, he does not transfer to his wife half of the jointly acquired property since 1918. Picasso left no will.
Picasso did not like to sell his paintings. Picasso bought himself a house where he lived and worked until he filled it completely with works. Then the house was locked and moved to a new one. He turned his houses into warehouses that were not guarded. No one has ever tried to rob these houses. There were about ten such houses. He often made bottle plugs from his sketches. After his death, a team of appraisers toured the country for two years, discovering abandoned dwellings and describing works of art. When attorney Pierre Cecri was provided with a column of armored trucks and all the works were put together for the first time (in the National Bank vault), those present were horrified. Mountains of priceless creations, all created by one person.
Picasso had many wives and four children. There were two official marriages. The artist married the first time in 1918 to the Russian dancer Olga Khokhlova. The only legitimate son from his first marriage is Paulo. The second legal wife is Jacqueline Roque from 1961 to 1973 (the year of the artist's death). There were no children from the second marriage. Picasso had a lot of novels. One of the first serious hobbies of Picasso was an affair with the laundress Fernanda Olivier. A new period has begun in creativity - "pink". The artist admired his muse and demanded that she do nothing, but create a sensual atmosphere in the studio. He lived with her for 9 years. The next mistress was Marcel Humbert. They met in 1911 in the Parisian cafe "Hermitage". In 1915, Marcel fell ill and died. Married to Olga Khokhlova, Pablo Picasso starts an affair with the young Maria Teresa Walter. Maria Walter was his companion until 1939. The novel becomes known after the birth of his daughter Maya. Pablo Picasso met Dora Maar in 1935. She became a co-author of the famous painting "Guernica". This is evidenced by hundreds of negatives and contact prints found in her personal archive. Their romance lasted seven years. Françoise Gillot was his official illegitimate wife from 1943 to 1953. She gave birth to the artist's son Claude and daughter Paloma. The story of Françoise Gilot is unique in that after 10 years with Picasso, she left him and lived a bright life.
Picasso had a special affection for Russia. Yes, there were many things that connected the artist with Russia. It was a fruitful union. This began with a meeting with Shchukin (a Moscow merchant and collector). He was the first and main buyer of the master's paintings. Sergei Ivanovich Shchukin immediately bought two canvases of the then unknown artist, paying a decent amount for those times. Thanks to this, Picasso was able to rent a new workshop in Montparnasse, near the famous Rotunda cafe. In total, Shchukin's collection included over fifty paintings by the famous master. Sergei Ivanovich became a kind of "godfather" of Picasso. Therefore, the artist began to feel a special affection for the Russian philanthropist, as well as for everything that concerned Russia. The master's pride and approving remarks about him by Russian art critics and philosophers were amusing. Pablo Picasso gained popularity after the scandalous premiere of Diaghilev's play "Parade", which took place in 1917. For the play, Diaghilev (critic, theater and art figure) first ordered a special curtain painted by Pablo Picasso. The artist's name began to appear on all programs and posters of the Russian Ballet. Picasso began to work on other sets for the performances "Pulcinella", "Tricorne" and others. The artist is interested in exhibitions of Russian art in Paris, reads works of Russian playwrights (Leo Tolstoy, Dostoevsky, Gogol, Lermontov, etc.), attends performances of Russian troupes in Paris. Pablo Picasso spoke Russian well. The artist's first wife was also Russian.