Rock climbing (English rock climbing - "climbing a rock", "climbing on rocks") is a sport that consists in moving (climbing) on artificial (climbing walls) or natural rocks. At first it was classified as a kind of mountaineering, nowadays it is an independent sport called "sport climbing" (English sport climbing) and is a climbing competition held according to certain rules.
Rock climbing, i.e. various ways to overcome rocky terrain in order to develop new habitats and solve various kinds of problems (finding a way in the mountains, hunting, etc.) in mountainous areas arose a long time ago, but as a sport, a kind of active recreation and a way of self-affirmation began to be positioned only in the 19th century.
Rock climbing in their free time was practiced in some European countries (for example, in Germany - in the area of the Tsitaus mountains and Saxon Switzerland, Austria - in the Tyrolean Alps, Scotland, Ireland, etc.) and in Russia (on the Krasnoyarsk pillars - the so-called "stolism "). In the 20th century, this sport and recreation began to gain popularity in the United States (Yosemite National Park is the best suited for this). Today, there are more than 2,500 climbing areas in the world.
The world's first official competition in this sport (with rules, regulations, program) was held in 1947 in the Caucasus (Dombai rocks) by the head of the training unit of the Molniya mountaineering camp, Ivan Iosifovich Antonovich. The rules for this kind of competition were approved in 1949. The USSR rock climbing championship was held for the first time in 1955 in the Crimea (Krestovaya rock) and from 1965 to 1991 climbers regularly had the opportunity to compete for the right to receive the title of USSR champion.
The first international competition with the participation of athletes from Poland, Romania. Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, West Germany, France, Switzerland, Yugoslavia, Japan, etc. took place in Gagra in 1976 and took place in Crimea regularly every 2 years until 1984. Youth rock climbing began to develop in 1982.
The climbing competition was first held in 1985 in Italy, in the Olympic town of Bardonecchia (Valle Stratta rocks). In 1986, the international rock climbing competitions held in Yalta received the status of an unofficial European Cup.
The World Cup in this sport was first held in 1988, and in 1989, the International Federation of Mountaineering and Climbing decided to hold competitions of this kind exclusively on climbing walls, because the stage of this competition, held in the same year in Yalta on the rocks, was the last in history.
The World Climbing Championship was first held in 1991 in Frankfurt am Main (FRG). In 1992, the first youth world championship was held in Basel (Switzerland) and the first European championship in Frankfurt am Main (Germany).
World climbing federations and associations:
• The International Union of Mountaineering Associations (fr. Union Internationale des Associations d'Alpinisme - UIAA), also called the International Organization of Mountaineering Associations, was created in 1932 in Chamonix (France) by eighteen national mountaineering associations. In 1995, the UIAA was admitted to the IOC, and in 2002 prepared the Olympic dossier and initiated the inclusion of rock climbing in the program of the Olympic Games. Within the International Union of Mountaineering Associations, the International Council for Competition Climbing (ICC) was formed in 1997 to give this sport autonomy;
• The International Federation of Sport Climbing (IFSC) was founded on January 27, 2007 in Frankfurt am Main (Germany) by 68 federations of different countries. Currently, this organization has 88 organizations from 76 countries of the world.
Sport climbing in the following disciplines:
• Climbing difficulty - the most popular type of rock climbing, in which the main task of the athlete is to climb to the top or top (English top - "summit") in a certain time (from 4 to 15 minutes depending on the complexity of the route). The number of attempts is one, the type of belay is the lower one (i.e. the climber, during the ascent, clamps the rope into the guy hooks placed in the pre-hammered hooks or bolts, and the belayer at the bottom of the rock controls the rest of the rope, giving out as much as needed, or holding it in case of a climber breakdown). Before the ascent, the athlete can inspect the track - he is given 5 minutes for this. Places between the participants of the competition are distributed taking into account the height they have reached and the time spent on it. Competitions can be held on climbing walls not lower than 18-22 meters. This sport originated in Western Europe, and in France they preferred climbing on pre-prepared reference points, and in England the athlete created such points for himself - threads (English trad, from tradition - "traditional") in the process of overcoming the distance;
• Speed climbing is a type of rock climbing in which athletes try to overcome a certain section of the track in a minimum amount of time. There are both individual walkthroughs and pair races. Insurance type - top. Speed climbing was officially recognized as a form of climbing by the Rock Climbing Commission of the UIAA in 1987. This discipline originated in 1947 in the Soviet Union, and gained wide popularity, first in Russia and the countries of Eastern Europe, and nowadays in the countries of Asia. Moreover, juniors take part most willingly in competitions of this kind, but older athletes prefer other types of climbing. In international competitions, the height of the speed climbing trails is 10-27 meters. The reference track for this kind of competition was created in 2005.
• Bouldering (English bouldering, from boulder - "boulder") - climbing rocks of low height. In this case, insurance is organized either gymnastic, or by laying special mats or crash pads (English crash pad - "shock-absorbing mat", boulder mat - "boulder mats"), placed under the rock at the place of a possible fall of the athlete. It takes 4 to 6 minutes to overcome the route, the number of attempts is not limited. The aforementioned type of rock climbing appeared in the city of Boulder (Colorado, USA), next to which there are many blocks from 3 to 6 meters in height. Nowadays, competitions in this kind of sport are held both on natural terrain and on specially equipped climbing walls, the height of which can be no more than 3-5 meters.
• Climbing on natural terrain along prepared routes, that is, on rocky areas, cleared of stones, with organized upper and lower belay. To ensure it, climbing hooks hammered into the cracks of the rock mass are used, into the eyelet at the end of which a carabiner is snapped - a safety rope (or steel cable) will subsequently be passed through it, the upper end of which is fixed on the ledges of rocks or trees. Bolt hooks (bolts) are also used, which are driven into specially drilled holes in the rock mass. A rock hammer (icebeil) is used to drive the hooks into a crack or prepared hole;
• Climbing on natural terrain along unprepared routes - in fact, a kind of mountaineering, which uses the methods of belaying and climbing rocks used by climbers (intermediate belay points organized by the athlete moving in front, climbing in conjunction with the organization of alternate belay, etc.);
• Jumping (English jumping - "jumping") - not officially recognized form of rock climbing, involving jumping from one point of support (hook) to another. Insurance - crash pads, gymnastic. The rules for these competitions have not yet been clearly formulated, however, the competitions usually take place like this: at first a simple jump, the next one is somewhat more difficult, then it is even more difficult, etc. Moreover, each time the top moves further and further from the starting hold. Competitors are given several attempts and a limited amount of time. Athletes who were able to reach the top go to the next round, and the one who can jump the longest distance (taking into account the attempts spent on this) wins;
• On-sight (translated from English - "right there", "immediately", "immediately") - a type of rock climbing, which involves passing the route on the first attempt and without preparation. The goal of the athlete is to complete the maximum possible number of tracks in the minimum period of time. The most famous competitions for this type of rock climbing are On-sight Marathon;
• Multipitch (English multi-pitch from multi - "many", pitch - "the distance between something, in rock climbing - between two points (bases) of the route") - climbing in bundles along long tracks, on which several bases are installed (intermediate belay stations). At the bases, the leader in the bunch swaps places with the athlete who was the second (his duties, among other things, are charged with collecting the hooks and tabs left by the athlete first in the bunch). Most often, routes for rock climbing of this kind are prepared in advance ("punched", that is, they organize reliable belay by driving in reliable hooks or bolts);
Extreme rock climbing:
• Solo (English solo climbing from solo - "single", climbing - "ascent") - moving on rocks of natural origin without belay and alone. Deep-water solo (English deep-water - "deep water") - solo climbing on rocks located above the water;
• Free climbing (English "free ascent") - rock climbing without the use of any aids (for example, suspended devices for rest, belay, etc.);
• Bildering (English bildering, is a hybrid word consisting of building - "building" and bouldering - "climbing boulders") - climbing on the outer wall of buildings of various kinds (abandoned houses, skyscrapers, bridges, etc.) ... Founder - Harry Gardiner, back in 1916, was engaged in building and received the nickname "man-fly". Today climbing buildings is very popular in England, Germany, France, Holland. The first world championship in building took place in Cologne in the mid-80s of the last century, athletes competed in the speed and efficiency of conquering the sheer walls of buildings.
Only extreme climbers can do without the use of various devices. In sports climbing, various kinds of equipment are used (individual belay systems and belay devices, ropes, guy wires, carabiners, bags with magnesium, etc.).
Mountaineering and rock climbing are the same thing. In the past, rock climbing and mountaineering were really one thing. However, these days rock climbing has become a separate sport. Climbing competitions are often held not in the mountains, but on specially equipped climbing walls, or on completely safe routes, cleared of stones in advance and provided with belay devices. The length of such a "path" usually does not exceed 10-15 meters, and to overcome it, it is enough to study some techniques and complex movements. Therefore, many are engaged in sports climbing just to keep themselves in shape, and there are almost no age restrictions in this sport - children from 5-6 years old are allowed to practice on climbing walls.
Climbers, on the other hand, move along the natural relief, protecting each other. Their path is much more dangerous, since usually the length of the route is calculated in kilometers, respectively, it takes more than one day to overcome such a distance. And the route goes not only on rocks of one type or another, but also on snow, ice, ground, therefore climbers must have the skills not only rock climbing, but also ice climbing, moving on snow, crumbling soil, etc. In addition, one should be aware of the effects of various weather conditions (strong wind, snow, rain, avalanches), the influence of which climbers, especially those exercising at climbing walls, do not experience. Taking into account the above factors, climbers prepare not only to overcome certain obstacles that stand in the way, but also learn how to survive in various conditions. They study the rules of behavior during a rockfall or avalanche, methods of first aid, setting up a temporary camp (tent, and sometimes on a completely sheer cliff, or in caves), cooking, etc. And the degree of risk and responsibility for their actions is higher here, and the burden is much greater. Therefore, only people who have reached the age of twenty can start mountaineering.
In order to practice rock climbing, you need to go to the mountainous terrain. This state of affairs took place until the middle of the last century. However, these days it is absolutely not necessary to go to the mountains - in many cities there are specially equipped climbing walls where you can train all year round and in any weather.
Climbing gyms are stationary structures. The climbing wall, which is a metal frame from 3 to 30 meters in height, on which plywood or fiberglass boards are fixed, imitating the natural relief, is excellent for climbing competitions. However, structures of this kind are not necessarily permanent. There are also mobile climbing walls, which can be assembled on any dry and level site, and are often used for promotions, some types of competition or extreme shows.
While climbing, you can train exclusively on the climbing walls - after all, all major competitions take place there. This is indeed the case - most sport climbing competitions take place on climbing walls, where all participants are on an equal footing. It is more convenient for spectators to watch athletes, and the media do not experience difficulties covering this event, and for sponsors such types of competitions are more attractive. In addition, there is no damage to the environment - there is no need to specially prepare the track, sometimes damaging the rock mass of natural origin. However, during training, many athletes prefer to exercise on natural terrain. In some types of rock climbing (for example, climbing for difficulty), it is simply impossible to do without climbing the rocks. In addition, in recent years, the so-called rock festivals have been held on the natural relief - competitions consisting of several rounds and usually lasting several days.
When training at the climbing wall, you can use all the holds that are within reach. This is exactly what newbies do. However, more experienced climbers prefer to use only one color of holds to form a "track"; a copy of the real route on a rock massif of natural origin.
The European and World Climbing Championships are held every two years. It really is. However, the youth world championships in this sport are held annually.
Climbing can only be done by physically well-trained people with extremely strong hands. This is not entirely true. Especially at first, just regular training is enough.Only beginners load their arms to the maximum, while experienced athletes distribute the load in a different way, given the fact that the legs are much stronger than the arms and therefore they are the main support in this sport. But people with great excess weight really experience considerable difficulties at the climbing wall.
To be successful in climbing, you only need trained muscles and endurance. Indeed, strength, flexibility and ductility play a crucial role. However, in some disciplines of sport climbing, for example, in difficulty climbing, composure, precision and accuracy of movements, excellent coordination, as well as high intellectual abilities, attentiveness and observation are needed.
Route options are best viewed at close range. Not always. If required by the competition rules, experienced climbers prefer to spend some time "reading the rock" before climbing. thinking over possible route options. In the future, they only make minor adjustments to these options in the climbing process.
Climbing is best done with the same partner and equipment manufacturers should be changed as little as possible. No, experts believe that in order to improve and hone the technique of movements, a climber should not only devote a lot of time to training, but also change everything as often as possible: types of rocks, places for climbing, disciplines, climbing partners, manufacturers of holds, etc. ...
To improve your climbing technique, it is enough to correctly structure your training. However, according to experts, among other things, observation of the training and competitions of experienced climbers, as well as personal communication with them, contributes to the improvement of the technique of movements.
Climbing strength is key. Yes, but, in addition to strengthening the muscles, you should also train the ability to distribute the effort so as to cover the entire route from start to finish, especially when it comes to climbing a distance. The fact is that if an athlete in training trains only the ability to put maximum effort into each movement, his body gets used to just such a mode of work. In speed climbing or bouldering, this is perfectly acceptable. But on long tracks, it leads to the fact that the strength dries up after the very first 10-15 movements, breathing becomes confused, and the chances to overcome the entire route practically tend to zero.
The expander will help increase the strength of the fingers and the hand in general. Misconception. The aforementioned type of sports equipment is advisable to use as a warm-up, but not as a workout, since the need for frequent and rapid flexion and extension of the fingers while climbing is usually extremely rare. In order to make the fingers stronger, one should use hangs on various kinds of holds or training on a campus board (a sports equipment designed by Wolfgang Güllich at the Campus Sports Club (Nuremberg) in 1988). It should be borne in mind that on a campus board or a system board (another type of sports equipment for increasing finger strength) only fairly experienced athletes can practice without risk of injury.
You can increase finger strength very quickly, the main thing is to train regularly and a lot. After all, great strength of the fingers is not provided by nature, and it will take a lot of time to increase it (most often about 2 years), otherwise injuries are inevitable. It is best to distribute the load for a whole year, training fingers on small holds and strengthening all types of grip (closed, open, etc.), since preference for only one and neglect of the other sooner or later leads to injury. Grip strength can be compared simply by counting the number of pull-ups that an athlete can do on the holds and using different types of grip. You should be especially careful during training on a campus board or system board: start training only after a day of rest, take a break of 3-4 minutes between each exercise on this simulator. The fact is that the effectiveness of training on campus is high only if the muscles are loaded minimally.
Strong fingers with weak hands or weak fingers with powerful arm muscles are the result of improperly constructed workouts. More often than not, this is true. If climbers pay more attention to training on trails with a high incline and large holds, they strengthen the muscles of the arms, and if they move along small holds on a track with a lower incline, they mainly strengthen the fingers. However, it should be remembered that much depends on the structure of the athlete's body. For example, people with an endomorphic body type are stocky, have powerful muscles, and at the same time, the strength of their fingers is often low. And ectomorphs (thinner and taller people) are distinguished by great strength of the fingers with insufficient development of the muscles of the shoulder girdle. Accordingly, athletes with one type of physique or another should build their training so as, first of all, to strengthen the weakest muscles of the fingers or hands.
During finger strength training, an active grip should be used minimally, as it is traumatic. The active (grasping) grip, in which the fully bent fingers are loaded the most, is used on "pockets" (large holds with obvious protrusions). According to experts, this kind of grip puts excessive stress on the tendons, and can lead to their stretching, as well as cause arthritis. The passive (open) grip, when the hand almost completely grasps the toe, has much less effect on the tendons, and at the same time makes it possible to use the strength of the fingers to the fullest. It is effective both on sloping or rounded holds, and on "pockets". However, it should be borne in mind that while climbing on a natural relief, sometimes there are many holds that are suitable only for an active grip. And in some situations (for example, when the arms get tired), even experienced climbers prefer an active grip to a passive one. Therefore, during training, attention should be paid to both grips, only by distributing the time correctly: take about a quarter of the time to work out the active grip, devote the rest of the lesson to the practical application of the passive grip.
Injuries from overloading joints in climbing are common. No, in this sport tendons are most often affected, and the compression load on the spine and joints is minimal, although the muscular system works extremely actively. If a physically strong athlete cannot cope with routes of a more difficult category, mastered by less experienced climbers, has difficulty holding onto small holds, often suffers from overload of the joints - most likely, he simply uses little inertia when moving. After all, if you swing the body correctly, you can move between the holds using much less effort than when moving without swinging.
In rock climbing, beginners are most often injured. Of course, if a beginner undertakes to master the wisdom of rock climbing without warm-up and insurance, injuries are inevitable. That is why an experienced coach will first propose to pay attention to the warm-up, then he will familiarize the novice athlete with the action of the insurance (so that a person gets rid of the fear that hinders movement, he will be asked to release the support several times and hang with all his weight on the insurance, feel its strength and reliability) and only after this is where real learning begins. Injuries in this sport are most often received by experienced athletes who neglect insurance and fully rely on their experience.
To prevent their fingers from sliding over stones, climbers use chalk or talcum powder, which is taken from a special plastic bag attached to the belt behind their back. This is not true. The white powder used by climbers and other athletes is called Sport Magnesia, and is a magnesium salt (carbonate). It absorbs moisture well, and, in addition, unlike, for example, chalk, it perfectly binds sebum. As a result, the coefficient of friction between the athlete's hands and the sports equipment or grip increases, providing a more reliable grip. Chalk (a white powder of quartz and calcite, which is most often used as a pigment in the paint and varnish industry, printing industry, etc.) only dries hands quite well, but does not increase friction. And talcum powder (a fatty loose powder of white color, used in everyday life to prevent adhesion of contacting surfaces) generally reduces friction. The reason for the confusion that has arisen, most likely, is that sports magnesia in English-speaking countries is called, like chalk, the word chalk.
Magnesia used in rock climbing is unhealthy. Indeed, inhalation of powdered magnesia, especially if it is used in small, poorly ventilated rooms, can harm the lungs of athletes or cause an allergic attack (since the above substance is one of the most powerful allergens). Therefore, one should either organize supply and exhaust ventilation in such halls, or use magnesium in liquid form. This substance also has a negative effect on the skin, contributing to its excessive drying. Therefore, experts advise to thoroughly wash off the remnants of magnesia from the hands, and then lubricate the skin of the hands with a fat cream. However, the effects of magnesia on the body are not limited to the effects described above. For example, until the beginning of the 18th century, it was believed that this substance contains calcium (lime), and therefore helps to strengthen nails. But then scientists found out that calcium is not included in the composition of magnesia, however, it contains magnesium, the benefits of which for the human body can hardly be overestimated.
In rock climbing, powdered magnesia is used, pouring it into a special bag, which athletes must take with them. Not necessary. A supply of this substance is absolutely necessary for athletes competing in climbing for difficulty, therefore they really must necessarily stock up on a bag of magnesia, and not only in powder form, but also in the form of balls (the powder is placed in small round bags made of thin fabric). But in bouldering, climbers prefer to apply it on their hands only once - before starting the ascent, so as not to burden themselves with unnecessary weight. Most often, there is enough powder, since the tracks in this type of rock climbing are not very long. However, this method excludes the use of magnesium, if the athlete still needs it. Speed climbers do not use bags of magnesia at all, as the use of this substance takes a lot of time - and in this discipline every second counts! Therefore, in speed climbing and bouldering, liquid magnesium is most often used, i.e. powder dissolved in water - they rub their hands with it before climbing, and wait a few minutes, allowing the liquid to dry.
The use of liquid magnesia is possible in all types of rock climbing. Yes, however, in some cases (for example, when climbing a difficulty), the film formed on the hands after the liquid magnesium dries up will not be enough to cover the entire distance. Therefore, athletes competing in this type of rock climbing combine the use of both types of the above substance.
Titanium hooks are stronger than steel hooks. The advantage of titanium hooks over steel ones lies not in their greater strength (after all, due to deformation during hammering, the hook is firmly held in the rock), but in lightness, which is of great importance when passing long routes.
Climbing can be practiced with regular fitness shoes or just-sized sneakers. Completely wrong opinion! There are special "rock shoes" ("rock shoes") equipped with a soft sole, thanks to which the athlete can feel the smallest irregularities in the relief and cling to the ledges of the rock with the sole and toes. In addition, these shoes are slightly smaller, which causes the toes to bend slightly and increases grip. However, walking down the street in shoes of this kind will be difficult. By the way, rock climbers in the Soviet Union initially practiced rock climbing in galoshes. One pair of such galoshes, in which one of the athletes climbed an almost sheer cliff to help an injured mountaineer from Switzerland, is even housed in the British Museum. Of course, shoes of this kind were not very comfortable, and Soviet athletes sometimes went to little tricks to improve the grip of the sole with the toes. For example, Salavat Rakhmetov, who won the difficulty climbing in 1990 at the international competition "Serre Chevalier-90" (France), pasted rubber on the soles of overshoes.
Climbing shoes are made of natural or artificial leather. This type of sports footwear is not made from leatherette, because, firstly, it will be too hot in them, and secondly, the artificial leather is not durable and at heavy loads that occur during climbing, it will simply disperse at the seams in just a couple of days. Therefore, climbing shoes are made of genuine leather or rubber.
The tighter the climbing shoes fit on the foot, the better. Excessively tight rock shoes will compress the foot very strongly, as a result of which blood circulation decreases, the legs become numb, and no longer feel the toes. In addition, the size of the athletic shoe depends on the preferred technique of movement along the route, as well as on the type of climbing chosen. For example, for sport climbing, asymmetrical rock shoes, which are closest to the foot, are ideal, forcing the toes to bend strongly. To tackle longer routes, a slightly larger shoe should be preferred with the toes in a bent position. In this case, small toes will feel worse, but you can climb in such shoes for longer than in closer ones. There are also shoes designed not only for climbing itself, but also for overcoming the horizontal sections of the route. These shoes are tailored to fit, cover the ankle, and are made of thicker rubber, which leads to a decrease in sensitivity during climbing, but at the same time allows you to make transitions over rather long distances without feeling inconvenience. You should also pay attention to the labeling of the shoes. The Bouldering Slipper or Velcro Closure signifies that these climbing shoes are ideal for bouldering. The "Unlined Sensitivity and flexibility" mark is found on shoes made from very soft leather. It should be noted that such shoes stretch very strongly when worn actively. For climbing steep, overhanging cliffs and long trails, "Slip-lasted Sensitivity and flexibility" with a very thin sole are suitable. However, they wear out very quickly. It is easiest to stand on very small hooks ("minuscules") in rock shoes, the toe of which is narrowed. However, such shoes with the inscription "Tapered, low profile toe box" are not very comfortable, and they should be bought either in size or even slightly larger than usual. Cambered last shoes are designed for the steepest trails, but the curved last of this type of shoe is not very comfortable for any athlete.
For rock climbing, a regular tracksuit will do. This is true, but a tight-fitting suit should be preferred as wide sleeves and loose trousers can interfere. It is best to opt for breeches that cover the knees and a light T-shirt.
All climbers are on a strict diet - after all, being overweight creates a lot of problems in this sport. Indeed, body fat does not contribute to the rapid development of the wisdom of climbing. However, athletes control their weight by eating well and limiting the amount of unhealthy food (fast food, beer, chips, etc.) and alcohol consumed. Climbers do not use a strict diet, since such a diet can negatively affect the state of the body in general and muscles in particular.
People wearing goggles cannot go climbing. Simply, the glasses will need to be secured with an elastic band or a cord, and the best option is to give preference to contact lenses during training.
To overcome the route in rock climbing, athletes have to make a lot of rather difficult movements. In some cases, only one movement has to be done, but it is extremely complex. Most often, this state of affairs occurs in bouldering and is called one move problem (English "one move problem").
Bouldering is the easiest type of rock climbing, as the distance is not so great. No, according to experts, it is in bouldering that the most difficult tracks are.
The most popular form of sport climbing is difficulty climbing. Recently, however, bouldering has been successfully competing with this type of rock climbing in popularity in the world.
In difficulty climbing, the trail should be overcome in one attempt. In official competitions, this is true. But in some countries, the rules for passing the route are somewhat different. For example, in England climbers move along the attachment points that they create for themselves, hammering hooks into the rock and securing carabiners into them, into which they subsequently snap the rope. Therefore, during competitions of this kind, athletes are given several attempts to pass the route, and the degree of the climber's moral stress is taken into account in the classification of the difficulty of the route.
The terms in rock climbing have the same meaning in all countries of the world. Yes it is. However, sometimes these values are not completely identical. For example, the term "multipitch" is used by English-speaking athletes to refer to any route that is longer than one rope. In Russia, this word designates a route for free climbing with pre-prepared belay points. And on-sight can mean both the name of one of the types of competitions, and the passage of any route the first time. If an athlete had the opportunity to observe how another climber is moving along the same route, this is already a flash (English "look"), even if the distance can be overcome on the first attempt.