Sailing is one of the sports in which special equipment is required for the competition: boats or ships, sleds for moving on snow (ice) or carts equipped with a sail. Most often, sailing competitions are held on boats (sailing, sail-motor or motor) - yachts (from the Dutch. Jacht, from jagen - to drive, chase). In this case, the term "yachting" is used to name this type of competition.
Ships equipped with a sail have been surfing the water for more than one thousand years, but this type of equipment has been used for sports competitions relatively recently. At first, the inhabitants of Holland took a great interest in yachting, after - England.
The mention of competitions of this kind is found in the annals dated 1662. The first yacht clubs appeared in the 50-60s. XVIII century, first in England, and a few years later - in other European countries, as well as in Russia and America.
In October 1907, the International Yacht Racing Union (IYRU) was founded, headquartered in Southampton (Hampshire, UK). Today this organization is called the International Sailing Federation (ISAF) and unites 115 national federations.
The most famous and large-scale sailing and rowing competitions are considered regattas (from Italian regata, riga - "line", "row", "starting line"), which are held for vessels of different classes. One of the first regattas - the gondolier competition - took place in 1740 in Venice, although this type of competition in the city on the water has been known since the 13th century.
This kind of competition has become extremely popular and has been held since the middle of the 19th century in Germany, France, Great Britain, Belgium, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, and from the end of the 19th - early 20th centuries. - in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Russia, USA, Canada, Latin America, etc.
The world famous Henley Regatta (held on the Thames near Henley since 1893) in rowing and the Kiel Regatta (held since 1897 in the Kiel Bay of the Baltic Sea off the coast of Germany). Today, the term "regatta" is used to refer to sailing competitions that are part of the Olympic Games.
All sailing competitions are divided into several types:
A) by sailing area:
• round the world;
B) by types (classes) of yachts:
• monotypic - only yachts that fully comply with the measurement rules and are designed according to strictly regulated principles are allowed to this type of competition;
• maxi-yacht competitions - only yachts with a length of at least 30 meters (100 feet) are allowed to compete;
• competition of yachts corresponding to the measurement formula - vessels participate, the ratio of several parameters of which (displacement, length, sail area) is limited to a certain value;
• races of cruising keel yachts and dinghies - two types of vessels participate in this type of competition:
• cruising yachts (from the Dutch. Kruiser from kruisen - "to sail along a certain route", "to cruise") - ships, design features (for example, the obligatory presence of cabins), the availability of some types of equipment and the level of supply of which allow to make long autonomous transitions;
• sailing dinghies (from German Schwertboot - "a boat with a sword") - sailing vessels that do not have a ballast keel and are equipped with a centerboard - a special retractable fin that prevents the yacht from drifting into the wind.
• competition of monohull yachts;
• competitions of catamarans (from Tamil kattumaram - "connected logs") - double-hull yachts;
• races on trimaran - three-deck vessels,
C) by professional qualification:
D) by the composition of the crew:
• single - one person manages the yacht;
• command - the crew is in charge of the ship (from 2 to 40 and more people, depending on the type of yacht);
• age - only athletes of a certain age participate in this type of competition;
• by gender - in some competitions only men can participate, in others the team is formed exclusively from the fairer sex,
D) by type of distance:
• stage - the distance is divided into several segments (stages);
• voyage - yachts follow a specific route, which does not imply calls to ports and stops (however, if necessary, the ship can anchor),
E) along the length of the distance:
G) according to the rules of the competition:
• match - the winner of the competition is determined by the results of a series of matches between pairs of participants, that is, each athlete competes alternately with all the other sailors participating in the competition;
• team - several teams of yachtsmen compete with each other;
• with a transfer - each of the athletes takes turns walking the distance on all yachts participating in the competition;
• handicap - vessels of different classes participate in the races, the results demonstrated by the yachts are recalculated taking into account handicap points, reflecting some features of a particular vessel;
• on arrival - the ship that came to the finish line first wins.
The most famous international sailing regattas:
• America's Cup is one of the oldest international competitions (based 20 years before the FA Cup and 45 years before the first modern Olympics), the most famous and prestigious. The winner is awarded a goblet made of "British metal" (an alloy of tin, antimony and copper, plated with silver) manufactured by Garrard & Co. in 1848 in the form of a jug with no bottom - in accordance with the requirement of Queen Victoria. The ruler did not want the prize cup to be used as a container for drinks. The names of the winning yachts are engraved on the vessel, and in 1958 and 2003 the cup had to be supplemented with bases to place the names of the next winning yachts. The owner of this prestigious prize for 132 years was the New York Yacht Club, and only in 1983 the cup went to yachtsmen from Australia.
• To be eligible to compete in the America's Cup, you must win the preliminary qualifiers (currently the Louis Vuitton Cup). Only then can the challenger yacht enter the fight with the representatives of the country, whose ship won last season.
• Volvo Ocean Race, until 1997 - Whitbread Round the World Race - a round-the-world team regatta, in which Volvo 70 class yachts are allowed (single-hull, single-mast sailing vessels, the length of which should be 21.5 m, draft - 4.5 m). From 1973 to 2006, it was held every 4 years, today it takes place every 3 years. Includes 10 ocean stages and short competitions in the waters of large cities (port races).
• Vendee Globe Regatta - founded in 1989 by Philippe Jeanteau (France), the only single round-the-world regatta that does not involve stopping the vessel anywhere and receiving outside help. The competition is named in honor of the Vendée region of France, in the capital of which - the city of Le Sables d'Olonne - the regatta begins and ends, held on yachts of the Open 60 class (until 2004 - Open 50). To participate in the Wanda Globe regatta, a yachtsman must prove his competence by making a qualifying crossing across the ocean (distance length - 2.5 thousand miles, speed - 7 knots) or take part in any single transoceanic race.
• Regatta Velux 5 Oceans (Velux 5 Oceans) - a round-the-world race of single yachts. The idea for the competition was submitted by David White (America) in 1980. At first, the regatta was officially called the BOC Challenge, since it was sponsored by the large British corporation BOC (British Oxigen Corp), a little later - by Around Alone, and since 2006, when the Velux company became the sponsor of the competition, it was renamed Velux 5 Oceans. The race is held in 3 stages, the total route length is 30,000 miles.
• The Rolex Sydney Hobart Yacht Race (Rolex Sydney Hobart Yacht Race) has been held since 1945, starts annually on December 26 in Sydney Harbor, finishes at the Port of Hobart (mouth of the Derwent River, Tasmania). The competition is organized by the Royal Tasmanian Yacht Club and the Australian Yacht Club, since 2002 sponsored by Rolex (Switzerland). Vessels can participate in the race, meeting certain requirements (length - from 30 to 100 feet) and six months before the start of the regatta, having passed the qualifying race or ocean passage - at least 150 nautical miles. The team must have at least 6 people over 18 years old. There must be 2 people on board who are able to provide qualified medical assistance, and 2 radio operators. Each crew member must have an individual emergency beacon (PLB or EPIRB). The Rolex Sydney Hobart Yacht Race is open to both professional yachtsmen and amateurs.
• The Tall Ships' Races Baltic regatta - until 1872 named Cutty Sark in honor of the English clipper who covered the route from Australia to England in 69 days. One of the largest regattas in the world. All sailing vessels, the length of which exceeds 9.14 m, are allowed to participate in this competition, and, according to the basic rule of the competition, only young people aged 15 to 25 can be members of the team. The competitions are held in 3 stages, the first of which takes place between 2 ports, the second is free swimming, the third stage is the race itself. Moreover, in each port through which the regatta passes, the participants are arranged a solemn meeting, followed by various sporting events, concerts, receptions, etc., lasting 4 days and ending with a solemn parade of the competition participants. The main prize of the competition is a silver model of the Cutty Sark sailing ship.
Sailing competitions have been included in the program of the Olympic Games since 1900 (II Olympiad, Paris) and since then have been present in the program of all Olympiads (with the exception of the 1904 Games).
The regatta involves vessels of similar design. Indeed, yachts with approximately equal opportunities should participate in the competition. For a correct comparison of the results, there are several approaches to the selection of regatta participants:
• Monotype - only yachts, constructed according to certain parameters, participate in the races, deviation from which entails disqualification;
• Handicap - the measurement of the yacht is carried out according to a certain method that allows you to determine the characteristics of the vessel. In accordance with the assigned handicap points entered in the tonnage certificate, at the start, yachts with similar scores are combined into groups within which the vessels compete with each other;
• Measurement formula - yachts must be designed in accordance with a certain measurement formula, within which it is not forbidden to make various design changes to improve the sailing performance of the vessel.
Regatta is a sports competition in which the participants who won prizes receive medals, and the winners are awarded a cup. This is true, but there are exceptions, for example, the Historical Regatta (Regata Storica) held annually in Venice on the first Sunday of September, which is a competition of gondoliers at a distance of 7 km. This competition was established in honor of the historical event - the abdication of the Venetian Queen Catherine Cornaro from the Cypriot throne in favor of the Venetian Republic, signed in 1489. A grandiose meeting was prepared for the Queen in her homeland, and since then this event has been celebrated annually in Venice - before the start of the regatta, a costume procession takes place - a symbolic ceremony of welcoming the Queen, then a parade of gondolas, and only after that the competition begins. The competition is divided into several stages: first, the juniors compete on two-oared gondolas (pupparini), then - women, also on two-oared boats (mascarete), then - men on six-oar boats (caorline), and, finally, a race of champions on narrow and light boats ( gondolini), the management of which requires remarkable dexterity and high skill. As a prize, the participants of this regatta do not receive medals, but multi-colored flags (for 1 place - red, for 2 - white, for 3 - green and for 4 - blue). Sometimes other awards are also given - for example, for some time the winner was a live pig, but animal activists opposed this custom, therefore, today the prizes in the Historical Regatta are purely symbolic.
America's Cup is named after the continent. No, this competition (and prize) gets its name from the schooner America, which won one of the most prestigious English regattas in 1851.
During the round-the-world regatta, everyone on board takes part in steering the yacht. Not always. For example, in the Volvo Ocean Race, every yacht, in addition to 10 crew members, must have a correspondent whose duties do not include any involvement in the management of the boat. His task is to collect, prepare and send audio materials, as well as a photo and video report about how the race itself went and how well coordinated and correct the team's actions were in a given situation.
All participants of the regatta start at the same time. Most often this is true, but in some cases a restart is allowed - for example, if a breakdown occurred and it took time to fix it. Some regattas officially start for quite a long time - for example, the start of the Globus Wande regatta is open for 10 days, and the participants in the Golden Globe regatta (1968) could start the competition any day from June 1 to October 31.
The main prize in the regatta is one. For example, participants in the Sydney-Hobart regatta are competing for two main prizes: the trophy for the first boat to finish and the Tattersall Cup for the winner of the IRC handicap. In the Golden Globe regatta, there were also two main prizes - a cup for the one who finished the race first and a cash reward (5000 pounds) for the yachtsman who spends a minimum of time on overcoming the distance.
Only tall guys come to sailing. Erroneous opinion - in this sport, natural data are of little significance. Considering the variety of yacht classes, you can choose a vessel that suits any yacht's height and weight.
There is no place for a woman on a ship! Quite a persistent prejudice, but in some types of yachting (for example, in round-the-world races on single cruising yachts), the fairer sex is in no way inferior to men.
Olympic sailing competitions take place not far from the city that hosts the Olympics. Most often, yachting competitions are held away from the venue of the Olympics. Competitions of this kind are held on large bodies of water, in places characterized by the maximum stability of wind conditions.
A good keel is seven feet long. Completely erroneous opinion. After all, the size of the keel depends on the class of the yacht and its dimensions.
The yacht must have several anchors. It really is. There should be three anchors - the main universal plow anchor, a heavy anchor with wide legs (for example, a Hall or Danforth anchor), which will perfectly hold the boat on soft silty or sandy soils, and the third anchor is a spare. In addition, the yacht must have an anchor chain of at least 50 meters in length and a spare chain.
The hull of the yacht has a pointed bow and a blunt stern. Not necessary. The main purpose of the hull is to ensure the rigidity of the structure, supporting the masts and sails, and the ability to accommodate the crew.Due to the specific shape of the hull, the vessel can move through the water at a fairly impressive speed, regardless of various weather conditions. The most optimal option is vessels with a streamlined shape with a sharp bow and blunt stern, however, there are also yachts with a blunt bow and stern, or with the pointed above-mentioned structural elements.
The fastest and most stable yachts are multihulls. Yes, the fastest sailing ships are catamarans, trimarans and polymaranes (for example, pentamaran - five-hull ships). However, it should be noted that these types of yachts are suitable only for experienced sailors. After all, the catamaran and pentamaran, with high initial stability and excellent driving characteristics, experience quite high loads on the hull connecting parts, and sometimes this can lead to the destruction of the yacht. And trimarans are subject to sharp pitching and are stable only with a slight roll, and under unfavorable weather conditions (strong crosswind, high waves) or in case of an error in control leading to exceeding the permissible bank angles, they rapidly turn over.
Modern yachts are much faster than ships of the last century. This is not true. Some yachts of the late 19th - early 20th centuries could develop slightly higher speed than modern ones. However, the design features of sailboats made today allow them to continue moving even in a headwind, which was previously quite difficult for ships equipped with gaff sailing equipment.
Yachtsmen participating in the regatta are forced to eat exclusively raw fish. No, athletes usually stock up on their favorite foods, which include fish in various forms. There are only restrictions on sugary carbonated drinks - their use can lead to a deterioration in well-being on the high seas. However, it should be noted that the stock of such products cannot be very large: firstly, some products have a limited shelf life, and it is not always possible to ensure proper storage conditions on a small yacht. Secondly, in order to achieve high results, a considerable vessel speed is required, therefore, you have to save a lot. For example, participants in long-term regattas can take with them only one set of changeable underwear and must prepare in advance that the diet will consist of various kinds of freeze-dried mixtures and instant products that have a long shelf life and take up a minimum of space. And yachtsmen just don't always have enough time to catch fish.
During the regatta, athletes have the opportunity to closely examine sharks and octopuses. This is not entirely true. Of all the inhabitants of the underwater world, yachtsmen are most often accompanied by dolphins.
All yachtsmen are bad family men. Of course, different incidents happen in life, but it should be borne in mind that a person who adores sea voyages under sail is more in love with his yacht than with any of the fair sex, thirsty for adventure.
Family people are not engaged in yachting. When it comes to professional sports, this statement is indeed partly true. But among amateurs, the overwhelming majority are married couples going out to sea with their wives and children. In this case, the vessel is equipped with special safety nets along the deck, child safety belts and life jackets.
Sailing involves participating in various kinds of competitions, regattas, races, etc. People who are engaged in yachting can choose another direction of sailing - cruising, which consists either in the passage from one port to another, or in free sailing on the high seas. A pioneer of cruising at the end of the 19th century. became Richard Tyrell Mc Mullen (England), single-handedly set out to sea with one goal - to prove that a small yacht, steered by a skillful hand, is as safe away from the coast during a storm as a much larger ship. McMullen's example was followed by many sailors, and in 1880 the Cruising Club (Royal Cruising Club) was formed in England. In 1882, this club began to publish a magazine covering the activities of sailors and is very popular even today. The cruising club was also no stranger to the spirit of competition - they established many cups, for example, the Challenge Cup (1896). Cruising clubs were also organized in Scotland (1909), as well as in Norway and other countries of the world. Today, cruising is the most popular sailing sport among both amateur and professional sailors.
Yachting is extremely difficult to learn. This activity is for professionals. Yes, this is so when it comes to participating in serious sports competitions. An amateur can master the basics of ship control in 17 days (a week is spent on mastering the theory, another 10 days on practical exercises). However, even for those who do not have the skills to navigate the ship, there is a way out - simply to hire an experienced skipper, and if this is required by the peculiarities of the yacht, then the crew.
Sailing is an extremely dangerous activity. Of course, this sport is fraught with some degree of danger. However, it should be borne in mind that, in the main, accidents on the water are caused by non-observance - most often by amateur yachtsmen - of basic safety rules. For example, in almost 86% of accidents, people who ended up overboard were without life jackets, in 30% of cases alcohol was the cause of accidents on the water, 80% of accidents were caused by an inexperienced skipper without a license. In addition, yachts do not often get into unpleasant situations - the largest number of accidents (42%) occurs with open motor boats, 27% - with jet skis, and only in 14% of cases motor boats with cabins and sailing vessels suffer.
The former racer is the best skipper for cruising. Much depends on what exactly is expected of the cruise. If speed, thrill and work are at the limits of human capabilities, then it is really best to travel under the leadership of an experienced racer. In this case, most likely, you will have to wear a life jacket all the time and surf the sea in any weather. And the route will most likely be laid in a straight line. After all, the main goal of the rider is to reach the final destination of the voyage as quickly as possible, and the beauty of the coast is of minimal interest. In addition, according to old habit, such a skipper will not use a diesel engine even if necessary, preferring to tack. But if the purpose of the cruise is to relax, admire the scenery, swim, or even go fishing, it is best to choose an experienced skipper-cruiser who will lay the appropriate course, striving to ensure that the vacationer gets the maximum experience, and will try to provide comfort, and to the diesel the motor does not feel disgust.
Only very rich people can go sailing. Of course, if we are talking about the acquisition of a modern cruise ship equipped with the latest technology - its price ranges from several tens to several hundred thousand euros and is really beyond the means of an ordinary man in the street. As well as the construction of a specialized racing yacht will have to fork out thoroughly. But a beginner amateur sportsman can buy a used yacht, for example, a "micro" class or mini-yacht for about 2000-3000 €, and a catamaran for 5000 €.
The longer the lease term, the higher the rent for a yacht. The cost of renting a yacht per day increases with a decrease in the rental period.
Serious sailing competitions are most often attended by middle-aged people, experienced and full of strength. This is especially true for skippers. Most often this is true, but practice shows that age is not a hindrance to serious yachting. For example, the oldest participant in the Sydney-Hobart race, skipper John Walker, is 85 years old, and the youngest captains, Greg Prescott and Liz Wardley, are 18 years old.
Beginners in yachting necessarily first suffer from seasickness, which usually manifests itself in severe bouts of nausea. First, even experienced yachtsmen, who have spent a lot of time at the helm, sometimes suffer from seasickness caused by vertical acceleration that occurs on the ship during pitching. Secondly, motion sickness does not necessarily manifest itself in the form of nausea - sometimes it manifests itself as a sharply increased appetite, increased drowsiness, impaired coordination of movements, tremors (tremors) of the hands, weakened memory, depression, impaired performance, etc.
To avoid unpleasant sensations while swimming, you should follow some simple rules:
• spend as much time as possible on deck and not in the cabin;
• choose warm and comfortable clothes;
• be sure to bring along pills or homeopathic medicines for motion sickness (for example, "Bonin", "Avia-more", "Dramina", "Tonginal", "Vertigohel", etc.);
• less messing around. According to experienced yachtsmen, personal participation in yacht management is the best way to get rid of seasickness.
In addition, even before going to sea, it will be useful to prepare the vestibular apparatus for future loads. Jumping on a trampoline, quick squats, running with accelerations and sudden stops, jumping and running with obstacles, bending forward and to the sides, somersaults, handstands, spinning and side turning ("wheel") in both directions, etc. will help in this. etc.
For sailing, you definitely need waterproof clothing and special shoes. Much depends on what kind of sailing we are talking about, how long the transition will be, through which seas and oceans the ship will pass, etc. The requirements for amateur yachtsmen, of course, are not tough - for example, if a yacht trip takes place on a warm summer day and does not take more than 1-2 days, just a T-shirt with shorts will be enough. But if the journey takes longer, you should definitely prepare for bad weather, and for temperature changes, which are quite common in some latitudes. The first thing to take care of is the presence of a waterproof suit, preferably made in the form of a one-piece overalls, which can protect from wind, rain and salty sea spray. When choosing clothes of this kind, it should be borne in mind that it is best to purchase a suit made of "breathable" fabric (for example, "Gore-Tex", "Sympa-tex"), which serves as a reliable barrier against wind and water penetrating from the outside, and at the same time allows the body to breathe, thus ensuring dryness and comfort throughout the journey. For short coastal races, an ordinary waterproof suit is also suitable, but it has one significant drawback - the ability to create a kind of "greenhouse effect". As a result, after a few hours, sweat soaks into all clothes and the person begins to freeze, which does not contribute to good health and negatively affects performance.
Under a waterproof suit, it is best to wear special underwear that fits snugly to the body (preferably polypropylene), and on top of it, to keep warm, clothes made of breathable fabrics (polartec or fleece). As for shoes, amateurs expecting to spend several days at sea in good weather can do with ordinary sneakers or light summer shoes (with the exception of high-heeled shoes). For a longer trip, it is best to buy deck shoes - very durable, specially treated to resist the effects of liquids, and equipped with leather laces. These soft, flat-soled shoes do not slip on wet decks and do not fall off your feet with sudden movements. And in the rain, special models of rubber boots with flat soles in white (so as not to stain the deck), equipped with a welded fabric lining, are simply irreplaceable.
Yachtsmen going on a rather long voyage also purchase gloves. The most suitable model is made of synthetic leather with Kevlar inserts, with "short" fingers, reinforcements on the bottom of the palm and double Velcro on the wrist, or neoprene gloves for cold weather. And finally, sun glasses with shatterproof lenses (preferably with a polarized effect) come in handy.