Angina (from Lat. Ango - squeeze, soul), an acute infectious disease with a predominant lesion of the tonsils. The causative agent is more often streptococcus. Angina is one of the most common diseases, especially in childhood and young age. The onset of angina is facilitated by the cooling of the body, the presence of chronic inflammation of the palatine tonsils (tonsillitis).
Catarrhal sore throat (the mildest) begins with a slight swelling of the tonsils; the mucous membrane of the pharynx turns red; there is a dry throat, then there is pain when swallowing. The temperature in adults usually rises slightly, in children it can rise to 40 ° C. The disease lasts 3-5 days. With lacunar angina, all manifestations are more pronounced. The temperature rises quickly, there is a sore throat, weakness, headache. In the grooves of the tonsils (lacunae), purulent plugs are formed that protrude onto the surface of the tonsils. Follicular tonsillitis usually begins with a sudden chill, fever up to 39-40 ° C, a sharp sore throat. Soon there are aches in the limbs and back, headache, feeling of general weakness. On the swollen and reddened tonsils, there are a large number of round yellowish dots - festering small lobules of the tonsils (follicles). Under unfavorable conditions (reduced body resistance, severity of infection), angina can turn into phlegmonous tonsillitis - purulent inflammation of the tissues surrounding the tonsil, and the formation of an abscess. The temperature rises to 39-40 ° C, chills appear, general weakness; sore throat (more often on one side) rapidly grows, sharply increases when swallowing, opening the mouth, which often forces the patient to refuse to take poverty and drink. With phlegmonous sore throat, surgical intervention is often necessary. With angina, complications can occur - diseases of the joints, kidneys, heart.
Treatment - bed rest is required, warm (not hot) liquid nutritious food (vegetable soups and mashed potatoes, liquid cereals, jelly, compotes), vitamins, frequent warm drinks (milk, sweet tea with milk). A warm bandage or a warming compress on the neck; rinsing the throat with disinfectant solutions (2% boric acid: table salt; potassium permanganate - slightly pink color), sulfa drugs, in severe cases - antibiotics. A patient with angina should have separate dishes, avoid close contact with others, especially children, so as not to infect them. Prevention of angina - systematic hardening, timely treatment of diseases of the pharynx and mouth (adenoid enlargements, chronic tonsillitis, sick teeth). Angina can be not only an independent disease, but also one of the symptoms of some common infectious diseases (scarlet fever, diphtheria), as well as the manifestation of diseases blood (leukemia). Therefore, at the first sign of sore throat, you should consult a doctor. There are many misconceptions associated with angina. What do doctors think about them?
Any sore throat is a sore throat. A sore throat can be not only with angina, but also with pharyngitis. Angina is an acute inflammatory process in the palatine and other tonsils of the pharynx, and pharyngitis is an inflammation of its posterior wall. With angina, antibiotics are required, and with pharyngitis, the use of folk remedies is often enough. If you have a pharyngitis infection, antibiotics are not warranted. It can lead to a decrease in immunity, the destruction of the beneficial microflora of the nasopharynx and intestines. Another danger of unnecessary antibiotic treatment is the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria.
Angina affects only people with a weak throat. In fact, sore throat can "knock down" everyone, including those with an absolutely healthy throat. It is more common in unhardened people who are not accustomed to changes in temperature and humidity. However, it has been noticed that the number of patients with angina significantly decreases after the age of 30. This phenomenon is associated with changing characteristics of the immune system.
A sore throat is infected only through close contact with the patient, for example, when kissing. The main route of transmission of angina is airborne, so the infection can spread when talking at close range. In rooms with low temperatures and high air humidity, the risk of "relocation" of microbes is especially high. There is another way of infection with angina - food, that is, through food. Microbes from small pustules on the skin of the hands can get into milk, minced meat, vegetables, compotes, jelly, mashed potatoes. There are cases when several dozen people became infected with angina from the infected hands of the cook. Therefore, you cannot use shared utensils, one towel and a handkerchief with a sick person. A person who has a sore throat in an acute period needs to have as few contacts as possible. However, the "infectiousness" of angina is not one hundred percent. It is only less than 15 percent. This is lower than that of influenza and other acute respiratory viral infections. There are many known cases when healthy people kissed patients with angina and did not get infected. It's all about the state of the human immune system.
Angina can be transferred on your feet or lie down for a couple of days at home. Many people do not take this disease seriously. Just think, a sore throat, a temperature will hold for a couple of days. However, unlike viral pharyngitis, angina is dangerous for its unpredictable consequences. The infection can enter the ears, maxillary sinuses, heart and cause inflammation in these organs. A complication of frequent tonsillitis can be rheumatism and heart defects developing against its background. Sometimes after tonsillitis, severe kidney disease occurs. Local complications are very dangerous: inflammation of the tissues around the tonsils. The penetration of infection into the surrounding tissue leads to the formation of an abscess, which requires surgical treatment. An untreated infection can lead to recurrences of the disease and later - to chronic tonsillitis. In addition, such a formidable disease as diphtheria can be disguised under the symptoms of angina. The sooner diphtheria is detected, the greater the chances of a successful cure without consequences. After all, the causative agents of diphtheria secrete the strongest toxins that immediately begin to affect the heart and kidneys. One hundred percent answer to the question: angina or diphtheria? - gives only a special smear. Therefore, if you have a pronounced sore throat and high fever, you should definitely see a doctor.
Sore throats can be treated with home remedies such as gargling. Home remedies for the treatment of angina are effective only in the early stages of the disease. Even before the doctor arrives, it would be good to start treatment yourself. If the temperature is high, you can take an antipyretic medicine: Coldrex, Fervex, Panadol, Efferalgan, or Nurofen. Give preference to those medicines that are available in the form of powders or effervescent tablets. They are easier to swallow. You can also use antipyretic suppositories - efferalgan or cefekon N. All these drugs will simultaneously reduce sore throat and lower fever. You can also suck antiseptics in your mouth in lozenges, lozenges, or lozenges that have antimicrobial activity. Now there are new forms of drugs for the treatment of throat diseases - sprays. Gargling with a sore throat is undoubtedly necessary, this procedure accelerates recovery. It is better to use infusions of medicinal herbs - chamomile, eucalyptus, calendula or sage. In the early days of illness, rinsing the mouth with a warm solution of soda, prepared at the rate of one teaspoon per glass of water, is useful. However, antiseptics from rinsing, lozenges and spray cannot get inside the tonsil, into its tissue. And it is there that the reproduction of "harmful" bacteria occurs. That is why antibiotics for angina are the most important and necessary medicines.
If you have antibiotics at home, you can start treatment yourself and not call a doctor. With angina, there can be no standard set of drugs. The doctor should prescribe medications. All over the world and in our country, the resistance of microbes to antibiotics is growing. It occurs for various reasons, including due to the uncontrolled use of drugs. Ideally, a swab is taken from the patient's throat before prescribing the medicine. It is needed to find out which bacteria caused the disease. The smear also reveals the sensitivity of microbes to certain drugs. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are usually given until smear results are obtained. They act on the main groups of bacteria that cause sore throat. It takes about three days to test the effectiveness of a particular drug. If there is no result, another should be appointed. Only a specialist can choose the right antibiotic and evaluate its effectiveness. It is not recommended to remain "one on one" with angina also because this disease requires examination. Urine and blood tests, and a cardiogram will show if there are any complications.
A long course of antibiotics is useless. As soon as the temperature returns to normal, treatment can be stopped. Some complications of angina develop during the recovery period. And it takes time to completely destroy pathogenic microbes. Therefore, according to modern concepts, the minimum period of antibiotic treatment for angina is 10 days. This statement is true for the vast majority of antimicrobial agents. The only exception is the modern drug azithromycin, or sumamed. It is enough to take it for 5 days. In addition to the duration, it is very important to follow the regimen of the drug. Some people think that if the medicine is prescribed 3 times a day, then it can be drunk at 10 am, at lunchtime and at 6 pm. This is not true. It is very important for antibiotics that there are equal intervals between medications. That is, the "3 times a day" scheme implies that you should take your pills at 8 am, 4 pm and around midnight. Drink a soothing throat tea during your sore throat treatment. To prepare it, add an infusion of marshmallow roots and honey to regular or herbal tea. Recovery after a sore throat is considered to be a normal body temperature for 5 days, no sore throat and soreness when probing the lymph nodes of the neck. Blood, urine and electrocardiogram tests should be normal. In order to protect yourself as much as possible from the complications of sore throat, two weeks after recovery you need to protect yourself from hypothermia and avoid heavy physical exertion. If your body temperature rises or any other abnormalities appear within 1-2 months after a sore throat, you should definitely consult a doctor.
Should a sore throat be treated with cough drops? Perhaps the only substances in the composition of lozenges that can, to one degree or another, help with throat ailments are menthol or eucalyptus oils, which have been used for centuries as anti-inflammatory and disinfecting agents. As for the ability of "cough drops" to cure throat ailments, then only in the initial stages of the disease, they to some extent help prevent the development of the disease. But in the midst of a sore throat or pharyngitis, they can only cause short-term relief. Lollipops cannot cure a sore throat on their own.
Chronic tonsillitis can be cured on your own by regularly removing the plugs from the tonsils. In fact, in no case should you remove the plugs by squeezing them out with a spoon, a knitting needle (and sometimes this) and other improvised means. Trauma to the tissue of the tonsils, infection, as well as the possibility of confusing plugs with festering follicles during exacerbation of tonsillitis, can lead to serious consequences.
To avoid tonsillitis and chronic tonsillitis, you need to remove the tonsils. This position has long been dominant in the medical environment. However, according to the latest data, removal of the tonsils in a significant percentage of cases does not guarantee getting rid of diseases of the pharynx. The posterior wall, nasopharyngeal and lingual tonsils are inflamed. Moreover, an operation is a radical intervention in the work of the body. Its consequences may not always be favorable. In addition, the tonsils are an organ of the immune system, which in humans has a protective function. That is why many doctors try to use all possible non-operative methods of treatment at first. And only in extreme cases, when the tonsil tissue ceases to perform its functions due to constant inflammation, a decision is made about the operation.