Archery - competition in shooting for accuracy and range from a bow - hand weapon for throwing arrows. about 17,000 years ago) and until the 17th century A.D.
As a sport, archery has been positioned since the 15th century - it was then that archery competitions were held in Switzerland, dedicated to the memory of the legendary Wilhelm Tell - a skilled archer, folk hero, fighter for independence, who lived in the late 13th - early 14th centuries. For a long time, neither the inventory nor the rules of the competition were strictly regulated. The first rules of competition in this sport appeared only in the 19th century.
Nowadays, I use two types of bows for competitions (both indoor and outdoor):
• classic or Olympic (Olympic or Recurve bow). The tension force of the bowstring of such a bow is 15-20 kg, the arrow's flight speed is about 240 km / h;
• block (Compound bow), invented in 1982 and equipped with a mechanism that can provide a slightly higher pulling force (25-30 kg) and increase the speed of the arrow up to 320 km / h. At the same time, the athlete spends less effort than when shooting from a classic bow.
Competitors shoot at standard FITA targets, which are a paper circle with a diameter of 20 cm (at a distance of 18 and 25 m), 80 cm (for shooting at a distance of 30 and 50 m) or 122 cm (for shooting at a distance of 60, 70 and 90 m).
On the target, zones are marked in different colors that give the shooters a certain number of points (in the center - a yellow "bull's eye" or "ten", around which there are zones of red, blue, black and white colors). Shooting is carried out in a series of 3 (6) arrows, which must be fired in 2 (4) minutes. The team with the most points wins.
Archery has been considered an Olympic sport since 1900. The World Cup in this sport is held annually. The World Archery Championships have been held every 2 years (odd years) since 1931.
Compound bows are a modern invention. Completely erroneous opinion. A simple bow (which is a stick made of flexible wood, bent into an arc; its ends are connected with a bowstring), of course, appeared much earlier than a complex one, and was widely used by the ancient Germans, Anglo-Saxons, Normans, Romans, Egyptians. But a complex bow, consisting of a wooden base, reinforced on the inside with horny plates, and on the outside - with tendons, sometimes with bone pads on the handle (middle part) and ends, is also by no means a modern invention. According to researchers, complex bows, consisting of a horn and a tree, first appeared in 2,500 BC. in Ancient Egypt. In addition, such bows were used by the Mongols, Chinese, Arabs, Turks, and were also used in Siberia and Ancient Rus.
Nowadays, bows are used only for hunting and sports competitions. No, there are bows that are used for fishing, equipped with a line reel (or strong thread) attached to the bow handle (the other end of the line is tied to the tail of the arrow). Included with such bows are arrows without feathers (aluminum or carbon fiber) with special removable tips or harpoons. Also a very useful accessory in this type of fishing are contrast glasses with yellow polarized lenses, which neutralize the effect of glare, which is usually a serious obstacle when tracking down prey that is under water.
Archery is included in the list of Olympic sports initiated by the FITA and the European Archery Union. This is not true. Archery competitions were included in the program of the II Olympiad (1900, Paris (France)) at the initiative of the organizers of the games. And the International Archery Federation (Federation Internationale de Tir a l'Arc, FITA), which now unites 140 national federations, was formed only in 1939. The European and Mediterranean Archery Union (EMAU) was founded even later - in 1988.
Archery has been included in the program of all Olympiads since 1900. No, archery competitions were included in program II (1900, Paris (France)), III (1904, Chicago, St. Louis (USA)), IV (1908, Rome (Italy), London (UK) )) and VII (1920, Antwerp (Belgium)) Olympiads. Then this sport was excluded from the program of the Olympic Games, since there were no general rules for the conduct of competitions. Archery competitions were again included in the number of Olympic sports only since 1972 - it was then at the XX Olympiad in Munich (Germany) that athletes competed in the individual championship with the M2 discipline - an exercise that took shape in the 50s of the last century. Shooting was carried out at distances of 220.127.116.11 m (for male athletes) and 70, 60.50.30 m (for women); the arrows fired 36 arrows each, and had the opportunity to score 1440 points in the M-1 exercise, and 2880 points in the M-2. The team archery competition was introduced to the program of the 1988 Olympic Games.
All archery competitions were held according to the same rules. The modern rules of competitions began to form in the 19th century, but until the middle of the last century, there was no single regulation for holding competitions in this sport. The M-1 and M-2 exercises that took shape in the 50s became the basis of international competitions: according to the M-1 regulations, the European championships were held, in the M-2 awards were played at the world championships (until 1986) and the Olympic Games. For indoor competitions, exercises M-3, M-4 (60 shots at distances of 18 and 25 m, respectively) and "FITA circle" (which is a preliminary selection according to the M-1 formula, hereinafter - determining the winner according to the Olympic system) have been introduced.
Any sportsman archer can participate in the Olympics. Yes, but in order to get into a team (in which there can be no more than 64 male shooters and the same number of women), an athlete must obtain a license from the national federation of this sport, according to the results of the archer's performances in various competitions in 4 pre-Olympic years.
Archery competitions are held from standard distances on FITA targets. If we are talking about the Olympic Games, European and World Championships, only paper targets of a strictly defined shape and size are used for competitions, attached to shields set at an angle of 10-15 °.
But there are also other types of competitions in which shooting is carried out at targets of a different kind. For example, Clout shooting is performed at a target horizontally placed on the ground (diameter - 15 meters, width of each zone - 1.5 meters, diameter of the central zone (indicated by a triangular flag 80 cm high) - 3 meters) from a distance of 165 m (for men ) and 125 m (for women). For vertical archery, a very special type of target is also used - a pole with a wheel ("palm"), on which wooden balls ("parrots") are fixed. The task of the shooter standing under the "palm" is not only to hit the "parrot", but also to knock him to the ground - only in this case, the shot is valid. And field shooting is carried out from 3 types of bows (Olympic, classic and compound) at targets (both two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3-D) sometimes - with designated areas of destruction), which imitate various animals. They are placed at different distances from the distance covered by the arrows, carefully looking around - because sometimes the target can hide behind a small bush or tree, be located in a lowland or on a hillock. In this type of competition, the task of the shooter is to determine "by eye" (the use of protractors or rangefinders is prohibited) the distance to the target and the height difference. The speed of passing the distance is not taken into account, but there is still a certain time limit. But at competitions in skiark (archery biathlon or archery biathlon), which are held in winter, time is of the essence (as in regular biathlon). Shooters use an Olympic bow without a stabilizer, which is carried in a bag behind their back, in order to hit falling targets at various sections of the circuit. There are also traditional archery championships (Japanese, Korean, Buryat, Mongolian), which differ in the original type of bows and targets, the composition of the participants, the types of overcoming the distance (for example, horseback riding or swimming), etc.
The size of the "bullseye" of the target depends only on the distance to it. This is not entirely true. In addition to the distance according to which a target of a certain size is selected, the type of bow is also taken into account. For example, if an Olympic bow is used - the diameter of the "apple" is 4 cm, and if the block bow is only 2 cm.
Athletes only hold the bow with their hands. No, in long range shooting ("flight shooting" or "flight shooting" from the English. Flight-shooting) using the so-called leg bows (almost exactly repeating Turkish long-range bows, equipped with a supporting shelf for an arrow and an outlet ring put on the thumb of the shooter), the athlete is forced to use his legs. Lying on his back, he rests his feet on the shaft of the bow, and with both hands pulls the string.
Today bows are equipped with stabilizers and aiming systems. There are many types of bows, partially or completely devoid of the above-mentioned devices. For example, the so-called "naked bows" are similar in design to the Olympic ones, but they are not equipped with an aiming system, stabilizer and clicker. In addition, weights, limbsavers (rubber inserts placed in the arms of the bow and reducing vibration) and dampers (special devices built into the handle of the bow to damp harmonic vibrations) are prohibited on "instinctive" bows.
The best archers are the Swiss. Misconception. Although Switzerland is considered the birthplace of this sport, in the period from 1950 to 1980. the best results in the competition were demonstrated by athletes from the USA, who today shared the palm with archers from Italy, China and South Korea.
It is strictly forbidden to point a charged bow at people during competition. According to the rules of the competition, athletes should not point even an unloaded bow at people, and also shoot vertically upward or start shooting without a command from the judges.
Participants in 3-D target shooting are prohibited from consuming alcohol or doping under the threat of disqualification and exclusion from the competition. Yes it is. In addition, participants who litter the territory where the competition is held or who conduct an independent warm-up (zeroing) in places not intended for this (for example, in a parking lot) are punished with disqualification, receive a second hint from one of the participants or spectators (for the first hint of arrows receives a stern warning) or verbally insults someone present. Athletes who have not received safety instructions or profane shooting are not allowed to compete. It is also not allowed to visit the lines where athletes will compete or have devices to determine the distance to the target. If the shooter breaks the rule, he is automatically awarded 0 points for each line he visited and for the entire stage of the competition if he is convicted of using prohibited devices. Even the spectators at the turn are forbidden to have any distance measuring devices.
If one of the participants has an arrow on the shooting line, he can raise it. Maybe, but with the condition - raising the arrow, the athlete must touch the flag installed at the shooting position.
In the event of a breakdown of the equipment, the shooter is given time to eliminate the problem and finish shooting the missed target. Only if this is the first equipment breakdown during the tournament. The participant is given 20 minutes to repair (replace) the inventory. The second breakdown is also allowed to be eliminated, but the athlete will not receive the right to finish shooting the targets - he will be credited with a zero result on missed targets.
If the arrow bounced off the arrow in the target, it brings the athlete the same points as the one in which it hit. Yes, if the arrow can be identified and if, after bouncing, it misses the target or gets stuck in the end of the arrow on the target (Robin Hood). If, after bouncing, the arrow hits the target - as a result, its last position is taken into account.
An arrow hitting the target through the exit brings the athlete the maximum number of points. The group will have to notify the official that the arrow of one of the athletes pierced the target through and did not remain on the back side (if the arrow remains, it is simply removed from the target by pushing it back). Only in this case the shooter will be awarded a hit, and it will be estimated at no more than 10 points (out of 12 possible). And in the event that the arrow simply glides over the target (even leaving a noticeable mark at the same time), the athlete is credited with a miss.
3-D targets are installed 0.5 m above the ground. Not always. For example, trot targets designed to test angle shooting skills are set at slightly higher heights.
Targets during outdoor competitions are oriented so that the sun does not shine in the shooters' faces. When placing targets, the organizers of the competition first of all try to place them so that the sun does not shine in the eyes of right-handed shooters. But left-handed athletes in competitions (lasting 2 days for men and women at the Olympics and 3 days at archery championships) are forced to choose for performances either morning or evening hours.
It is best to make a shot while holding your breath after exhaling. Yes, holding your breath during a shot is really important, as it helps to achieve complete immobility of the chest, which significantly increases aiming accuracy. Such a delay lasts 10-15 seconds - such a break is not difficult even for a beginner (only in rare cases inexperienced archers experience a state of hypoxia), and it is very easy for trained athletes. An experienced shooter begins to breathe more shallowly even while drawing the bow, which makes it easier to somewhat lengthen the natural breathing pause. But it should be noted that the breath is held not after inhalation or exhalation, but at the moment of half-exhalation - in this case, the respiratory muscles are in a slight tone corresponding to the tone of the whole organism, and the oxygen level in the lungs does not fall too low.
During aiming, the shooter sees the target most clearly. The bowstring at this moment should be to the left of the front sight. When shooting from a classic bow, of the three objects at different distances in front of the archer's eyes during aiming (bowstring, front sight (rectangular, round, trapezoidal, circular, etc.) and target), the front sight should be most clearly visible. The target is less clearly visible (with the center of which the front sight should coincide), even less clearly is the bowstring, which can be located both to the right and to the left of the front sight (the main thing is to always be on the same side and at the same distance). And when aiming with a compound bow, the shooter achieves the location on one straight line (the so-called line of sight) of the diopter (or peep sight), which is a small device equipped with a hole, fixed on the bowstring at the level of the shooter's eyes), front sight and aiming points.However, the aforementioned devices are absent in historical bows, it is even impossible to aim along the projection of the bowstring (as in the peripheral bow), since it is pulled more strongly - to the level of the shooter's ear. Therefore, the archer can only use "intuitive aiming", similar to that used, for example, when throwing a stone at the target.
The arrow can pierce metal armor. Yes, but only if it hits strictly perpendicular to the surface of the armor or into the gap between the plates. Otherwise, the arrows glide over the surface of the metal, most often without harming the warrior.
The main goal of a novice archer is to learn how to get into the top ten, and to develop this skill in subsequent trainings. Experts believe that in the initial stages, the main thing is not accuracy, but the correct position of all parts of the body during aiming and firing. When the position is worked out, it remains only to adjust the sight.
Long-term aiming is the key to an accurate hit. No, if the athlete takes aim too long - the hand holding the bow gets tired and begins to tremble, which greatly reduces the chances of getting into the top ten. Experienced archers consider the correct body position and a confident grip on the bow handle to be the key to an accurate hit. At the same time, it is very important to loosen the grip in time in order to avoid negative impact on the spine (especially if the shot is fired from an English longbow, the height of which is sometimes about 2 meters and, accordingly, the recoil when fired is quite strong).
A classic bow is ideal for training a beginner. Much depends on what goal a person sets for himself. If he seriously decided to get into the big sport - indeed, it is worth giving preference to the classic bow, since it is this type of weapon that is used at the Olympics and other international competitions. If the target of the shooter is hunting or fishing, the best choice is compound. Although it is heavier than a classic bow, it is compact and has considerable power (therefore it is not used for entertainment), while not requiring superfluous efforts from the shooter to pull the bowstring.
For beginner archers, it is best to opt for the lightest arrows. When picking up arrows, one should take into account the fact that the lightest of them (as well as simple "blank" shots) contribute to the quick wear of the bow.
The best arrows are carbon. Yes, during outdoor sports, such arrows are simply irreplaceable, since they have a small diameter, are light, do not deform, almost not blown away by the wind, and have a high level of rigidity. But if such an arrow is broken, it is almost impossible to repair it. When shooting at short distances indoors, athletes prefer aluminum arrows with a larger tube diameter. But such arrows (especially the cheapest ones) deform quickly, and after each shot they need straightening, which is impossible to produce without special equipment. Therefore, for entertainment (for example, for archery in the country) it is best to use wooden or plastic arrows - they can be easily repaired in case of breakdown.
The length of the arrows is always tailored to the individual athlete. It really is. In order to determine the length of the arrow, you should stretch the bow and arrow to the maximum length and ask the assistant to mark a place on the tube 2.5 cm from the shelf. The rest of the arrows of the set are cut off according to this mark using a special machine or a file, after which the tip and tail with plumage are attached to them. However, for novice shooters, it is better not to cut arrows at all - after all, in the event of a miss, the arrow can hit some solid object (for example, a stone), as a result of which either the tip is driven into the beginning of the tube, or the end of the arrow bends. In this case, it is quite simple to repair it - you just need to cut off the deformed part and fit the tip. Repairing cut arrows will be much more difficult to make.
The thicker the string, the longer it will last. When choosing a bowstring for a bow, remember that only a certain type of bowstring is suitable for each weapon model. For example, a bowstring that is too thick, installed on a small crossbow, reduces the speed of the arrow. If the length of the bowstring is too long, it will have to be pulled up often. An inelastic bowstring can lead to breakage of weapons (especially wooden ones), since all the load in this case is transferred to the shoulders of the bow. And if there are knots on the bowstring, this helps to reduce its strength.
When picking up a bowstring, you should also take into account how much it can stretch. For example, a Fast-flite bowstring, consisting of Spectra fibers, constantly changes its length (depending on the degree of humidity, temperature conditions) and can stretch until it breaks completely even on a bow that is not used. The TS1, the fastest bowstring to date, behaves in much the same way. But the bowstring "8125", made of dyneema (which is the same Spectra, reinforced with polyethylene fibers) requires preliminary stretching. The bowstring "450+" (which, in addition to dyneema, includes vectran, which prevents excessive stretching), is thicker, does not require stretching, however, it is slower than those described above, and also wears out quickly. The thinner and faster bowstring "452" is somewhat stronger, but at the same time more expensive. The Ultracam bowstring, which is similar in composition to those described above, assumes preliminary stretching, but even without it, it stretches no more than 4-5 mm.
With a light bow, the shot is more accurate. Not necessary. According to experts, the shooter's micro-vibrations affect the accuracy of heavy bows much less than the accuracy of lighter designs.
A loose wooden bow can be straightened by hand. You can indeed restore the shape of a wooden bow on your own, but physical effort is not necessary for this. You just need to steam the bow, after removing the bowstring from it, and not use it for a while.
An arrow and a bullet fly along the same trajectory, only at different speeds. A bullet fired from a classic rifled weapon, at a distance of up to 100 meters, flies almost in a straight line, its deflection will be negligible, while the trajectory of the arrow is arched.
Grip and grip are words for how to hold the shaft of a bow. A certain position of the hand holding the bow is called the grip. At the same time, a distinction is made between high (characterized by the smallest contact area of the hand, lowered below the forearm, with the handle of the weapon), medium (the average area of contact of the hand with the handle; the angle between the forearm and the hand is 180 °) and low grip (the maximum area of contact of the palm with the handle, hand located at an angle of 120 ° in relation to the forearm). Capture is called the way of holding the bowstring.
For archery, athletes use a fingertip or glove. When shooting with fingers, these devices cannot be dispensed with, and the glove is used by hunters, and the fingertip is mainly used by athletes shooting from a classic bow. However, when shooting from a compound, experts recommend using only releases (i.e. special devices for pulling the string, equipped with a trigger), since shooting with your fingers does not contribute to the accuracy of hitting. The most popular are the hanging (wrist) release, which is attached with a strap to the shooter's wrist, and the T-shaped, held by the fingers.
The shelf in the bow is a guarantee of shooting accuracy. Yes, the aforementioned device, absent from ancient and modern traditional bows (in which the arrow's finger acts as a shelf) and which is a fixed place on the handle of the bow for positioning the arrow, does contribute to an increase in hitting accuracy. When choosing a shelf, you should pay attention not to the external attractiveness of the product, but to the correspondence of this to the type of bowstring you have chosen, since the shelf suitable for a bow in which the bowstring is pulled with your fingers is very different from the one that is used when the bowstring is pulled with a release. Moreover, different types of shelves are not interchangeable, since they provide different ways of interaction between the arrow and the bow.
The quiver is usually worn at the waist. Athletes do wear a quiver with arrows at their waist. But hunters prefer to use the invention of Fred Bear (USA) - quivers attached directly to the bow. When choosing such a quiver, it is best to give preference to a product from the manufacturer of the bow - in this case, an exact match of the mounting holes and parts on the bow and quiver is guaranteed.
The more arrows the quiver engages, the better. In sporting events, the quiver's capacity really plays an important role. But when hunting, light weight and compactness are more appreciated. Quivers for at least 8 arrows have been the most popular for quite a long time; today hunters prefer quivers of less weight and volume, which can hold only 4 arrows.
A soft bow case is much more comfortable than a hard one. For transporting onions in public transport or in a car, such a cover is really more convenient, and in the apartment it does not take up much space. However, if you have to transport sports equipment by train or airplane, it is better to purchase a hard case for both the bow and arrows.
Archery develops focus, composure, endurance and is generally good for your health. Unfortunately, this is not entirely true. Doing this kind of sport really contributes to the development of these qualities, but one should not forget that long-term training has a specific effect on the athlete's body, and not always positive. The reason is that in the process of competition and preparation for them, the archer is forced to take a special posture that provides maximum stability and the most comfortable grip. Maintaining this position of the body (rather asymmetric) for several hours requires great muscular efforts, which over time leads to curvature of the spine, asymmetry of the pelvic bones, shoulders, shoulder blades, and other postural disorders. Flat feet, arthritis, osteochondrosis, deforming arthrosis, myositis, etc. may also occur. Especially often the above changes in the musculoskeletal system are observed in young athletes. Archers also suffer from vegetative-vascular dystonia caused by high emotional tension during competitions and training, as well as from concomitant diseases (bronchitis, rhinitis, pneumonia, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, otitis media). To minimize the risk of these problems, you should, firstly, correctly build a training schedule, including various measures aimed at preventing diseases and injuries (a set of corrective exercises performed during and after training; practicing in parallel with other sports, for example, swimming, football, tennis, etc.). Secondly, the coach and the athletes themselves must take into account the impact of negative environmental factors (rain, snow, strong wind) and adjust the training schedule outdoors and indoors.
Modern bows contribute to the greenhouse effect. Yes, if the bow is made with glue and fiberglass (wood and metal structures do not have the above-mentioned effect on the environment). The fact is that the epoxy adhesives that hold together the wooden and fiberglass parts of the onion easily heat up under the rays of the sun (after all, transparent fiberglass does not constitute a serious obstacle to the penetration of visible light, and, at the same time, helps to retain heat rays) and begin to evaporate. To avoid this, a light pigment (eg titanium dioxide) is added to the fiberglass binders.