South Africa is one of the most diverse countries in Africa in terms of nationalities. One of the most important moments in the country's history was the apartheid regime, which existed in the second half of the 20th century.
Today the country is often called "Rainbow". It's time to debunk the most common stereotypes by looking at them without any bias.
Only black people live in South Africa. It is no coincidence that the country is called "rainbow". If only black people lived here, who would have pursued the policy of apartheid? 80% of the country's population has dark skin. But even among blacks, there are many different cultural groups. And there are 11 official languages in South Africa!
South Africa is a wild country. Sometimes it seems that in this African country, animals walk right through the streets. Living inside a zoo would be an exciting adventure, but don't underestimate South Africa. Wild animals live in organized zoos. It's better for them and for the people. The Kruger National Park stands out, one of the largest reserves in Africa with an area of 19,500 square kilometers, 800 species of animals live here.
People in South Africa wear the traditional clothing of their tribes. There are museums and literature to preserve national history and tribal origins. It is they who are able to preserve the identity of peoples in the era of globalization. In South Africa, old customs and traditions are honored. During the holidays, actors perform in national dress, dancing tribal dances. But after that they pick up mobile phones, get into their cars and return to civilized life. It should be understood that national clothes are good for attracting tourists, but completely unsuitable for civilized life in the city.
In South Africa, everyone knows each other. Today South Africa is not one big tribe where everyone knows each other. The country has a population of nearly 50 million and it has been growing by almost a million a year.
In South Africa, everyone lives in huts. The country boasts beautiful architecture, from Victorian homes to modern stadiums built for the 2010 FIFA World Cup. The Soccer Coty arena in Johannesburg is the largest not only in the country, but throughout the continent. Here Nelson Mandela delivered his speech after his release from prison, and his memorial service was also held there. The largest city in the country, Johannesburg, is home to more than 4 million people, and even has its own skyscrapers.
People in South Africa hunt for food. The hunt for food is really underway here, but this happens already within the framework of rest and pleasure, and not for the sake of necessity. Hunting together is considered to be an excellent pastime for fathers and their children, strengthening family ties. And people buy meat in ordinary stores, like us. Fashionable world ideas are spreading in South Africa. There are hipsters and hippies here. Many of them adhere to the traditions of vegetarianism and veganism, which generally does not agree well with hunting.
Everyone in South Africa has AIDS. The problem is serious for the country, but all citizens should not be considered sick. South Africa has one of the highest rates of AIDS in the world. Many became infected through the community of people working in the mines. Miners spend several months away from their families, receiving the minimum wage. They often contract AIDS through extramarital sex. And, after returning home, the virus is already transmitted to their wives. The context of the disease should also be perceived. When traveling in poor areas, you can meet many HIV-positive people. But in rich areas, there is practically no such problem. Likewise, slums have higher levels of crime and drug addiction.
Slavery still exists in South Africa. Slavery in the country was abolished back in 1834. Today, even wages below a certain minimum level are considered a criminal offense. Employers are required to comply with statutory employment conditions.
There is no electricity in the country. And while it is common in South Africa to complain about the utility company Eskom for its poor service and constant service interruptions, electricity is still being produced at the right amount. Without him, the country could not have become the most developed on the continent. South Africa even has its own nuclear power plant with two power units.
In South Africa, it is constantly sunny. The words "Africa" and "South" themselves conjure up the idea of a permanent sun. In fact, South Africa is not always hot. Winters here, of course, cannot be compared with European ones. But in the mountains there is snow, there are storms and cold showers, thunder and floods. Moreover, a series of bad weather can occur within one day. It seems at times that even meteorologists cannot predict further weather. And the lowest temperature in South Africa -18 ° C was recorded in the Eastern Cape.
In South Africa, everyone is poor. Do not think that all the local children are waiting for Angelina Jolie's adoption. For the country, poverty is a real problem, but it is global for the entire continent. The nation positions itself as progressive and willing to take its rightful place in the world community. This is achieved by building international relations and business. South Africa does not want to appear as a place on the map where lions and hungry people live. And although the country is still a developing country, it is no longer considered the Third World. South Africa's GDP is the 26th in the world, and in terms of purchasing power parity, the republic is among the first 80 countries.
Since the fall of apartheid in 1994, the white population has halved. It is believed that at the time of the abolition of the policy of racial segregation, there were about 20% of white people in the country. Actually, approximately the same ratio existed at the beginning of the 20th century. However, the actual number of white people at the time of the fall of apartheid is estimated at 5.2-5.5 million. At that time, it was about 10.5% of the country's population. Today, the country has just over 9% of white people. The percentage of white people has dropped by half, but in the entire previous century, not in the last couple of decades. This decline in the white population can be attributed to simple demographics. More children are born in black families, while whites are falling. And during the census, statistics became more accurate, which made it possible to better calculate the number of black citizens. The smallest number of white people in South Africa turned out to be in 2002. By that time, since 1994, about a million people of this race have left the country. This is a lot, but there can be no question about half of it. In addition, since 2002, the number of white people in the country has grown by about 200 thousand people a year.
Land reform forces the black people to give land for next to nothing. According to this myth, white farmers are even killed with the tacit connivance of the authorities. But the country has no laws on the compulsory seizure of land and the transfer of it to citizens of another race. Here, unlike Zimbabwe, the land was not divided into small allotments. Left-wing parties are constantly proposing to do this, but it is not so easy to change the Constitution. But the basic law guarantees the safety of private property for all citizens of the country, regardless of skin color. We can say that farmers sell their plots themselves, because the risks in this business are quite high. Only large farms can survive. Boer killings are more frequent than they might be. But the government does not at all encourage such persecution of white farmers. It's just that crime is not easy to deal with. As a result, those farmers survive who are also capable of maintaining armed guards. Today, one in ten white people in the country owns a land plot, cultivating it.
Businesses are required to hire black employees. The country has a set of regulations on this topic, under the general name BBBEE. This set of laws governs the hiring of black citizens. However, companies are not required to hire a black employee if a more qualified white person is applying for the job. Firms are not threatened with any fines because of this. There is also no ban on working for white people. WWEE has several levels of assessment. The company receives points for fairness of employment, compliance with the principles of the law. That is why white companies cooperate with black companies. Many points are devoted to management personnel, the provision of leadership positions to black women is especially encouraged. Any employee can be hired, but when it comes to government orders, the BBBEE rating is the first thing to pay attention to. There are no penalties for a low rating.
In South Africa, white people live in ghettos. It is believed that after the abolition of apartheid, white people themselves became the object of persecution, almost moving to the ghetto. South Africa has a really high crime rate. Here, in front of houses, even in the elite neighborhoods, two-meter fences with bars are often found. But just rich people live there. It is wealth that allows them to isolate themselves from the outside world, and not skin color. For countries in a time of change, high crime is a concomitant factor. Such ghetto quarters cannot be counted in any way.
Fewer people died during the apartheid period than during the subsequent period of democratic reforms. Right-wing parties distribute a poster stating that from 1948 to 1989, only 7 thousand people died in the country, and from 1994 to 2013 more than 320 thousand. A logical question is asked - was apartheid so bad? However, here we are talking about forgery and manipulation. The number of victims recognized by the apartheid regime is compared to the total number of murders in South Africa in subsequent years. We do not demand that cars be canceled on the grounds that no one died in car accidents before their invention. The apartheid policy is in the past, the country is facing new challenges. Among them is a high crime rate.
South Africa has nuclear weapons. South Africa went down in history as the first country to voluntarily renounce nuclear weapons. Its development began in the 1970s, together with Israel. And in 1979, the first nuclear test took place on Bouvet Island. In total, by 1990, South Africa had created 6 charges, and an interballistic missile was being developed. However, after the decision was made to abandon the policy of apartheid, the authorities voluntarily curtailed the development of nuclear weapons. An IAEA inspection in 1994 confirmed that South Africa no longer has this class of charges.
South Africa doesn't like immigrants. For the country, the issue of immigration turned out to be a painful one. In 2003, President Thabo Mbeki even summoned his own Minister of the Interior to resolve controversial provisions that impede immigration. These norms helped attract big business and foreign specialists. But for poor immigrants, small traders, and job seekers, they had the opposite effect. As a result, thousands of people found themselves in limbo, which the crime did not fail to take advantage of. Law enforcement agencies could arbitrarily search and arrest foreign citizens. The new regulations, while working poorly due to bureaucracy, have eased the situation.
South Africa is overwhelmed by foreigners. This point of view can be viewed from different angles, depending on political beliefs. In 1998, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs claimed that there were up to five million illegal immigrants in the country. This figure has long been used by politicians and researchers. Officially, South Africa has from 500 thousand to 1 million immigrants. The migration research program lists the number at 1.6-2 million. In any case, this is 3-4% of the total population of the country. For the United States, the ratio is 11%, and for the UAE it is generally 80%.
The root cause of crime in South Africa is total poverty. Research has shown that crime should not be directly linked to poverty. Many are really trying to improve their lives by hunting businessmen, officials and other bandits. But the problem is also political. Local power struggles are underway, where the rule of law is not always respected. The most vulnerable are foreigners who do not know local realities. It is no coincidence that the approaching elections are accompanied by an outbreak of violence.
High unemployment in South Africa due to the fact that immigrants compete with local residents for limited resources. Inhabitants of the country often criticize newcomers for taking their jobs. Officially, unemployment in the country is 24%, but there are reasons for this. With the end of apartheid, the transfer of culture, knowledge and power went badly. The discontent of the people spilled over into the strangers. There is a connection between unemployment and the inability to create traditional families - only 30% of adult citizens live in marriage. In fact, foreign impregnations into the South African labor market are creating new opportunities through entrepreneurial energy. Immigration improves the structure of the economy and its size, creating new jobs. And 96% of the country's working-age population is local.
Immigrants are a source of crime. It is popular to accuse newcomers of being the ones who commit the crimes. It's hard to get feedback. However, the social reintegration services for offenders found that only 4% of inmates in the country's prisons are foreigners. The document states that of the prisoners 79% are black, 2% are white and 18% are colored. So the government of the country should look for the roots of the problem inside, not outside.
Immigrants do not share trading skills, self-isolating. In response to the xenophobic attacks on foreign businessmen in Johannesburg, the Minister for Small Business Development, defending his government, said the traders were to blame. They need to understand the need to communicate and share their secrets with local competitors. However, it is a misconception that foreigners have some initial advantages. Immigrants have to be more entrepreneurial if they want to survive and achieve something. The policy of protectionism will only hinder them in this, limiting the development of the entire country. And attacks in South Africa are not directed at isolated and closed groups, but at separately scattered foreigners. So, in 2008, 62 people were killed during the riots! This forces the immigrants to stay close to each other in order to resist the looters.
There is no problem of xenophobia in the AYUR. After criticizing other African countries, the South African authorities said that such a problem does not exist in the country. However, studies on migration in southern Africa, conducted from 1990 to 2009, revealed an unpleasant fact. Although multinational corporations operate throughout the continent, it is in South Africa that people from other countries are treated the worst. Local residents frankly dislike newcomers, believing that they are in the country illegally and take other people's jobs. After the pogroms of 2008, a study was also carried out. It turned out that in South Africa the levels of intolerance and hostility towards outsiders are the same as in few places in the world. This is surprising, because foreigners come here to help fight AIDS and improve electrification. Volunteers come without their families to help the country. In recent years, the situation has softened somewhat, but has not been resolved. The authorities were advised to actively prosecute xenophobes, conduct an information and political campaign, and inform the population through the media.Otherwise, the pogroms could be repeated.