Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin, the real name of Dzhugashvili (6 (18) .12.1878 (according to the official version 9 (21) .12.1879) - 03/05/1953) is a revolutionary, state, political, party and military leader, the leader of all peoples.
From 1917 to 1923, People's Commissar for Nationalities of the RSFSR. In 1919 he was elected People's Commissar of State Control of the RSFSR. From 1920 to 1922, People's Commissar of the Workers 'and Peasants' Inspection of the RSFSR; General Secretary of the Central Committee of the RCP (b) (1922 -1925); General Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) (1925-1934); served as Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) (1934-1952); had the right to attend and the right to vote as Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee (1952-1953) at meetings of the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee.
From 1941 to 1946 Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR (the Council of People's Commissars at that time was the highest executive and administrative body of the USSR); Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1946-1953). In 1941 he was appointed the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of the USSR; Chairman of the State Defense Committee (1941-1945), People's Commissar of Defense of the USSR (1941-1946), People's Commissar of the Armed Forces of the USSR (1946-1947).
In 1943 he became Marshal of the Soviet Union (the title was awarded 41 times, of which 36 times - to professional military men, 4 - to politicians who held military posts (Stalin, Beria, Bulganin and Brezhnev)).
After the persuasion of Marshal of the Soviet Union K. K. Rokossovsky, he gave his consent in 1945 to be awarded the title of Generalissimo of the Soviet Union. Member of the Executive Committee of the Comintern (1925-1943). Honorary Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences (since 1939). Since 1939 Hero of Socialist Labor (highest degree of distinction for labor); At the end of the Second World War in 1945, he was awarded the highest degree of distinction of the USSR - the title of Hero of the Soviet Union.
Stalin's date of birth is December 9, 1879. During Stalin's life and in all reference books, the birthday of I. V. Stalin was counted on December 9 (21), 1879. In the metric book of the Gori Assumption Cathedral Church there is a record of the birth of Joseph Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili - December 6 (18), 1878. There is also information (records of the police department) indicating the years of birth of Joseph Stalin in 1879 and 1881. In the questionnaire (December 1920) of the Swedish newspaper "Folkets Dagblad Politiken" I. Stalin indicated his own date of birth - 1878.
Stalin was not the son of Dzhugashvili. There are many points of view about who Stalin's father was. One of the versions is that the famous traveler Przhevalsky was the father of Joseph Stalin. This myth arose from the portrait resemblance between Nikolai Mikhailovich Przhevalsky and Joseph Stalin. But at the indicated time, Przhevalsky was not in Georgia. There is another point of view (Aleksandr Lepshin expresses it in the book Fatal Combat, 1997) that the leader's father was a certain Adelkhanov (owner of a shoe factory), for whom Stalin's mother worked. And allegedly Adelkhanov married off already pregnant, from him the future mother of the leader for Vissarion Dzhugashvili. In addition, Lepshin claims that Stalin subsequently sued Adelkhanov's inheritance, trying to prove that he was his real father. Many researchers are inclined to the point of view that after all, Dzhuganashvili was Stalin's father. First, an archival photograph of Vissarion Ivanovich Dzhugashvili was found. It shows the resemblance of Joseph Vissarionovich to Vissarion Dzhugashvili. Secondly, DNA analysis refuted the allegation of the relationship: Przewalski and Stalin. Thirdly, Stalin's son (Yakov) was remarkably similar to Vissarion's grandfather.
Joseph Dzhugashvili was the first and only son of Ekaterina Georgievna Dzhugashvili (nee Geladze). Not certainly in that way. The first two sons of Ekaterina Dzhugashvili died immediately after birth. Her third son (and last child) is Joseph Dzhugashvili.
Stalin began to study Russian from childhood. In 1886, Joseph was not admitted to the Gori Orthodox Theological School, since he did not know Russian. In 1886 - 1888, the children of the priest Christopher Charkviani began to teach the Russian language to Joseph Vissarionovich. A deeper mastery of the language Joseph continued at the school, the teacher Zakhari Alekseevich Davitashvili helped him a lot in this. Stalin learned Russian, but always spoke with an accent.
In his youth, Dzhugashvili wrote poems. It's true. Ilya Grigorievich Chavchavadze (classic of Georgian literature) influenced his literary work. The poems of the sixteen-year-old seminarian I.V. Dzhugashvili, were published in the Tiflis literary newspaper "Iveria", in the issues of June 17, September 22, October 11, 25 and 29, 1895. The following poems saw the light: dedicated to the poet Rafael Eristavi "When the peasant's bitter share ...", "The moon", "He walked from house to house ...", "When the moon shines with its ...", "Morning". The sixth poem "Elder Ninika" was published on the pages of the "Kvali" newspaper on July 28, 1896. The work of Joseph Dzhugashvili was appreciated by the readers, and the poem "Morning", on the recommendation of Ilya Chavchavadze, was even published in the primer "Dada Ena" and for many years it was one of the favorite first poems of children.
Stalin's left arm was injured. Yes it is. When Joseph was six years old (according to some sources, ten), he severely bruised his left arm (atrophy of the shoulder and elbow joints). The defect remained for life, the left hand was slightly shorter than the right and defective.
Dzhugashvili's first wife was Nadezhda Alliluyeva. No, Joseph's first wife was Ekaterina Svanidze from the village of Didi-Lilo. Dzhugashvili secretly (wedding was not welcomed among the revolutionaries) married her on July 16, 1904. According to one version, the marriage was facilitated by the mother of Dzhugashvili, according to another version, they were introduced by Alexander Svanidze (Joseph's friend at the seminary), the girl's brother. Kato idolized her husband and was very shy. She worked as a seamstress, laundress. In 1909, Kato fell seriously ill and died.
Stalin's first party nickname "Koba". There is a version that the imagination of the young Joseph Stalin was influenced by the novel by A. Kazbegi (Georgian writer, representative of critical realism of the 19th century), "Father-killer" (tells about the struggle of mountain peasants for freedom and freedom). One of the heroes of the novel, the brave Koba, became an idol for Stalin, and he began to call himself Koboi. This was the leader's first party name. In the 30s, the Bolsheviks often called Joseph Stalin Koba. Stalin had many party nicknames, for example: "Besoshvili", "Nizheradze", "Chizhikov", "Ivanovich", "Vasily", "Vasiliev". But in 1912, the pseudonym "Koba" was finally established for Stalin.
Stalin took part in the October Revolution. This myth, invented in order to somehow lead Stalin to the leader of the revolution. The archive contains information about all active participants in the 1917 revolution, Stalin does not appear in them. Where was Joseph Vissarionovich at that time, there is no reliable data. The role of Stalin in the October Revolution has been exaggerated.
Women loved Stalin. Joseph was outwardly attractive, and women also liked his imperious nature, charisma. Joseph Stalin knew how to be charming. Women liked Stalin, they looked at him with loving eyes. Most of all he was attracted to young girls. His first wife, Katya Svanidze, was sixteen. Nadezhda Alliluyeva was eighteen when she became his wife. The third illegitimate wife, Valentina Istomina, was seventeen years old. His youngest mistress was Lydia Pereprygina, she was fourteen.
Stalin was never helpless, he always knew how to act. For the first time in the days of the war, Joseph Stalin generally fell into a state of prostration (a state of extreme exhaustion, relaxation, helplessness). He retired (June 29 - 30, 1941) at the "Blizhnyaya Dacha" in Kuntsevo did not receive anyone until members of the Politburo came to him. After which Stalin took office. Boris Bazhanov (party leader, personal secretary of V.I. Stalin), in his notes, claims that Stalin was an extremely cautious and indecisive person, but did not show it.
Stalin had two sons. Yes, Stalin had two legitimate sons, the elder Yakov from his first marriage and the younger Vasily from his second marriage. There was also an adopted son, Artyom Fedorovich Sergeev (son of the deceased revolutionary Fedor Sergeev), grew up and was brought up in the family of Stalin, was a friend of Vasily Stalin. When Artem was five months old, Elizaveta Lvovna (the mother of the child) became very ill, Stalin and his wife, Nadya (Nadya and Liza were friends), took the child with them. According to the information (a secret letter written to Khrushchev on July 18, 1956), the KGB Chairman Ivan Alexandrovich Serov, Stalin had two more illegitimate sons: Konstantin Kuzakov (1912) and Alexander Dzhugashvili (1917). Matryona was Kuzakov's mother. The exiled Dzhugashvili lived in her apartment in Solvychegodsk. Matryona gave birth to a son who was sharply different from her blonde brothers and sisters. Kostya wrote to her husband, who died two years before the birth of the child. After Matryona receives Moscow housing and registration. Kuzakov Konstantin worked in the propaganda department of the Central Committee. Beria accused Kuzakov of involvement in "atomic espionage" and expelled him from the party. But Stalin canceled all repressions against Constantine. From 1914 to 1916, Joseph Dzhugashvili was in exile in the Turukhansk region, in the village of Kureyka. He lived and cohabited with 14-year-old Lida Pereprygina. She gave birth to two babies from him. The first one died. The second was named by Alexander Dzhugashvili. After serving his exile, Joseph leaves Lida. Alexander was adopted by the peasant Yakov Davydov. Lydia wrote letters to Stalin, but he did not answer her. Stalin had no personal contacts with illegitimate sons.
Stalin allowed children to take weapons. In Stalin's house, weapons were not hidden from children. Once it almost killed the leader himself. Ten-year-olds Vasya and Artem were playing with a 12-gauge gun, it was at their dacha in Zubalovo. The children loaded the gun, which was hanging on the wall by Stalin, and without putting it on the safety, they hung it up. When Stalin went up to the office, a double shot rang out. The family ran into the office and saw two holes in the wall, a torn jacket sleeve, from which blood was dripping. For a week the boys did not go to school, they mastered the rules of using weapons.
Stalin considered people to be wordless "human cogs" in a car. This myth appeared after a toast made by Joseph Vissarionovich in honor of the participants in the Victory Parade on June 25, 1945, at which the word "cogs" was sounded. In fact, the leader proclaimed a toast to the health of people who have few ranks and an unenviable title. For people who are considered "cogs" of the great state mechanism, but without whom everyone - marshals and commanders of fronts and armies, roughly speaking, do not stand a damn thing. This was written in the newspaper Pravda on June 27, 1945.
The phrase "There is a person - there is a problem, if there is no person - there is no problem" belongs to Joseph Stalin. This phrase is often attributed to Iosif Vissarionovich, but in reality the phrase belongs to Anatoly Rybakov (Stalin Prize laureate, writer). It was he who attributed this statement to Stalin in the novel Children of the Arbat (1987). Rybakov was very proud that the phrase he had invented so organically fit into the image of the leader. He writes about this in his autobiographical novel "Novel-Memories" (1997).
The phrase "The death of one person is a tragedy, the death of millions is a statistic" is attributed to the leader. In fact, the author of the phrase is Erich Maria Remarque (a famous German writer). Remarque, expressed it in his novel "Black Obelisk" (1956): "But, apparently, it always happens this way: the death of one person is death, and the death of two million is only statistics." Earlier, Tucholsky (German journalist and writer) had a similar phrase in his essay "Französischer Witz" (1932).
Stalin did not save his son Yakov from German captivity. Not far from the town of Liozno, on July 16, 1941, Yakov Dzhugashvili was captured. The Germans wanted to change Jacob to Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus, who was in captivity of the Red Army. But Stalin refused. He said that he did not change a field marshal for a soldier. According to one version, Yakov Dzhugashvili died in a concentration camp in April 1943, while trying to escape, according to another, he committed suicide.
Stalin is an agent of the security department of the Police Department. No that's not true. In 1956, a document was published abroad stating that Stalin was an agent of the security police department (under the leadership of the department there were security departments, police agencies, detective departments, address desks and fire brigades) in 1913. But scientific researchers (including those carried out by Stalin's opponents) allow us to consider the document a fake and compromising evidence.
Hitler banned the publication of a photograph of Stalin with a cigarette. This happened in 1939 during the signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact (non-aggression pact between Germany and the Soviet Union). Hitler thought such a photo gave off frivolity. And the signing of the pact is an official act, because there is no place for a man with a cigarette in his teeth. And this can offend the German people. The cigarette was retouched.
Churchill spoke flatteringly of Stalin. Churchill really praised Stalin, these statements refer to the war period. The last valid flattering review (Fulton's speech) came from Winston Churchill on March 5, 1946, at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri. In the USSR, this signaled the start of the Cold War.
Stalin liked to be generous. Help the poor and the suffering. The newspaper "Unity" (No. 2, 1999) published a case from the life of Tamara Orlovskaya, Candidate of Philology, about how Stalin helped them and his mother move to Baku, took care of the payment of permanent benefits. The next case. On January 16, 1947, Academician Tsitsin gave Stalin a note from the village of Pchelka, Parbig District, Tomsk Region, from Comrade V. Solomin asking for help. Stalin personally sent six thousand rubles out of his salary. Another case. During the war, learning that he had accumulated a certain amount of deputy money, which he had forgotten about, Stalin sent the money to childhood friends: Peter Kopnadze, Grigory Glurdzhidze, Mikhail Dzeradze.
Stalin lived to be 73 years old thanks to the fact that he led a healthy lifestyle. No, it's not true, Stalin's lifestyle cannot be called healthy. He never went in for sports, did not do physical work, sat a lot, smoked a pipe, drank wine (preferred Kakhetian), ate a lot. It's amazing how he managed to live quite a long time by leading such a lifestyle.
Stalin was sick with paranoia. This version became widespread in the late 1980s. The press wrote that Professor Vladimir Bekhterev (a talented Russian psychiatrist, neuropathologist, physiologist, psychologist, founder of reflexology and pathopsychological direction, academician) diagnosed Stalin with "paranoia", and for this he was poisoned. This version was initially supported by the academician's granddaughter, Natalia Bekhtereva. In September 1995 in the newspaper "Argumenty i Fakty", she refuted her statement, explaining that she was forced to make this statement. In addition, in August 1989, psychiatrists discussed this issue at a round table in the editorial office of Literaturnaya Gazeta. The doctors made a conclusion about the mental adequacy of the leader. N.P.Bekhtereva also took part in the round table.
Stalin canceled the celebration of Victory Day. Yes it's true. From the very beginning, Joseph Stalin did not maintain a positive attitude towards the celebration of Victory over Nazi Germany (according to General Zhukov, the leader refused to accept the Victory Parade on June 24, 1945). Victory Day celebrations were canceled in December 1947. The official version of the authorities was logical and short, they say, you need to work, there is no time to celebrate. The version is as follows - the military and veterans understood that Stalin had nothing to do with victory, the leader was well aware of this. Viktor Bogdanovich Suvorov (Rezun) puts forward several reasons: Stalin, like no one else, knew the real cost of victory.He felt a sense of annoyance and disappointment, because Hitler broke his plans for the liberation of Europe by the Red Army.
During his lifetime, Stalin had a double. There were many legends on this issue. There is even a story by Varlen Strongin (prose writer, artist) "Stalin's Double". However, numerous studies refute this.
Stalin sold Alaska. No, this is a delusion. There are several versions about the sale of Alaska: Alaska was not sold, but leased for 99 years, but the USSR for some reason did not return it back. Alaska was sold by Empress Catherine II. However, according to historical documents, in fact, the sale took place during the reign of Alexander II. The official transfer of Alaska to the United States took place on October 18, 1867.
Lenin did not want to see Stalin as his successor. This myth has not been completely debunked. This point of view emerged in 1985-1991, the so-called "years of perestroika". There is an opinion about the existence of Lenin's will, which says that Stalin should not lead the country. This point of view was supported in their books by Robert Tucker (American political scientist, professor, doctor of historical sciences), Robert Conquest (British intelligence officer, diplomat, author of works on political history), Isaac Deutscher (historian and publicist, author of books on history and sociology), however they all referred only to Trotsky's statement. In December 1922, in his "Letter to the Congress," Lenin wrote that Stalin, having become General Secretary, concentrated immense power in his hands, and he was not sure whether Joseph Stalin would always be able to use this power with sufficient caution. Vladimir Ilyich also spoke about Trotsky's "small-scale "ism, emphasized the ideological instability of Zinoviev, Kamenev, Bukharin, Pyatakov. In addition, on January 4, 1923, he wrote that Stalin was too rude, and this shortcoming was unacceptable in the post of general secretary. Therefore, Lenin proposed to consider the possibility of removing Stalin from the post of general secretary and to appoint another person. Associate Professor of Moscow State University V.A. Sakharov ("Lenin's Political Testament. The Reality of History and the Myths of Politics") writes that one cannot believe the authenticity of Lenin's "Testament", since it was dictated to him, which means that it could have been falsified. First of all, suspicion falls on Nadezhda Krupskaya, who had her own political point of view and supported Trotsky rather than Stalin. From the point of view of V.V. Karpov (writer, publicist, public figure "Generalissimo" (book 1)), among the members of the Politburo there was no person other than Stalin, on whom Lenin could rely and transfer to him the role of party leader. Stalin was more suited to the role of successor than others. He never came forward with his theories, remained faithful to the ideas of Lenin, firmly followed him and, if he made mistakes, he quickly corrected them. One could hope that he would not deviate from the revolutionary Leninist path.
There is still no scientific biography of Stalin. A lot of books have been written about Joseph Stalin that make him either an angel or a devil. But a scientifically grounded biography has not yet been created, although the archives have been open since the 90s. The most detailed biography (in three volumes) of Stalin was written by Robert Tucker. This biography is called "psychobiography" in the West. The first volume "Stalin. The path to power, 1917-1929." published in Moscow in 1991. The second volume is "Stalin in Power, 1929 -1941." translated into Russian in 1997. There is no information about the third volume yet.
Stalin often talked with St. Matrona of Moscow. This myth has appeared recently. After on November 26, 2008, on the initiative of Hegumen Eustathius (Zhakov), rector of the Church of the Holy Equal-to-the-Apostles Princess Olga (Streln, Petrodvorets district of St. Petersburg). It was in this church that the icon "Matrona and Stalin" was placed. The icon was subjected to sharp criticism from the diocese, and the church also stated that Stalin's conversations with St. Matronoy is a legend and does not correspond to the real state of affairs.