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Sunburn is a darkening of human skin under the influence of ultraviolet radiation, as a result of which melanin pigment is excessively deposited in the surface layers. Sunburn develops gradually after repeated low-intensity exposures.
The most intense and persistent tanning occurs after prolonged exposure to the sun, which often adversely affects the state of health (nervous, cardiovascular, etc. The degree and speed of tanning are not indicators of health.
Sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation, especially children, varies from person to person. Dark-skinned brunettes tan faster than blondes and redheads with thin, delicate skin, who often have skin burns when exposed to ultraviolet rays.
Lubricating the skin with vegetable oils (walnut, peach, etc.) for quick tanning protects it from drying out and to some extent from burns.
The presence of sunburn on the body makes it more beautiful, healthy, pimples disappear. Most of us know how unsafe UV light is, but we still strive to look good thanks to tanning. If you devote to tanning in the sun or in a solarium for a long time, this will turn into not very good consequences for you. The skin will age faster, new wrinkles will appear, collagen will collapse, the skin will lose the moisture it needs and will lose its previous tone. But all this can be avoided if you choose the right sunscreen, buy quality glasses, do not forget about a Panama hat or a cap with a large visor.
If you use sunscreen, tanning is safe. When the skin is tanned, special changes occur in it. Any tanning is unsafe. Sunscreen must be UV A and B UV resistant and must have an SPF of at least 15 (at least 30 for people with previous skin cancer). Apply the cream about an hour before going outside, then every two hours (more often if you swim in the pond).
Protective cream protects against skin cancer. The claim that a powerful sunscreen is all it takes for complete sun protection is a myth. Thus, a level 30 cream will provide sufficient protection, but only against one type of rays - UVB (short ultraviolet rays that cause burns). But there are other rays - UVA, they penetrate deeper under the skin. And lead to the formation of wrinkles, and can also cause cancer. Many manufacturers claim that their creams protect against both UVB and UVA. But the WHO report casts doubt on this thesis: "Due to the lack of clear criteria for assessing the effectiveness of testing the effect of UVA rays is not yet possible ...".
The SPF rating on sunscreens shows how well your skin is protected. There are two types of solar radiation: UVB, which is responsible for sunburn and burns, and UBA, which is responsible for skin aging. The specified SPF index is only responsible for UBV radiation. To reliably protect the skin from direct sunlight, it is better to purchase a cream that will contain components that block UVA radiation.
You need to use sunscreen every day. Sunscreen should be applied every time you are outdoors for more than 10-15 minutes. The sun also acts on you when you are driving or sitting in a room next to a window. Creams with moisturizers or spray products are easier to use. Ultraviolet rays penetrate the clouds, so sunscreen is also needed in winter and on cloudy days.
Moisturizer and sunscreen should be used together. It is too much to apply two creams at the same time, since the sunscreen already contains moisturizing ingredients. If you have normal to oily skin type, it is recommended to use either sunscreen or facial toner. For dry skin, apply moisturizer first, allow time to absorb, and only then apply sunscreen. It is advisable to use sunscreen in any weather, as the sun always shines, even on the darkest day.
In addition to sunscreen, other sun protection measures should be used. It is useful to combine sunscreen with wearing a hat or umbrella. The sun is especially aggressive from 10 am to 4 pm, so try to be in the shade during these hours.
Sunbathing causes eye diseases. It really is. The sun in high doses has an extremely negative effect on the retina. That is why a person squints his eyes in the sun - this is a reflex developed over millennia of evolution. Use quality sunglasses and wide-brimmed hats when sunbathing.
Umbrellas save you from burning. Unfortunately, this is not the case. Umbrellas, as well as the shade of rare palm trees on the beach, do not provide sufficient protection - diffused ultraviolet light will reach you even in the shade of a beach umbrella. Don't rely on an umbrella. Look at your watch and use protective equipment.
People with dark skin are protected from the harmful effects of the sun. Not true. The skin of dark-skinned people can also sunbathe and burn, they can also get skin cancer.
It is necessary to sunbathe, as the body produces vitamin D. To get an adequate dose of vitamin D, it is enough to spend 15 minutes outdoors with an open face and hands twice a week. Vitamin D is found in multivitamins, milk, and other foods.
You can sunbathe until the skin turns red and only then hide in the shade. In fact, even though a sunburn is a kind of alarm, it goes off five hours after the "break-in". By this time, skin cells have long been badly damaged. Therefore, you need to hide in the shade even before the skin turns red.
If you eat more carrots, then you can tan faster. Carrots have no effect on skin color (which, of course, does not mean that they are useless: rich in beta-carotene, they are a great antioxidant and slow down the aging process).
Excessive obsession with tanning leads to early aging of the skin. Unfortunately, this is true. You can see this if you compare the skin condition in exposed areas (face and hands) with skin in areas covered by clothing.
Women are not allowed to sunbathe "topless". Contrary to popular belief, the sun's rays have no direct effect on breast tissue. The only danger is sunburn of the nipples and areolas (areola), which can lead to peeling of the nipple skin, nipple cracks, skin furuncles and even inflammatory changes in the mammary gland. Nipple burns are also common because, for obvious reasons, nipples are often out of the shadow when tanning "topless".
Sunburn disappears after going to the bathhouse or sauna. This is one of the common misconceptions. Purely visually, human skin looks lighter after washing. This can give the illusion that the tan has partially faded. In addition, if washing in a sauna or in a regular steam room, you rubbed your skin with a washcloth quite intensively, peeling of the superficial epidermis (slight) is possible, which may be accompanied by flaking skin areas, if you have sunburned intensively before that and burned a little in the sun. If the darkened patches of skin have peeled off, then the skin under them will naturally be lighter. she is not tanned. True tan is the pigment inside the skin and no sauna can remove it. Think, because a tattoo is also a pigment inside the skin (though, unlike tanning, artificial origin). If the sauna was capable of reducing tanning, then it could reduce tattoos, but this does not happen.
Is it safer to sunbathe in the North than in the South? This is a common misconception. Rather the opposite. In the spectrum of sunlight, there are two frequency types of ultraviolet radiation, the so-called UV-A and UV-B. At the same time, UV-A are longer, less energetic waves that lead to the so-called "quick" tan. It is very difficult or impossible to dose UV-A radiation. In order to get a tan with UV-A rays, you need to get a much higher dose than with a similar UV-B tan. With increasing latitude in the solar radiation, the proportion of UV-B rays increases, so there are more UV-A rays in the north. Therefore, in order to get a "northern bottling" tan similar to the southern one, you need to lie on the beach several times longer and, accordingly, receive a large dose of UV-A rays, which is more likely to lead to sunburn. In addition, under the influence of UV-B, vitamin D3 is produced, which has a protective effect not only on the skin, but also on the mammary gland.