Swimming is movement in water that does not imply contact with the bottom. Swimming is not only a sport, but also a component of some all-around, triathlon and modern pentathlon.
Since ancient times, people have been swimming - this is evidenced by some rock paintings, which are more than 7000 years old. Moreover, judging by the images, most often they used a style somewhat reminiscent of over-arm (or Russian "sazhenki") and swimming "like a frog."
Written sources mentioning the above-mentioned method of overcoming water obstacles date back to 2000 BC. e. There are many references to the art of swimmers in the Iliad, Odyssey, the Bible, as well as in many ancient sagas (Gilgamesh, Beowulf, etc.). Herodotus mentions the advantages of swimming, allowing soldiers to win victories in battles.
The first book on swimming, Der Schwimmer oder ein Zwiegespräch über die Schwimmkunst (The Swimmer or Dialogue on the Art of Swimming), was written in 1538 by Professor Nikolaus Wienmann from Germany. In Russian, a book entitled "The Teaching and Cunning of the Military Structure of Infantry People", containing advice on teaching swimming, was published in 1647.
During the time of Peter I, all the soldiers of the tsarist army were required to master swimming skills, and in Germany this sport was taught in some schools. In 1842, the first indoor swimming pool was built in Vienna, and in 1843 structures of this kind appeared in Germany, England (where the first official swimming club was created in 1867), Czechoslovakia.
In Russia, such a pool was built somewhat later - in 1891, although the first swimming school in this country appeared in 1834, in St. Petersburg.
Swimming sports competitions were first held in Venice, at the beginning of the 16th century, and the first official championship in this sport took place in 1877 in England. The official European Swimming Championships first took place in 1890.
Competitions in this sport are included in the program of all modern Olympiads. And if at the first Olympiad in Athens, swimmers (and only men) competed only in freestyle swimming (100, 500, 1200 m), then already at the second Olympiad, backstroke swimming (200 m) was included, and in the program of the third Olympic Games included breaststroke swimming competitions. Women swimmers first performed at the V Olympiad (1912, Stockholm (Sweden)).
The International Swimming Federation (FR. FINA, Fédération Internationale de Natation) was founded in 1908. Its task is to develop the rules and program of international competitions in swimming, water polo, synchronized swimming and diving, as well as holding world championships, appointing judges and setting the procedure for registering world records. Created in 1926, the European Swimming League (FR. LEN, Ligue Européenne de Natation) is responsible for the European championships in this sport.
In swimming, international championships, championships, qualifying, match and cup competitions are held, subdivided according to the method of determining the championship into personal (results are counted only for athletes), personal-team (results and places are distributed both between swimmers and between teams) and team (results are valid only for teams).
Swimming competitions can be held both in open reservoirs (in "open water") and in indoor pools (in "confined water") of various lengths: 25 meters (so-called "low water"), 50-100 meters ("large water"). The minimum depth of the pool is 1 m throughout and 1.35 m in the pool section from 1 to 6 meters near the starting tables.
The width of the paths is about 2.5 meters, on the outside of the outer paths there must be a free space of at least 0.2 meters. Separating cords of different colors (green - for lanes 1 and 8, blue - for lanes 2, 3, 6, 7, yellow - for lanes 4 and 5) are stretched along the entire length of the pool, and are equipped with floats, the diameter of which ranges from 0.05 up to 0.15 meters.
In addition, at the bottom of the pool, in the middle of each track, a special marking is applied in a dark contrasting color (line width - 0.2-0.3 m, length - 21 meters (for 25-meter pools) or 46 meters (for 50-meter pools). On each track at the starting and turning ends of the pool, there is a plate with a number.
On a segment of each cord 5 meters long, red floats are placed at each end wall. Also, the color of the floats, different from the main one, is marked with a 15-meter (or 25-meter in a pool, the length of which is 50 meters) mark in a 25-meter pool.
For the start of athletes, special numbered starting tables are installed, the height of which is from 0.5 to 0.75 meters, and the dimensions of the surface covered with non-slip material are 0.5 × 0.5 m.For start when swimming on the back at a height of 0.3 -0.6 m from the water surface there are vertical and horizontal handrails. The water temperature in the pool should be +25 - + 28 ° С.
There are such swimming styles:
• Over-arm (English overarm stroke - "swimming with the extension of the arm") - one of the types of swimming on the side with the extension of the arm forward or with the arm raised above the head. It has long been used by the British. Previously called sidestroke. After improvement in the second half of the 19th century, it was quite popular among athletes. In Russia this type of swimming was called "sazhenki";
• Tregen-style (English Trudgen, at first it was called double overarm stroke - "swimming with arms alternately") - a style of swimming on the stomach, characterized by alternating strokes of slightly bent arms, while the legs were initially simultaneously spread horizontally to the sides, after which they quickly closed to center. This style was first demonstrated in 1873 by John Arthur Tregen (England) and was used to overcome long distances until the 20s of the last century, until it was finally superseded by the crawl;
• Crawl - swimming on the stomach, in which slightly bent arms alternate strokes, legs alternately rise and fall continuously (scissor principle). This is one of the fastest swimming styles, sometimes called freestyle. It was first demonstrated by Richard Cavill (Australia) at the end of the 19th century, and in the early 20s of the last century, thanks to some changes proposed by American swimmers, it took a leading place among other swimming styles;
• Butterfly (from the English. Butterfly - "butterfly") - one of the high-speed varieties of breaststroke. Swimming on the stomach, during which the hands move synchronously along a certain trajectory, making a strong stroke, as a result of which the body of the swimmer rises above the water. At the same time, both legs make wave-like movements at the same time. The most energy-consuming and difficult-to-master style, second in speed after the crawl. This type of swimming has long been considered a type of breaststroke, and was finally separated only in 1953 (in the USSR - in 1949);
• Breaststroke - swimming on the stomach, during which the arms first move forward synchronously from the chest, and then make a stroke, and the legs simultaneously produce a push, at first bending strongly at the knees, and then straightening. The most difficult to master, the slowest, and at the same time the least energy-consuming and quite silent style. It was first analyzed by Nicholas Winman (Denmark) in 1538 and for quite a long time was one of the leading styles. Included in the program of the Olympic Games since 1904;
• Backstroke - backstroke, in which straight arms alternately stroke, and legs rise and fall alternately. Features of the style - the swimmer's face is constantly above the water, therefore it is not required to exhale into the water; the start is not made from the bedside table, as in other styles, but from the water. This style is in third place in terms of speed. Backstroke crawl appeared at the beginning of the last century, thanks to Harry Hebner (America) and quickly replaced the previously used backstroke ("inverted breaststroke").
In addition, the following types of swimming are distinguished:
• Complex swimming is one of the types of competitions that involves the use of all swimming styles to overcome a set distance in equal measure (backstroke, breaststroke, freestyle, and, since 1953, butterfly). This type of swimming has been officially included in the program of international competitions since 1961. The combined relay race is based on the same principle - a team of swimmers overcomes the stages using different swimming styles. Included in the list of international competitions since 1957;
• Swimming with fins - the athlete moves under water using a special tube for breathing;
• Scuba diving - the swimmer uses a compressed air cylinder to breathe, which he holds with his hands in front of him. The start is made from the bedside table;
• Long diving - the athlete must cover a distance of 50 meters while holding his breath;
• Marathon is a long distance competition held in an open water body. Breathing - through a tube, it is permissible to use a wetsuit.
In addition, the Olympics program initially included some non-standard types of swimming:
• Swimming in clothes (distance - 100 m) - was included in the program of the first Olympics in 1896 (Athens (Greece));
• Swimming with obstacles (200 meters) and diving (60 meters) - included in the program of the second Olympic Games in 1900 (Paris (France));
• Distance diving - in this sport, competitions were held in 1904 (III Olympics, Chicago - St. Louis (USA)).
There are types of swimming that have never been included in the program of any competition. For example, some national types of swimming - samurai (suiei-jutsu) and ninja swimming styles, which involved overcoming water obstacles in combat ammunition (kattyu gozen shogi) and with weapons, which, by the way, should not be exposed to liquid, and sometimes had to be allowed into move (tachi oyogi syageki), using only feet to move in the water. Also, warriors were taught to swim with large heavy objects - for example, signal flags (obata okivatari) or signal shells (horagai). Moreover, depending on the place of residence, various methods of swimming were developed.
Swimming training will take a long time. This is not entirely true. The art of moving in water can be mastered very quickly - in a few lessons. But to master this or that style perfectly, you really have to spend a lot of time. The easiest to master is the crawl, the harder is the butterfly, and the breaststroke is considered the most technically difficult.
It is safer to learn to swim in a pool than in open water. It really is. Firstly, because in the pool between the lanes there are special demarcating devices that can serve as a support for an inexperienced swimmer, and negate the possibility of collisions with other people in the water. Secondly, if something happens, you can also grab onto the side of the pool, and the coach watches the newcomer all the time, giving advice and providing assistance if necessary. And, finally, changes in weather conditions (strong wind, suddenly rising waves) do not threaten visitors to the pool either. In the event that you have to master the art of moving in the water in an open reservoir, try to swim along the coast, preferably in places where the depth is shallow, and there is a rescue service on the water.
In order to improve your achievements in swimming, you should train exclusively in the pool - after all, the movements carried out in the water are extremely specific. Yes, copying this kind of movement in the gym is quite difficult. However, such a task is not posed during strength training. The main thing for an athlete is to strengthen certain muscle groups, or to use those of them that are minimally involved in swimming movements. Women, for example, should focus primarily on strengthening the abdominal muscles (doing torso lifts from a supine position), back muscles (pulling up), triceps (pulling up with a reverse grip), and chest (pushing up). You can also perform swimming movements, holding dumbbells in your hands, and tying weights to your legs. Moreover, it should be borne in mind that both before performing exercises of this kind, and after them, you should definitely devote some time to stretching the main muscle groups of the body.
To win a swimming competition, you only need to master one style - and only improve in it. This is not true. The fact is that the program of competitions in this sport includes overcoming distances with each of the four styles, as well as distance swimming at 1500 m and complex swimming.
Breathe more often and deeper while swimming. Misconception. Indeed, in the case of frequent breathing and incomplete exhalation, a fairly large amount of carbon dioxide can be formed in the body, as a result of which a chemical imbalance occurs, which has a negative effect on the respiratory stimulus. In addition, keep in mind that when swimming with a crawl it is best to exhale into the water alternately - now to the right and then to the left. This way you can avoid the curvature of the trajectory. And at the staying distance, swimmers prefer to take one breath in and out for two strokes with their hands.
The best result is given by exercises with prolonged continuous loads at a not very high overall swimming speed. Such exercises are really extremely useful, however, to achieve maximum effect, experts recommend alternating them with the so-called interval training, involving rather intense efforts in some segments of the distance, when the swimmer is moving at high speed. After such jerks, a short period of slowdown and rest is given, which gives the body the opportunity to only partially recover. It is believed that it is at such moments that the cardiovascular system works with the greatest efficiency, pushing the maximum amount of blood through the veins and arteries in one heartbeat. As a result, individual muscle fibers are destroyed, and instead new ones are formed - stronger and more massive. Weight training has the same effect on the body. It should be noted that interval training, like strength training, should not be used for two days in a row - the most optimal would be a regime that provides no more than 3 sessions of this kind per week. On other days, the method of long-term continuous loads should be preferred. In addition, it should be taken into account that the best effect is given by loads at which the heart rate is from 70% to 85% of the maximum possible. Please note that to prepare your heart to work in this rhythm, you should swim several segments before starting classes, increasing the speed gradually, and at the end of the workout, swim at a slow pace. In order for the swimmer to check the heart rate at any time and, in accordance with the indicator, increase or decrease the load, there is a stopwatch on the wall (and in some cases under water) in the pool.
Synchronized swimming does not require much effort from athletes. Completely erroneous opinion.It is synchronized swimming that is considered the most difficult - after all, demonstration performances require not only grace and a sense of rhythm, but also quite a lot of physical strength, which is necessary to perform certain elements under water. That is why girls who choose synchronized swimming do not achieve their first successes in adolescence, like swimmers, but only after 20-22 years.
Only athletes compete in synchronized swimming. No, recently male athletes have also competed in this kind of swimming, and at the end of April 2007 the first international men's synchronized swimming tournament was held in Prague.
It is difficult for children of short stature to achieve good results in swimming. For children and adolescents between the ages of 9 and 16, especially those who are not tall or overweight, swimming is exactly the sport in which they can perform best, sometimes achieving even greater success than their tall peers.
Swimming is one of the safest sports. Indeed, swimming is ranked among the least traumatic sports. However, risk factors do exist. For example, there is a danger of drowning, injury from exposure (accidental or deliberate) of other people. The current, waves and eddies can pull the swimmer under the water. Various representatives of flora and fauna (sharks, jellyfish, moray eels, etc.), whose bites are sometimes fatal, also pose a threat. The danger in itself is loss of consciousness (especially during diving), heatstroke (most often after jumping into the water), leading to cardiac arrest, heart attacks and strokes that occur when abruptly immersed in very cold water. Moreover, one should not think that the danger lies in wait for swimmers only in open bodies of water - chemicals added to the pool water can also have a negative effect on the body of athletes, in addition, some bacteria and microscopic parasites are resistant to chlorine, and can also harm the body bather. In addition, excessive enthusiasm for a particular swimming style can also have a negative effect. For example, a butterfly stroke can provoke back and shoulder pain and, in exceptional cases, lead to a spinal fracture. Breaststroke enthusiasts often experience pain in the knee and hip joints. However, firstly, this kind of damage can occur only when a person is engaged in swimming professionally. An hour of classes a day 5-6 times a week cannot lead to injuries. Second, many swimming injuries can be avoided by performing specific exercises that strengthen, loosen and stretch the muscles and tendons that are most stressed during training (such as the latissimus dorsi and quadriceps femoris), as well as swimming in different styles. The lesson should start with a warm-up, and at the end, perform the so-called "cool down" - swim for a while at a slow pace, giving the body time to return to normal operation. To stay hydrated, you should drink as much water as possible before and after exercise. To reduce the likelihood of diseases of the nasal cavity, you should use special clips, and to protect yourself from colds after visiting the pool, you must carefully dry your hair, wear a hat and scarf if training is like in the cold season.
Chlorine perfectly disinfects swimming pool water. Yes, this type of disinfection is quite effective, but some microscopic parasites (for example, Cryptosporidium) are resistant to chlorine and, entering the esophagus, lead to illness, one of the signs of which is diarrhea.
Chlorinated water has a negative effect on swimmers' skin and hair. Unfortunately, this is true. Chlorine can remain dry on the skin for a long time, even after thorough washing, and an increased pH of water often causes irritation of the skin and eyes. After a long drying effect of chlorinated water on the hair, they can change the structure (from straight lines they become curly) or color (light brown ones become much lighter, and blonde hair sometimes acquires a greenish tint, due to the fact that chlorine can dissolve copper). In order to reduce the above-described effect, you should use moisturizers for your hair (for example, petroleum jelly) and wear a bathing cap and special glasses before entering the pool.
Swimming is not recommended for people with ear problems. No, diseases of the ears or auricle are most often not a hindrance to swimming, but before starting training, you should consult a specialist. The doctor will determine whether it is possible to go swimming for a particular ear disease and, possibly, recommend special plugs to prevent water from entering the auricle.
People with respiratory problems should not swim. Chlorine fumes, inhaled for a long time, can have a negative effect on the lungs, and are especially harmful for people with asthma. However, this kind of problem can be easily solved by choosing a pool with good ventilation, and even better - located in the open air, or by swimming in open reservoirs, and preferably freshwater, since salt water vapor can create foam in the lungs, thereby significantly impeding breathing ...
Swimming is contraindicated for people with various diseases of the musculoskeletal system or disorders of coordination of movements. Since water provides buoyancy, at the same time, having a high resistance, swimming is sometimes simply necessary for disabled people and people recovering from surgery (of course, provided that the postoperative sutures are completely healed). These people, of course, do not strive for sports records, but perform various strengthening and aerobic exercises in the water under the supervision of a medical professional. It should be remembered that swimming exercises improve the flexibility of the joints (especially the shoulder and ankle), increase the immunity and endurance of the body. In addition, training of this kind helps to improve blood circulation in the abdominal cavity (effective prevention of varicose veins), protect against pain in the back. Swimming exercises are useful for arthritis and curvature of the spine (scoliosis, osteochondrosis, lordosis, and also kyphosis, most often observed in old people), help to form the correct posture in both children and adults. For example, if there is scoliosis, it is best to swim with a crawl (especially with one hand - this helps to pump up the muscles of one side and stretch the muscles of the other side of the body) or breaststroke, lengthening the sliding phase. The breaststroke (dolphin) on the back helps to get rid of lordosis and kyphosis. Moreover, in some cases, people suffering from certain ailments not only get rid of them through swimming, but also achieve considerable success in this sport. For example, Don Fraser (Australia), who won three times at the Olympic Games, began to engage in this sport after suffering from polio. And Michael Phelps (America), who won the Olympics 14 times and the 23-time world champion, through swimming overcame problems with coordination of movements (he could not concentrate, as a result of which he often bumped into various household items).
Swimming has a negative effect on the female figure. This can happen only when, during many hours of daily training, the fair sex swims in the same style - for example, crawl. In this case, it is indeed possible to increase the volume of some muscles of the upper half of the body, which can adversely affect the figure. To avoid the above effect, you should devote an equal amount of time to different styles during classes: start with a crawl, which develops the muscles of the back and front surface of the body, after about 50 minutes, go to the breaststroke, which helps to work out the trapezius and lateral muscles, and at the end, spend some time swimming on the back. In this case, the muscles will be evenly strengthened, while maintaining the feminine outlines of the figure.
Pregnant women can and even need to swim. Indeed, moderate physical activity (including swimming) is beneficial for expectant mothers. However, it should be borne in mind that intensive swimming, especially in the last trimester of pregnancy, can lead to a violation of the blood supply to the fetus, and if exercises that load the abdominal muscles are added to this, or exercises with weights, a miscarriage may occur.
Swimming is impossible to lose weight. Much depends on how active, regular and lengthy your swimming sessions are. Indeed, in order to lose extra pounds, you should practice at least a few hours a day. In addition, after visiting the pool, people usually feel severe hunger - this can lead to overeating, as a result of which the pounds lost during classes will return with interest. However, if the above factors are not a problem, swimming is an invaluable aid to losing weight. After all, the loads from water resistance help to increase blood circulation, strengthen the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, form correct posture, accelerate metabolism, and also massage the body perfectly. In addition, in cool water with a fairly high intensity of movement, metabolism is very accelerated, and a lot of calories are spent. It should be borne in mind that most of the calories can be "burned" while swimming with a butterfly, which should be alternated with a crawl. The most relaxing style is breaststroke. If you don't like any of the swimming styles, you can do aqua aerobics, which is also very conducive to weight loss. After all, imitation of running or dancing movements in water will require much more effort than on land, and at the same time, the load on the body will be felt somewhat less. Moreover, for aqua aerobics it is not at all necessary to be able to swim.
It is best to swim in a pool of warm water. The most optimal is considered to be the water temperature in the pool from +23 to + 27 ° С. If the water is colder, it serves as a source of unpleasant sensations, and sometimes it can lead to hypothermia. In warmer water, the swimmer becomes overly relaxed, lethargic and lethargic.
Swimming boards and paddles are only used by beginners. Yes, devices of this kind are used in the initial stages of learning to swim, since they help to stay on the surface of the water without much difficulty. However, in the future they are also useful, only they are used for a different purpose - to enhance the stroke with the hands (feet) and to introduce novelty and variety into the classes. For example, holding on to a board with your hands can strengthen the muscles in your thighs or legs, and you can strengthen the muscles in your arms and shoulder girdle by holding the same board or circle with your feet while swimming. Moreover, in order to increase the water resistance, which will require more effort to overcome, they use not only boards and spatulas, but also swimsuits with special pockets, or simply a bathing suit of a slightly larger size than a swimmer needs, worn over the usual one.
Swimming competitions can be held in pools of different lengths. Indeed, nowadays the competition program includes both "long water" (50-100 meters) and "short water" (25 meters). But it was not always so. For example, the rules adopted by FINA in 1908 stated that although world records can be recorded in pools that are 25 meters long, only pools between 50 and 100 meters in length should be used for official international competitions. This is because the results in shorter pools are slightly better due to the higher number of turns, which reduces the total time required to cover the distance. From May 1, 1957, by decision of FINA, world records could only be set on "long water". If the record was set in a smaller pool, it had to be repeated on "long water" and re-registered. However, the situation changed in the mid-80s of the last century, when competitions in pools, which were 25 meters long, became very popular. Since the end of 1988, the multi-stage World Cup, according to the FINA decision, was held on "short course". Since 1993, the world championships in this sport have been held in 25-meter pools. Moreover, world records can be registered not only at any stage of the competition, but also at one of the stages of the swim.
International swimming competitions are held only in confined waters. Since the end of the 19th century, competitions for ultra-long distances in open water have been held. This type of competition (distance - 25 km) has been included in the program of the world championships since 1991. Since 1998, the world championships in open water swimming have been held for a distance of 5 km, from 2000 - 10 km (this is the distance that has become Olympic since 2008).
The lanes in the pool are distributed randomly between the swimmers. During the competition, the 4th lane (located in the middle) is reserved for the swimmer who showed the best result in the previous stage or during the preliminary swim. In training, beginner athletes who move at low speeds should move along the paths located at the edge of the pool, being careful not to interfere with other swimmers. Faster and more experienced athletes, on the contrary, need to stick to the middle of the pool, and also carefully inspect the track before jumping from the pedestal. If it becomes necessary to cross the pool, this should be done exclusively in the middle.
If a swimmer starts before the start signal is given, he will be disqualified. Yes, however, if the swimmer did so as a result of the referee's wrong actions, the false start will not be counted.
During breaststroke swimming, one dolphin movement is permitted. Indeed, the movement with the legs down is allowed to be performed during or after a full stroke with the hands, and only after a turn or start.
There must be at least 10 judges in swimming competitions. The composition of the panel of judges is usually as follows: the chief judge and his deputies (up to 4 people, and one of them is a doctor), two referees, starters, a judge at the false start cord, judges at the finish line, judges in swimming technique (on each side of the pool, and in international competitions - on each side of the pool). In addition, the panel includes stopwatch judges (the senior judge and his assistants - 3 per track, and 2 more additionally - if the automatic time registration system is not used), cornering judges, judges with participants, informing judges, judges on doping control, awards judges and a coordinating judge. The main secretary and his deputy, secretaries are also mandatory at the competition. Moreover, a competitor can apply to a judge only through a representative of his team.
In relay swimming of veteran swimmers, athletes of the same age category must take part. The age category is taken into account only for individual swims, for relay swimming, the sum of the ages of the team members in whole years is calculated.
Determining your level of fitness in swimming is quite difficult. Yes, it is the coach's job to determine the level of an athlete. However, there are some signs by which you can roughly evaluate your achievements. For example, indicators of the average level of preparedness:
• for people under 35 years old - the ability to swim 90-95 meters (100 yards) in less than 2 minutes and about 914 meters (1000 yards) in 22 minutes;
• for middle-aged people, the first indicator is 2.5 minutes, the second - 25 minutes;
• for people over 60, the first indicator is about 3 minutes, the second is from 27 to 30 minutes.
You can safely classify yourself as an experienced swimmer if you are able to swim more than 3 kilometers without stopping.
Children can be taught to swim from the age of 4. It is believed that from this age children are able to swim on their own. However, in recent years, there has been an increase in interest in so-called infant swimming. Children begin to learn how to move in the aquatic environment from the first months of life (the optimal age is 1-3 months), while the baby still has congenital reflexes that help him easily master the science of swimming and diving - after all, he spent 9 months of intrauterine development in a liquid environment ... Scientists believe that swimming for babies helps to improve metabolism, train the cardiovascular, respiratory system, strengthen muscles and ligaments, and improve metabolism. In addition, children become calmer, sleep better, and begin to sit, walk and talk earlier. Teaching young children to swim is not so difficult, but at first it is still best to entrust lessons with a child to a specialist, and only after gaining experience to conduct them yourself. If the baby has cyanosis or "marbling" of the skin, "goose bumps", there are short-term stops in breathing, or activities lead to overexcitation - it is better to refrain from swimming. All diseases in the acute stage are also contraindications.
An hour before swimming, the child must be fed. This is not entirely true, especially if the baby is less than 2 years old. The last meal (especially milk) should take place no later than 2-3 hours before the swimming lesson.
During swimming lessons, parents can watch the child. This is certainly true. However, if a child is afraid and focuses his attention on mom or dad, who, in his opinion, can help him by simply pulling him out of the water, the instructor's efforts may be wasted. Therefore, it is best for parents to be out of sight of the baby, at least until he begins to trust the coach.
If a child is afraid or does not want to swim, he should visit the pool as little as possible. On the contrary, the more resistance and fear, the more often the classes should be (from 3 to 7 times a week). Experienced instructors will do their best to ensure that swimming starts to feel safe for the child and then becomes a pleasure for him. As the attitude towards lessons changes, the frequency of visits to the pool can be reduced to 1-2 times a week.
The pool can be visited at any time. According to experts, the best time for swimming is from 7 to 9 and from 18 to 20 hours, when the body is as relaxed as possible, and will best accept this type of training.
A child attending a sports swimming section becomes physically strong and balanced, and in the future he will be able to earn a lot by showing himself in sports. Indeed, all the above-described effects of swimming take place. Such children are accustomed to discipline and a tough regime, usually study well, restrained, polite, calm. Swimming has a positive effect on the physical development of a teenager - posture improves, the chest expands, and the muscles of the shoulder girdle are strengthened. Yes, and children involved in this sport grow up rather quickly, acquiring the strength of the bone structure, flexibility, endurance, and excellent coordination. And at the same time, the load on the joints is much less than, for example, during weightlifting or athletics, jogging or jumping. In addition, professional athletes earn good money, enjoy universal respect, and sometimes participate in advertising campaigns, which also promises a considerable income. However, swimming (especially professional) has negative sides. Firstly, most often children who regularly attend the swimming section have very little free time, therefore they grow up quite uncommunicative. Education at a university is given to them with great difficulty, since the assimilation of a large amount of information and almost daily training is not easy to combine. At the end of a sports career, no matter how successful it was, it is quite difficult for former athletes to get a job, since they have no experience in any kind of activity. In addition, with age, professional swimmers show some specific diseases (pain in the spine and joints, chronic rhinitis, "swimmer's ear", etc.), which does not at all contribute to excellent health and career advancement.
Swimming suits are not easy to find. For novice athletes, ordinary swimming trunks are quite suitable, and athletes can get by with a double swimsuit (the main thing is that it is not too big, and, at the same time, so that it does not pinch in the shoulders and in the area of the legs). But professionals are really wondering lately - which suit is better? In the days of the ancient Olympics, when swimmers competed in the nude, this kind of problem simply could not arise. Athletes who competed at the first modern Olympic Games experienced a lot of difficulties with bathing suits, since their suits, made of cotton fabric and almost completely covering the body, quickly got wet, became heavy and, thereby, reduced the speed of swimmers. This problem was solved in the 30s of the last century, when silk swimming trunks began to be very popular, and completely stopped bothering athletes when modern swimming suits made of synthetic materials (nylon, lycra, etc.) - light, durable, waterproof, appeared. However, in the future, another problem arose - the latest high-tech suits, which appeared in the mid-90s of the last century and covering the swimmer's body almost completely, thanks to the efforts of specialists, can help an athlete achieve noticeable accelerations, for example, by reducing the friction coefficient or redistributing water "eddies "around his body. For this reason, FINA has obliged all swimmers to wear textile suits since 2010.
Men swim faster than women. However, in long-distance swimming, women generally perform better than male swimmers. Experts explain this by the fact that a larger amount of adipose tissue in women allows them, firstly, to generate more energy, and secondly, to spend less effort to stay afloat.