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Stroke

Stroke

Stroke is called an acute circulatory disorder in the brain, while brain dysfunctions develop rapidly. Distinguish between ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke.

With ischemic stroke (or cerebral infarction, which occurs in 75% of cases), blood stops flowing to the brain. Most often this is due to the fact that an artery is blocked by a blood clot or a detached atherosclerotic plaque. As a result, the death of brain cells due to lack of oxygen.

Hemorrhagic stroke occurs due to a ruptured cerebral artery and occurs in 20% of cases. The cells of the brain, not receiving oxygen, die, to this is added the compression of tissues that spills with blood.

The types of stroke also include subarachnoid hemorrhage, which occurs in 5% of cases. It can occur spontaneously due to rupture of an arterial aneurysm or traumatic brain injury. The main factors include smoking, alcohol, and being overweight.

The first mention of stroke was made by Hippocrates in the 460s BC. In the 17th century, the scientist Gallen described the symptoms of a stroke using the terms "apoplexy" or "stroke".

The likelihood of a stroke increases with age, causing people to fear, if not panic. In Russia alone, almost half a million people suffer a stroke every year. Therefore, we will try to dispel the main myths about this disease.

A stroke is a fateful phenomenon, it is impossible to prevent it, it cannot be treated. Stroke statistics in the CIS look disappointing. For example, in Ukraine, this diagnosis is made annually to 100 thousand patients. Half of them die within a year, and the other half remain permanently disabled. However, why not change the statistics for the better? Indeed, in most Western countries over the past decades, both mortality and morbidity have been reduced by half or three! This is due to the promotion of a healthy lifestyle and the fashion for it. And it is possible and necessary to treat a stroke. The main thing for this is to get into a specialized hospital with modern equipment in the first three hours. They will be able to conduct computed and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. A quick and accurate diagnosis of the lesion and the nature of the disease will help increase the chances of recovery.

Stroke is a problem for older people, so young people have nothing to fear. In fact, a stroke can happen to anyone and at any age. Although, of course, the probability increases with age. Middle-aged men (40-50 years old) are one and a half times more likely to have a stroke than their peers. But subarachnoid hemorrhage in general most often occurs with young men who have a sharp increase in blood pressure. Therefore, if during stress, intercourse, or in general physical tension, headache, vomiting, nausea, increased heart rate, sweating and redness of the face begin, then you should immediately leave all business and call an ambulance. In this case, statistics give good chances - timely competent treatment avoids death in 19 out of 20 patients.

The main cause of stroke is arterial hypertension. Studies have shown that this very cause, high blood pressure, is the main cause of 75-90% of stroke cases. Hypertensive patients generally have a risk of stroke 40% more than other people. The reason for this is wear and deformation of the thinnest walls of the vessels of the brain due to chronic hypertension. Over time, the walls become very fragile and torn or deformed and thickened, while the vessel lumen narrows. In one case, a cerebral hemorrhage will then be called a hemorrhagic stroke, and in the other - an ischemic stroke, in the event of a complete closure of the lumen in the vessel and the cessation of oxygen access to the area of ​​the brain.

Hypertension is more common in women. In fact, high blood pressure is as common in women as in men. Only the weaker sex is more sensitive to their health - doctors have only 3 %% of hypertensive men, while there are twice as many women with such deviations.

Snoring can be the cause of a stroke. And it is true! After all, studies have shown that snoring is not just a minor nuisance, but also a sleep disorder that increases the risk of stroke. When snoring, the supply of oxygen to the brain decreases, thereby increasing the risks of blood circulation in this vital organ.

A stroke comes unexpectedly, like a bolt from the blue. This really happens, but this is only an exception that underlines the rule. Usually, the body tries to warn in advance about future troubles in one way or another. This manifests itself in pressure surges, pain in the head, and even passing disturbances in the work of the blood circulation in the brain. Only now, many do not pay attention to these symptoms, to numbness of the extremities and disruptions in the work of vision and speech. After all, such attacks usually do not last long, up to 15 minutes, passing without a trace. The most suspicious patients usually turn to doctors, and in the end they turn out to be right. After all, such mild attacks indicate that there is a large-scale risk of a full-fledged stroke. If a timely study is carried out, then most likely it will be possible to detect a developing disease of the cerebral vessels, if treatment is started in a timely manner, then future troubles can be avoided.

A stroke always leads to paralysis. If a part of the brain that is responsible for movement is affected by a stroke, this statement is true. Then the muscles will gradually weaken and paralysis will ensue. But if the damaged vessel is located in another zone, then other symptoms may be observed, ranging from decreased sensitivity and speech impairment, ending with unsteadiness in a hike with a loss of balance.

The likelihood of stroke increases with high cholesterol levels. This is actually the case, because excess cholesterol is deposited in the form of atherosclerotic plaques on the inner sides of the arterial walls. Over time, connective tissue grows around them, calcium is deposited. As a result - deformation of the vessel, narrowing of the lumen and constant insufficiency in the blood supply to organs, which include the brain. If a high cholesterol content occurs in a hypertensive person, then this is fraught with even greater danger. Plaque growth occurs much faster, they become unstable and can break away from the wall at any time and clog the vessel. This will lead to the cessation of oxygen and nutrition to the brain.

In the event of stroke paralysis, the person will remain helpless for life. Firstly, one should not forget about modern methods of treatment, which can be very effective, it is worth considering the possibilities of recovery programs, and secondly, one cannot ignore the internal resources of the body. If brain cells are slightly damaged, then they are even able to recover, and some functions of dead neurons can be transferred to intact areas.

Even if in the event of a stroke a person can move independently, speech will not return to him. There can be no unambiguity in this issue. It's all about where the stroke is localized. The center of speech is located in the left hemisphere of the brain, if this area is affected, then the person will have to re-learn to speak, read and write, while there are no guarantees of success. If a stroke occurs in the right hemisphere, then speech will remain completely, only now other problems will arise.

A stroke makes a person mentally disabled. This can actually happen, but this is not the rule. About 25% of all stroke survivors develop vascular dementia or dementia after a few months. At first, the patient's attention and memory deteriorate, then thinking slows down, the person begins to orientate himself worse in time and space, as a result - the complete failure of independent existence. Unfortunately, in the event of damage to areas strategically important for mental activity, nothing can be done. Only now, vascular dementia is more often the result of unnoticed micro-strokes, which over time destroy the cerebral cortex. The only consolation is the fact that this is observed already at a very old age. However, if your plans do not include dying young, then you should take better care of your vessels, then insanity in old age can be avoided.

Smoking is a factor in stroke. And this statement is far from a myth. After all, smoking increases blood clotting and blood viscosity. Moreover, this addiction leads to an increase in blood pressure. Smoking increases the development of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid arteries. All three of these factors harm cerebral circulation, as a result, heavy smokers have a 2 times higher risk of stroke. But for those who have abandoned the bad habit, this risk begins to decrease, becoming in 5 years the same as in non-smokers.

Alcohol is one of the factors in the onset of stroke. We do not take into account examples of rampant drunkenness, but alcohol in small doses, 20-25 ml per day in terms of alcohol, or a glass of vodka, a glass of wine, can even reduce the risk of developing this disease, as this leads to a decrease in blood viscosity and an increase in the level of "correct" cholesterol in the blood.

Stroke can be predicted by the eyes. Surprisingly, this is true. More precisely, not by the eyes themselves, but by changes in them, by the nature of damage to the blood vessels. After all, those have a structure similar to the vessels of the brain, therefore, in people with retinal degeneration, the probability of a stroke is 70%.

Sedentary work has nothing to do with stroke. Scientists have found that sedentary work, especially when a person spends his entire day with his head tilted forward at a table, impairs blood circulation to the brain. However, there is nothing definitively tragic about this. After all, even a daily half-hour walk in the fresh air reduces the risk of stroke. The best solution would be generally swimming for 30-40 minutes a week, or choosing other moderate but regular exercise. You should be careful with loads, because too intense strength exercises can easily raise blood pressure. Therefore, do not bypass the gym - just sometimes measure your pressure level with a doctor.

A hypertensive crisis is dangerous only for chronic hypertensive patients. A sharp jump in pressure from a normal level, or a crisis, can be triggered by various reasons. These include stress, drug or alcohol overdose, and mental overstrain. The presence of severe headache or nausea after being spread by the authorities or the next brainstorming, as well as reddening of the skin, is a signal for an immediate call to an ambulance, because otherwise everything may end up with cerebral edema or a stroke. You should not try to reduce the pressure on your own - this process should be monitored by a doctor.

Being overweight leads to stroke. The risk of stroke is increased not so much by weight itself as by the distribution of adipose tissue in the body. Recent studies by Israeli doctors have shown that middle-aged men have an increased risk of death from stroke with a predominance of visceral obesity. In this case, the abdomen becomes the main location of fat. And this is not surprising, because with this type of obesity in the body, the fat and carbohydrate balance is disturbed, which means that diabetes and atherosclerosis will develop.

Stroke treatment is possible only by surgery. This is only partly true. To save victims of hemorrhagic stroke and cerebral hemorrhage, it is necessary to promptly remove the clots of the ruptured blood vessel, remove the hematoma. Sometimes the operation is carried out with a low-traumatic method. To do this, a special apparatus is attached to the patient's head, then a 2-3 cm long skin incision is made under local anesthesia, a small hole about 1 cm in diameter is drilled in the skull. Through it, a hematoma evacuator is introduced exactly in the right place. Since there are no pain receptors in the brain, all further actions are absolutely painless and do not require anesthesia.


Watch the video: Hemorrhagic stroke: Causes and treatments (May 2021).