Information

Tennis

Tennis

Tennis (from the French tenez, - "hold") is a sport in which the competitors (two players in a single game or two teams of two players in a double game) try to throw the ball to the opponent's side with the help of rackets so that it is impossible reflect. In addition, the ball must not fly out of bounds.

The game is divided into matches, sets and games, the victory in which is ensured by a certain number of blows not reflected by the opponent. The mistakes of the players also affect the score - a point is awarded to the opponent of the tennis player who made the mistake, and the player himself loses the rally.

There are usually several judges overseeing the game - the line judges, the umpire and, in some cases, the head judge. In recent years, the electronic refereeing system has become more widely used.

The game takes place on the court - a special area 23.77 x 8.23 ​​m (for singles) and 23.77 x 10.97 m (for doubles), surrounded by lateral (longitudinal) and transverse (back) lines. The width of the back lines is 10 cm, all the others are 5 cm.

The supply lines are located parallel to the transverse axis at a distance of 6.4 m from it. The rectangular area between the transverse axis, side lines and the infeed line is divided by the center line into two equal in size infeed fields. In the middle of the back line, there is a middle mark, which is a 10x5 cm segment directed to the inside of the platform and connected at a right angle to the back line.

The site is surrounded on all sides by "races" - free space, at least 3.7 m behind the side lines and at least 6.4 m behind the back lines. The "races", like the site, are divided by the transverse axis into equal parts (sides) ...

In the middle, the court is divided in half by a net (small enough to prevent the ball from flying through it) stretched on a string (metal cable), the diameter of which should not exceed 0.8 cm, and the ends are fixed at the tops of the posts. Their height should ensure the position of the upper edge of the string (cable) at the level of 1.7 meters.

The diameter of the posts should be no more than 15 cm, the height - 1.95 m. The central part of the net is supported at a height of 0.914 by a white strap, the width of which is 5 cm.

In addition, the top and sides of the net can be edged with white tape, the width of which can be from 5 to 6.25 cm. The court can be equipped both outdoors and indoors.

For playing tennis, a racket is used, consisting of a round rim with stretched strings (artificial or natural) and a handle, the total length of which is no more than 73.66 cm, width is no more than 31.75 cm. At the beginning, the rackets were made exclusively of wood. today, it has been replaced by complex composites of metal, carbon fiber and ceramics.

You also need a ball to play - most often made of rubber, covered with felt and painted white or yellow. Its weight should be at least 56 g, but also not more than 59.4 g. A characteristic feature of a tennis ball is a closed line of a certain shape, drawn on its surface.

Small ball games have been known since ancient times. For example, in ancient Rome there was a similar game - "trigon", which has survived to this day in some provinces of Italy. There were similar fun in Ancient Egypt.

Tennis in its modern form, according to researchers, appeared in France - it was in this country in the 11th century that the "palm ball" (fr. "Jeu de paume") was extremely popular - today it is called "real tennis "and is held only indoors on a special type of court.

At first, the ball was really hit only with the palm, later they began to protect the hand with a special glove, then the first wooden rackets appeared, vaguely reminiscent of modern ones, but representing a solid structure. It was only in the 14th century that rackets appeared with a rim and strings of ox veins stretched horizontally and vertically.

The World Tennis Championship (the first in the history of sports in general) was held in France in 1740, but over time, interest in this sport in this country began to fade away, and in the XIX century England became the center of world tennis. The first tennis club was created in 1872 in Lemingston, and in 1874 Major Walter Clopton Wingfield patented the game "spherical", which a year later renamed "lawn" (from English lawn - "lawn"). The first tournament in this sport took place in 1876 in the USA, and since then the popularity of lawn tennis has increased every year.

The International Lawn Tennis Federation was founded in Paris on March 1, 1913. The founding countries were Austria, Belgium, Germany, Great Britain, Denmark, the Netherlands, France, Sweden, Switzerland, Russia, Australia and New Zealand (united federation), South Africa, as well as Spain (although the representative of this state did not participate in the decision, the tennis federation of that country approved the creation of the ILTF).

The ILTF, suspended due to the outbreak of the First World War, resumed in 1919, and after 3 years a Rules Council was established to develop unified rules for tennis. The first set of rules for this game was adopted on March 16, 1923, and in 1924 the ILTF was officially recognized by the IOC as the governing body of tennis.

Moreover, this organization was positioned as an amateur - the professionalization of this sport began only in the 50s of the last century. In 1977, the ILTF was renamed the International Tennis Federation (ITF). Today the ITF includes 205 tennis organizations, of which 145 are full members, 60 are associate.

Tennis was included in the program of the first Olympics (1896, Athens (Greece)) - competitions in this sport were initially held only for male athletes, while women entered the fight for Olympic medals in 1900. After the IOC excluded tennis from the Olympic Games in 1928 due to an insufficiently clear distinction in this sport between amateurs and professionals, tennis players did not appear on the Olympic arena until 1968, when an exhibition tournament was held at the XIX Olympiad (Mexico City).

And even after the IOC recognized tennis as a sport in accordance with the Olympic Charter in 1977, tennis competitions were not included in the program of the Olympics. In 1984 (XXIII Olympiad, Los Angeles (USA)), demonstration tennis competitions were again held.

And only at the next XXIV Summer Olympic Games in 1988 (Seoul (Korea)) tennis was officially included in the program of the Olympics. Today, there is even a Club of Olympic medalists, created by the ITF to popularize Olympic tennis.

The largest tennis tournaments and cups:

ATP tour:

1. Tournaments Grand Slam (eng. Grand Slam tournaments) - the most prestigious competitions of professional tennis players. During the entire existence of the competition during one season, very few people managed to win the "Grand Slam". For example, only 2 athletes achieved success in singles: Donald Budge (1938) and Rod Laver (1962 and 1969) and 3 athletes: Maureen Connolly (1953), Margaret Smith Court (1970) and Steffi Graf (1988), with the latter, in addition, she won the Olympic tournament, for which she was awarded the "Golden Grand Slam". And in the men's doubles, only 1 team won the Grand Slam - Frank Sedgeman and Ken McGregor (1951). The constituent parts of this competition are 4 tournaments that are held annually:
• Australian Open - held annually in January in Melbourne (Australia), in Melbourne Park, the tennis complex of which consists of 3 demonstration and 3 central courts (each of them can accommodate about 10,000 - 15,000 spectators) ... All courts have Plexicushion hard surface. The first tournament was held in 1905 under the name "The Australasian Championships". In 1927, the competition was renamed the "Australian Championships". Since 1969, the tournament has been open to professionals, and since then has been called the "Australian Open";
• French Open Championship (French Internationaux de France de Roland Garros) - held annually in Paris (France) in late May - early June (2 weeks). It was held for the first time in 1891 on the courts of the Parisian Stade Francais club as a one-day national championship for French tennis players or members of French tennis clubs. It was not very popular until 1925, when the championship received international status. Nowadays, the championship is held at the Roland Garros tennis arena, the courts of which can accommodate from 3,700 (Court No. 1) to 15,000 (Court Philippe Chatrier) spectators;
• Wimbledon Championships - annually held in Wimbledon (one of the districts of London (England)) in late June - early July (2 weeks) on grass courts. The tournament was first held at venues near Worple Road in 1877 at the initiative of the All England Croquet and Lawn Tennis Club. From 1922 to the present day it has been held at the tennis arenas near Church Road;
• The US Open is held annually in August-September; since 1978, the USTA National Tennis Center, located in Flushing Meadows Park, Queens (New York (USA)) has become the venue of the tournament. This competition was first held in Newport in August 1881 and was called the US National Men’s Singles Championship. This competition was open only to athletes who belong to clubs that are members of the US National Lawn Tennis Association. The US Women’s National Singles Championship was held a few years later in 1887. Two years later, the US Women’s National Doubles Championship and the US Mixed Doubles Championship were held. The US National Men’s Doubles Championship was held in 1900. All of the above championships were united in 1968 - it was then that the tournament, open to tennis professionals from all over the world, was called the "US Open" (US Open). Initially, the competition was held at the West Side Tennis Club in Forest Hills, and in 1978 it was decided to hold the competition at Flushing Meadows, all of which are DecoTurf hard-surface courts and are located outdoors;
• "Masters" (English The Masters) - a series of ATP-tour, uniting 9 tournaments, among the 8 winners of which at the end of the year the Masters Cup is played. The tournament was first held in 1970 in Tokyo. This competition does not have a permanent venue. The analogue of the Masters for women tennis players is the annual final Chase championship, which has been held since 1972.

2. "Challengers" and "futures" (Eng. Challenger Tournaments, Futures Tournaments) - competitions for beginner tennis players.

3. "Satellites" (English Satellite Tournaments) - qualifying competitions.

4. Wheelchair Tennis Tour ("Tour of the game of tennis in wheelchairs").

5. ITF Seniors Events and Tour of Champions - competitions in which the most famous athletes participate in the past, achieving high results in tennis.

In addition, there are the so-called annual exhibition tournaments, which are held from November to January and serve so that athletes can maintain appropriate physical shape:
• AAMI Classic - held in January, since 1988, in Cuyong (a suburb of Melbourne (Australia));
• Hopman Cup - team competition for mixed pairs;
• JB Group Classic - held in Hong Kong (China);
• Capitala World Tennis Championship - takes place on January 1-3 in Abu Dhabi (UAE), starting in 2009;
• Masters France - held in December, starting in 2008, in Toulouse (France).

Cups:

1. Davis Cup (English Davis Cup) - the largest annual international team competition among male tennis players. It was founded in 1899 by Harvard University students, one of whom is Dwight Davis, who proposed the scheme for the tournament and personally purchased the silver cup, which became the prize for the winner. The competition received its present name only in 1945, after the death of D. Davis. The teams participating in the competition are divided into levels and groups. Victory (defeat) leads to the fact that the participants move to a level higher (lower) occupied earlier (the exception is the Fourth group, below which outsiders do not fall).

2. Federation Cup (Fed Cup, until 1995 - Federation Cup) - the largest international team competition among women tennis players. Mrs. Hazel Hochkiss Whitman proposed to hold competitions of this kind in 1919, but her idea was not implemented. In 1923, Miss Whitman presented the prize - the silver cup - for the US and UK tennis tournament. This prize was called the Whitman Cup and was played for 40 years, until in 1960 the idea of ​​holding international competitions for women tennis players was supported by Mrs. Nell Hopman, wife of the legendary Davis Harry Hopman. And in 1963, in the Royal Club of London (Queen's Club) in honor of the fiftieth anniversary of the International Tennis Federation, a tournament open for athletes of all countries was held, called the Federation Cup. After 1995, teams were able to play matches for their country at home. In 2005, from the strongest tennis nations, 2 World Groups were formed, each of which included 8 countries. There is a struggle between them for the possession of the Cup. The teams of the other countries are divided into zones. According to the results of the competition, the transition from the zonal groups to the World one and vice versa is carried out.

3. Kremlin Cup - men's international professional tournament, taking place in the fall in the Olympic sports complex in Moscow (Russia). Founded in 1990 by businessman Sasson Kakshuri (Switzerland). There is also the Kremlin Cup for women tennis players (until 1996 it was called the "Moscow Ladies Open"). Since 2000, the men's and women's parts of the tournament have been held simultaneously - within one week.

4. The World Team Cup is a competition for athletes from 8 countries, whose representatives, according to the ATP Rating, achieved the highest results in this sport in the previous year.

In real tennis, tournaments are also held - British Open, French Open, Australian Open, US Open. However, these competitions are not very popular these days.

For doubles and singles tennis, separate courts are required. This is not true. Since the parameters of the courts are basically the same (with the exception of the width, which is 2 meters larger for doubles than for singles), the doubles court is most often used for single competitions.

There are tennis court coverage standards that are strictly enforced during professional tournaments. Standards do exist, but even the most prestigious competitions in this sport can be held on courts with different surfaces. For example, Grand Slam tournaments are held in France on clay (clay type), in Wimbledon on grass, in Australia and the USA on acrylic (hard). The type of coverage affects both the rebound of the ball and the speed of movement of the players: unpaved provides a very high and unpredictable bounce of the ball, long rallies, besides, the ball, covered with the dust of the court, becomes very heavier, which certainly affects its playing properties; on grass, the ball bounces extremely fast and low. For this reason, the tactics and strategy of playing on different courts are often very different.

Women came to tennis much later than men. This game and its prototypes (for example, the French "jeu de paume") attracted both men and women equally.There is information that back in 1427 a tennis player named Margot was extremely successful in Paris, who was inferior in skill only to a few male tennis players.

Tennis tournaments are male and female. Indeed, most often competitions are held between players of the same sex or teams consisting only of men or exclusively of women athletes. However, there are also mixed doubles competitions - in this case, the team consists of players of both sexes. Accordingly, competitions are held in the framework of the ATP tour (for men) and the WTA tour (for women). In addition, tennis tournaments are held for a particular age group (veteran tournaments, youth tournaments, children's tournaments), as well as competitions for the disabled.

The Tennis Players' Association represents the interests of all who play tennis professionally. This is not entirely true. Founded in 1972, the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) protects the rights and interests of male athletes only. To protect and represent professional tennis players, there is the Women's Tennis Association (WTA), also known as the WTA Tour, established on September 23, 1970. In 2005, the association was renamed and is now called The Sony Ericsson WTA Tour.

If, in the tennis player's opinion, the referee was wrong, the athlete has the right to challenge his decision. Yes, the athlete has such a right, however, it is not accepted to challenge the referee's decision in this sport. In order to minimize the percentage of erroneous verdicts by the referee, since 2006, at major tournaments, they began to officially use the electronic refereeing system, which makes it possible to determine the place of the ball falling as accurately as possible.

The Grand Slam Tournament is named after the card game. Indeed, according to one version, this term was borrowed from the card game of bridge in 1933, when Jack Crawford, having won 3 tournaments, reached the final of the US Open, held in New York. It was during the 4 matches with the participation of the athlete that one of the sports commentators of the New York Times, John Kieran, drew an analogy between the possible victory of Crawford and the Grand Slam (all 13 tricks) in the bridge. There is also a version that the same analogy was drawn in 1938 by the writer Allison Danzig (America), describing the victory of his compatriot Donald Badge in 4 tennis tournaments in 1 year as "drawing up the Grand Slam".

The serve is the most important attacking element. This is indeed the case these days. However, several centuries ago, the players did not even produce this blow on their own - there were special servants for this, since it was impossible to earn a point from a serve. It is from the word "servant" (French serviteur, English servitor) that the modern name for the serve (French, servi, English service hit), used during tennis tournaments, originated.

The serve is just a bounce. No, the serve is characterized by a very short swing, meeting the ball in front of the body, and a strong hand. From the foregoing, we can conclude that this technique is technically closer to blows from the summer.

The feed direction is difficult to predict. Experienced tennis players determine the place of the ball bouncing, carefully observing the actions of the opponent, namely the toss. If the ball flies a little to the right and slightly in front of the pivot leg - most likely, the serve will be flat, but if, during the throw, there is an even more pronounced shift to the right and even less forward - wait for a cut serve. A toss made to the left and slightly behind the body will usually produce a twist (rebound - right-up). If the player threw the ball in front of him - most likely, the serve is directed to the net. In addition, the physiological characteristics of the opponent should be taken into account. For example, tall tennis players find it easiest to perform an oblique flat serve that can knock out of the court, but short athletes do best with a cut oblique serve.

Feeding can be done from any area. Misconception. There is a certain order of innings - for the first point to be played, it must be directed to the first service field from the first zone, the second to the second service field from the second zone, the third to the first service field from the first zone, etc. in order of priority. After a service performed from the wrong zone, the corresponding service order is immediately reinstated (points previously earned by the athletes will count).

For each ball won, the tennis player is awarded one point. This state of affairs takes place only when the game is played according to the tie-break system. For each ball, the player receives 1 point and the one who first collects 7 points is considered the winner in the game and set, provided that the opponent has no more than 5 points. If the difference in the score is 1 point, the game will continue until one of the tennis players reaches an advantage of 2 points. The winner of the set is the athlete who won the first 6 games, while his opponent won only 4 times. If the score in the set according to the above system is 6: 6 - the game will be played until one of the opponents wins 2 games in a row - in this case he will be declared the winner of the set. When scoring according to the advantage system, for the first ball won, the player receives 15 points, for 2 - 30, for 3 - 40 (according to the researchers, such a counting system is associated with the value of coins that were in circulation at the time of the creation of the rules for scoring in tennis). A tennis player who wins 4 times is considered the winner of the game, provided that his opponent won no more than 2 goals. When the score is 3: 3, the score is "even", the next point gives the player an advantage in the score (the advantage of the server - "more", of the receiver - "less"). If a player wins 2 times in a row - he is considered the winner in the game, if his opponent succeeds - the score is "equal" again. The game continues until one of the competitors wins twice in a row - in this case, he is considered the winner of the set. If the score is 5: 5 in the set, the game is played until one of the athletes wins 2 games in a row. To win a match, you must win 2 out of 3 or 3 out of 5 sets.

During a match, no one should prompt a player. In team competitions, during the change of sides after the end of the game (unless a tie-break change is applied), the player has the right to receive a hint from the captain on the court. In other matches, tips are strictly prohibited, a player who violates this rule may be disqualified or penalties will be applied to him.

The best stand is sideways to the net. Not always. The side stand, called closed, is not very suitable, for example, for playing on the back line. Therefore, it is better for novice players to master a half-open or open stance from the very beginning - it is this body position that ensures the execution of stronger, albeit rather difficult, punches in execution (especially one-handed backhand (strikes on the ball from the left)).

A good hit begins with the back of the racket. In fact, the movement begins with a complete rotation of the body or part of it (legs, trunk), but not with the movement of the arms. And the swing is just a continuation of the body movement.

The larger the swing loop, the better. The size of the loop is not that important. Professionals use the loop swing to link two elements: the pivot of the shoulders and the position of the striking arm (elbow open, wrist pointing back - "powerful palm" position). Amateurs and juniors most often simply copy the trajectory of the swing, not paying due attention to the correct execution of the above elements, which can really ensure a good hit on the ball. Therefore, at the initial stages, it is better to pay attention to the direct swing, and to begin to master the loopback a little later.

The best strings for tennis rackets are natural. Indeed, it was previously believed that strings made of bull veins have the best playing qualities. Recently, however, artificial strings (made of kevlar, nylon, polyester) have appeared, which are no worse than natural ones in terms of their characteristics. In addition, synthetic strings are more durable, moisture resistant and cheaper, and they do not require much maintenance.

The tension of the horizontal and vertical strings on a tennis racket is the same. The tension of the horizontal strings is 2 kg less than the vertical ones. The standard tension of a tennis racket is 26x24 kg, but in some cases, for example, when the strings are thin, the tension force is somewhat weaker.

The stronger the tension on the racket, the greater the impact force. With a strong stretch, there is a high level of ball control, but the impact force is not so great. Weaker tension allows you to better accelerate the ball, but it becomes much more difficult to control it.

For beginner tennis players, composite rackets are best suited. It really is. However, it should be noted that depending on the various additives, the racket acquires certain properties. For example, the cheapest and most durable racquets are made of aluminum, while ceramic ones are very stiff with considerable weight and fragility. The fiberglass used in the manufacture of the racket will give additional flexibility to the rim, and carbon - lightness and strength of the entire structure. The best choice for beginners and professionals alike are rackets made of graphite or a mixture of graphite and titanium - the designs are durable, lightweight and relatively inexpensive.

It is quite difficult to choose a racket "by hand" - after all, there is no single rule for determining the appropriate size of a given sports equipment for a particular tennis player. Yes, it is quite difficult to find a racket without an experienced consultant, but there are still ways. Grasp the handle of the racket with your right hand and place your left index finger between the tips of your fingers and the palm of the hand holding the racket. If you are free to perform the above maneuver, the racket is right for you. If the gap is too small or too large, you need to look for inventory of a different size. The size of the "head" of the racket is also of great importance. For example, "Mid Plus" is the most versatile, allowing you to control the ball well and reflect strong blows from your opponent. If a tennis player prefers to play rallies, he should opt for rackets with a "Mid Size" "head", and a lover of playing on the back line - give preference to "Oversize" and "Super Oversize". The choice of rim thickness depends on the speed of the strikes - the faster and wider your movements, the thinner the rim of your chosen racket should be. It is quite easy to determine the balance of the racket - for this you need to put it on your index finger (stick, tube) so that it falls exactly in the middle of the product. If the racket does not deflect, it is balanced. If the racket deviates to one side or the other, the balance is shifted. The head-balanced racquets provide a strong impact, although they feel heavier, while the handle-balance rackets are ideal for players with a variety of striking techniques.

The lighter the racket, the better. Manufacturers these days try to keep the weight of tennis rackets as low as possible. After all, a lighter racket is easier to swing. However, it should be borne in mind that such rackets do not provide the required power to the strike, because in order for it to be strong enough, you will have to significantly accelerate both the swing and the strike itself. Manufacturers compensate for this disadvantage by increasing the thickness of the rim and shifting the balance towards the "head" of the racket. In addition, it should be noted that heavier racquets are better at damping vibrations, have greater torsional stability, and are usually equipped with a larger "head", which suggests a larger "impact spot".

Previously, tennis was played with a medicine ball. Yes, and, according to the decree of the King of France Louis II (1461-1483), the stuffing should be done exclusively with high quality wool and leather. It is strictly forbidden to use sawdust, chalk, moss, sand, ash, metal or wood shavings or earth for this purpose.

All tennis balls are the same. Only color (yellow or white), flat surface of the fabric shell, weight (from 56 to 59.4 grams) and rebound are required for all tennis balls. A ball dropped from a height of 254 cm onto a hard surface (for example, concrete) must bounce to a height of at least 134.62 cm and no more than 147.32 cm. But the level of deformation under the influence of a load depends on the type of ball. There are 3 types of tennis balls: "fast", "medium" and "slow". In "fast" (type 1) with a load of 8.165 kg, the forward deformation is from 0.5 cm to 0.6 cm, the reverse - from 0.75 cm to 0.97 cm. The deformation of the "medium" (type 2) and slow "(type 3) balls at the same load range from 0.56 cm to 0.74 cm (straight) and from 0.8 cm to 1.08 cm (reverse).

The choice of balls for the tournament largely depends on the surface on which the competition will be held. For example, for playing on hard courts, balls are used, the shell of which is mostly nylon. For competitions on soft surfaces, balls with a minimum proportion of synthetic fibers used in the manufacture of the shell are suitable. In addition, the height at which the court is located is taken into account when choosing the ball. If the game is played at an altitude of more than 1219 m above sea level, type 2 balls with excess pressure will most likely be used (i.e., the internal pressure is greater than the external one - this effect is achieved by pumping out air and pumping a special gas inside the ball during the production process). Moreover, such a ball should be stored in a special plastic or metal can, the pressure in which is equal to the pressure inside the ball. Type 2 or 3 balls with zero pressure (internal pressure equal to external pressure) can also be used at this height.

Balls without pressure did not spread due to lack of elasticity. Such balls, which have been quite widespread in Scandinavia for some time, are not only not flexible enough and are heavier - their use leads to frequent hand injuries. This is the main reason for the rejection of balls of this kind in major tennis tournaments.

Any natural wool can be used to make the cloth to cover a tennis ball. If the ball will be used for fights of amateur tennis players, it really does not really matter what exactly its covering is made of. However, to create high-quality balls for professional tournaments, only special tennis cloth is used, consisting of cotton and wool (the most valuable is the wool of Australian and New Zealand sheep, which grazed in meadows with a certain composition of grasses) with the addition of a certain amount of synthetic materials.

Tennis equipment is extremely expensive. No, the waste is not that great. The only things you shouldn't skimp on are good sneakers (about $ 25) and a tennis racket ($ 20 to $ 200). Any form of clothing at the initial stages is suitable, but it is still better to give preference to a classic tennis suit made of natural fabric ($ 50-$ 100). Add to this about $ 3 per month for stringing and you get a rough idea of ​​the cost of the equipment for this sport.

Only professional tennis players always win the Grand Slam. This is usually the case, but there have been exceptions. For example, Rod Laver, the only winner of two Grand Slam in the world, received the first award while still an amateur athlete, and the second - speaking as a professional.

The Australian Open is always held in Melbourne. Indeed, since 1972, this tennis tournament has been held in Melbourne. Until 1988, the competitions were held on the courts of the Kooyong Lawn Tennis Club, later the tournament was moved to the specially built tennis complex of the Melbourne Park complex (formerly Flinders Park, Flinders Park).However, in the period from 1905 to 1973, the location of the championship was changed 7 times. The competitions were held 46 times in Melbourne, 17 times in Sydney, 14 times in Adelaide, 8 times in Brisbane, 3 times in Perth and twice in New Zealand.

The Australian Open is always held in January once a year. In 1977, two such tournaments were held (in January and in December), since after the championship held in January, it was decided to postpone the competition to December. For 10 years, the Australian Open was held in December, but in 1987 it was decided to postpone the tournament to January. As a result, in 1986 this championship was not held at all.

The first winner in the French national championship was a Frenchman. Despite the fact that until 1925 this competition, now called the French Open, had national status, the Englishman H. Briggs became the first winner of the tournament.

Most often, the British won the Wimbledon tournament. This statement is true only for the period from 1877 to 1936 - English tennis players won 36 times. However, after a brilliant performance by Fred Perry in 1926, athletes from England won only one victory on the Wimbledon courts (Andy Murray won Wimbledon in 2013). Women tennis players from the UK have emerged as winners in this competition 34 times, the last time was won by Virginia Wade in 1977.

The biggest handicap at Wimbledon is the changeable weather. Yes, British weather is not easy to predict, as a retractable roof has been erected over Center Court to protect players from a sudden downpour. Pigeons are also a big hindrance for tennis players, therefore, to destroy these birds, 2 weeks before the start of the tournament, the organizers invite hawk owners with their feathered pets to Wimbledon.

The monetary reward for both men and women winning Grand Slam tournaments is the same. The reward alone at the US Open and Australian Open has always been the same amount for both the athletes and the winning athletes. But the winners of the French Open and the Wimbledon tournament for a long time received a slightly lower amount than the winners, until 2007, when, after harsh criticism from the public, this custom at the Wimbledon tournament was abolished.

Competitions for amateurs and professionals are held separately. Indeed, there are professional and amateur tournaments, however, according to the decision of the General Assembly of the ITF, adopted in 1968, amateur athletes have the right to compete with professional tennis players in the same competitions.

Signs that are placed behind the court (advertising, informational, etc.) can be applied with paint of any color. Since the markings on the court, according to the rules, should be only white, writing or signs of the same color outside the court may interfere with the players. Therefore, advertisements placed behind the court or on the backs of the line judges' chairs must not be white or yellow. And it is generally forbidden to put any inscriptions on the supports, mesh, braid or belt.

The best results are achieved by athletes aged 25 to 35 years. This is most often true, but there are exceptions. For example, Jennifer Capriati (America) became Olympic tennis champion at age 16, and George Hillard (UK) won Olympic gold at age 45.


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