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Troy and the Trojan War

Troy and the Trojan War

Troy (tur. Truva), the second name is Ilion, an ancient city in the north-west of Asia Minor, off the coast of the Aegean Sea. It was known for its ancient Greek epics, discovered in 1870. during the excavations by G. Schliemann of the Hissarlik hill. The city gained particular fame thanks to the myths about the Trojan War and the events described in Homer's poem "Iliad", according to which the 10-year war of the coalition of Achaean kings led by Agamemnon - king of Mycenae against Troy ended with the fall of the city - a fortress. The people that inhabited Troy are called Teukras in ancient Greek sources.

Troy is a mythical city. For many centuries, the reality of the existence of Troy was questioned - it existed like a city from a legend. But there were always people looking for a reflection of real history in the events of the Iliad. However, serious attempts to find the ancient city were made only in the 19th century. In 1870, Heinrich Schliemann, while excavating the mountain village of Gissrlyk on the Turkish coast, came across the ruins of an ancient city. Continuing excavations to a depth of 15 meters, he unearthed treasures belonging to an ancient and highly developed civilization. These were the ruins of the famous Homeric Troy. It is worth noting that Schliemann excavated a city that was built earlier (1000 years before the Trojan War), further research showed that he simply passed through Troy, since it was erected on the ruins of an ancient city he found.

Troy and Atlantis are one and the same. In 1992, Eberhard Zangger suggested that Troy and Atlantis are one and the same city. He based his theory on the similarity of the descriptions of cities in ancient legends. However, this assumption had no spread and scientific basis. This hypothesis was not widely supported.

The Trojan War broke out over a woman. According to Greek legend, the Trojan War broke out due to the fact that one of the 50 sons of King Priam, Paris, kidnapped the beautiful Helen, the wife of the Spartan king Menelaus. The Greeks sent troops precisely to take Helen. However, according to some historians, this is most likely only the peak of the conflict, that is, the last straw that gave rise to the war. Prior to this, presumably, there were many trade wars between the Greeks and the Trojans, who controlled trade along the entire coast in the Dardanelles Strait.

Troy lasted 10 years thanks to outside help. According to available sources, the army of Agamemnon camped in front of the city on the seashore, without besieging the fortress from all sides. This was used by the king of Troy Priam, who established close ties with Caria, Lydia and other regions of Asia Minor, which during the war helped him. As a result, the war turned out to be very protracted.

The Trojan Horse really existed. This is one of the few episodes of that war that never found its archaeological and historical confirmation. Moreover, there is not a word about the horse in the Iliad, but Homer describes it in detail in his Odyssey. And all the events associated with the Trojan horse and their details were described by the Roman poet Virgil in the "Aeneid", 1st century. BC, i.e. almost 1200 years later. Some historians suggest that the Trojan horse meant some kind of weapon, for example, a ram. Others argue that this is what Homer called the Greek sea-going ships. It is possible that there was no horse at all, and Homer used it in his poem as a symbol of the death of gullible Trojans.

The Trojan horse came to the city thanks to a cunning trick of the Greeks. According to legend, the Greeks spread a rumor that there was a prophecy that if a wooden horse stood within the walls of Troy, it would be able to defend the city from Greek raids forever. Most of the city's residents were inclined to believe that the horse should be brought into the city. However, there were also opponents. Priest Laocoon offered to burn the horse or throw it off the cliff. He even threw a spear at the horse, and everyone heard that the horse was empty inside. Soon, a Greek named Sinon was captured, who told Priam that the Greeks had built a horse in honor of the goddess Athena to atone for years of bloodshed. This was followed by tragic events: during the sacrifice to the sea god Poseidon, two huge snakes emerged from the water, which strangled the priest and his sons. Seeing this as an omen from above, the Trojans decided to roll their horse into the city. It was so huge that it could not fit through the gate and had to take apart part of the wall.

The Trojan horse caused the fall of Troy. According to legend, on the night after the horse entered the city, Sinon released from his womb the soldiers hiding inside, who quickly broke the guards and opened the city gates. The city, which fell asleep after violent celebrations, did not even show strong resistance. Several Trojan warriors led by Aeneas tried to save the palace and the king. According to ancient Greek myths, the palace fell thanks to the giant Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles, who broke the front door with his ax and killed King Priam.

Heinrich Schliemann, who found Troy and amassed a huge fortune during his life, was born into a poor family. He was born in 1822 into the family of a rural pastor. His homeland is a small German village near the Polish border. His mother died when he was 9 years old. My father was a harsh, unpredictable and egocentric man who loved women very much (for which he lost his position). At the age of 14, Henry was separated from his first love, the girl Minna. When Heinrich was 25 years old and he was already becoming a famous businessman, he finally asked in a letter for Minna's hand from her father. The response said that Minna had married a farmer. This message finally broke his heart. The passion for Ancient Greece appeared in the boy's soul thanks to his father, who read the Iliad to children in the evenings, and then presented his son with a book on world history with illustrations. In 1840, after a long and exhausting work in a grocery store that almost cost him his life, Henry boarded a ship sailing to Venezuela. On December 12, 1841, the ship was caught in a storm and Schliemann was thrown into the icy sea, from death he was saved by a barrel, which he held on until he was rescued. During his life, he learned 17 languages ​​and amassed a large fortune. However, the peak of his career was the excavation of great Troy.

Heinrich Schliemann undertook the excavations of Troy because of the disorder in his personal life. This is not excluded. In 1852, Heinrich Schliemann, who had many business in St. Petersburg, married Ekaterina Lyzhina. This marriage lasted 17 years and turned out to be absolutely empty for him. Being a man of passion by nature, he married a sane woman who was cold to him. As a result, he was almost on the verge of insanity. The unhappy couple had three children, but this did not bring Schliemann happiness. Out of desperation, he made another fortune selling indigo paint. In addition, he took up the Greek language closely. An inexorable craving for travel appeared in him. In 1868 he decided to go to Ithaca and organize his first expedition. Then he set off towards Constantinople, to the places where Troy was located according to the Iliad and began excavations on the Hisarlik hill. This was his first step on the road to great Troy.

Helena Trojan's jewelry Schliemann tried on his second wife. Henry's second wife was introduced by his old friend, 17-year-old Greek woman Sofia Engastromenos. According to some sources, when in 1873 Schliemann found the famous treasures of Troy (10,000 gold items), he transferred them upstairs with the help of his second wife, whom he loved immensely. Among them were two luxurious tiaras. Putting one of them on Sophia's head, Henry said: "The jewel worn by Elena Troyanskaya now adorns my wife." In one of the photographs, she is indeed depicted in the magnificent jewelry of antiquity.

The Trojan treasures were lost. There is a deal of truth in it. The Schliemann donated 12,000 items to the Berlin Museum. During World War II, this priceless treasure was transferred to a bunker from which it disappeared in 1945. Part of the treasury unexpectedly appeared in 1993 in Moscow. There is still no answer to the question: "Was it the gold of Troy?"

During excavations at Hisarlik, several layers of cities of different times were discovered. Archaeologists have identified 9 layers that belong to different years. They are all called Troy. Only two towers have survived from Troy I. Schliemann investigated Troy II, considering it the true Troy of King Priam. Troy VI was the highest point of the city's development, its inhabitants traded profitably with the Greeks, but this city seems to have been badly destroyed by an earthquake. Modern scholars believe that the found Troy VII is the true city of Homer's Iliad. According to historians, the city fell in 1184 BC after being burned by the Greeks. Troy VIII was restored by the Greek colonists, who also built the temple of Athena here. Troy IX already belongs to the Roman Empire. It should be noted that excavations have shown that the Homeric descriptions very accurately describe the city.

Watch the video: The True Story of Troy: Ancient War - Full Documentary (October 2020).