Jumping on a trampoline (from French batoude, Italian battuta - "blow"), i.e. a special mesh woven from a transparent webbing and stretched with rubber shock absorbers on a metal frame equipped with stable supports is a sport, one of the disciplines of gymnastics.
Various kinds of spring devices have long been used in many countries of the world, mainly for the purpose of entertainment. It is also known that as early as the 19th the Indians were making devices very much like trampolines.
Devices of this kind were very often used in circus performances. The prototype of the modern trampoline, according to researchers, was invented in the Middle Ages by the circus acrobat Du Trumpoline (France) and at first was a throw-up board, later modernized into a springy mesh.
Trampoline jumping became widespread in 1926 - it was then that the Americans L. Kriswold and G. Nissen began work on optimizing the design of these sports equipment. In 1939, an improved trampoline model was patented, mass production of which led to a surge in the popularity of trampoline jumping in the United States.
At first, exercises of this kind were ranked as gymnastic, but soon they began to be positioned as a new sport. The first national and college trampoline competitions in the United States took place in 1948, and in 1953 the sport was included in the Pan American Games.
The trampoline came to Europe a few years later, thanks to the import of new sports equipment. The first trampoline jumping competition was held in England in 1958. At the same time, Trampoline Gymnastics Federations were created in many European countries, and in 1959 the International Gymnastics Federation made a proposal to recognize trampoline jumping as a new sport.
In 1964, the International Trampoline Federation was formed, and London hosted the participants in the first World Championship in this sport. Since 1968, the European Championships in trampoline have been held, since 1981, athletes have been competing for the World Cup in this sport. Since 2000, this sport has been included in the Summer Olympics program - individual and group synchronized performances are evaluated.
Today, the trampoline is used to train athletes, during competitions in some sports, as well as to train pilots and astronauts to navigate in airspace. Trampolines are also quite often used in the entertainment industry.
Trampoline competition rules were created in the USA. This is not true. For the first time, separate rules for this sport were developed in 1960 in the Federal Republic of Germany.
In the Soviet Union, the trampoline gained popularity thanks to the performances of circus acrobats and gymnasts. No, the reason is different - this sports projectile was used during the training of cosmonauts. And since the society showed great interest in the occupations of representatives of this profession, the trampoline gained considerable popularity in the 60s of the last century in the USSR.
Trampolines are most often used by gymnasts during training and performances; this apparatus is not used in other sports. This is not entirely true. The trampoline is used in the training process not only by gymnasts or jumpers, but also by snowboarders and skateboarders (in some cases they use plywood boards while jumping), grinding pirouettes and somersaults, basers (especially at the initial stages of training), people involved in freestyle, alpine skiing , diving, roller skating, etc. In addition, there is a new team sport created by Mason Gordon called slamball (from slam - "overhead" and ball - "ball") and is different from basketball and ball games, on the basis of which it was created. , covering the site: instead of parquet, trampolines 2.1x4.2 m are used, 4 at each ring. This coating allows athletes to make very high jumps when attacking or defending the ring.
Trampoline jumping is good for your health. Yes, jumping helps to strengthen the muscular structure of the body, especially the jerk muscles of the legs, helps fight cellulite, trains the vestibular apparatus, which means it is an excellent prevention of seasickness, improves the ability to navigate in space, develop dexterity, strength, and reaction speed. In addition, according to experts, during jumps, positive changes occur at the cellular level - the body is actively cleansed of toxins, metabolic processes are accelerated. This sport can be practiced by people of any gender and age, provided that there are no medical contraindications (which occur, for example, with injuries or diseases of the musculoskeletal system).
In trampoline jumping, a team can consist of 2 or more people. A team (both male and female) in this sport can consist of 3 or 4 gymnasts - no more and no less.
If something interferes with the correct performance of the exercise (noise in the hall, a problem with clothing or equipment) - he has the right to repeat the program. The second attempt can indeed be given to the athlete in the event that the performance was interfered with by any external influence or equipment malfunction. At the same time, neither the noise and applause of the audience, nor the disorder in clothes are considered a hindrance, and the right to re-perform is not given.
Athletes are not allowed to wear watches or jewelry while competing. Such a ban does indeed take place. The exception is rings without stones, but only if they are covered with an elastic bandage.
Strict requirements are imposed on the clothing of participants in trampoline jumping. Yes, there are many rules and restrictions that athletes must adhere to. For example, gymnastic trousers for male athletes should be monochromatic, and not dark, and even less black, and female athletes can be dressed in a leotard (with or without sleeves), tight overalls or leotards - any other clothing that does not fit the body , is prohibited. Covering the face or head is also not permitted (for safety reasons). Athletes and sportswomen put on special trampoline slippers during their performances. In addition, it should be noted that members of the same team must be dressed the same, as failure to comply with this requirement will result in the disqualification of athletes. Competitors' uniforms must have the emblem of the region, city or club - otherwise, 0.1 point is deducted from each violator.
The longer the exercises last, the higher the judges' marks will be. Misconception. The exercise should last no more than 1 minute. For exceeding the time, the judges decrease the marks by 0.1 points (if the duration of the exercise is from 61 to 90 seconds), 0.2 points (91 - 120 seconds), 0.3 points (121 seconds or more). In addition, an athlete who has spent more than 30 seconds on training jumps on competitive equipment is threatened with the removal of 0.3 points. However, the deduction of points does not occur if the exercise could not be completed on time due to equipment malfunction.
Trampoline jumps are judged by 5-6 judges. No, there are much more judges at competitions in this sport: the chairman of the jury, technical judges (in individual competitions - 3-5, in synchronized competitions - 4), a judge of the duration of the flight (only in individual competitions), judges of difficulty, judges of synchronization (1 -3 persons), assistant to the chairman of the jury (during synchronized performances). In total, individual performances of athletes are evaluated by 8 to 10 people, synchronous performances - from 11 to 13 judges. Moreover, some of them are located 5-7 meters from the speakers, on a special platform, the height of which is 1-2 meters, others - so that the net is at the level of their eyes, others - next to the platform.
Modern trampolines come in all shapes and sizes. For training and performance of athletes, trampolines are used, which are a springy mesh attached to a metal frame-frame. Around this structure there is a "safe platform" - thickened mats that perform a shock-absorbing function. For the performances of circus acrobats, a mesh track on iron supports is often used, with the help of a system of cables and blocks stretched over the site or arena. In the entertainment industry, inflatable trampolines are used - real pneumatic trampolines in the form of slides, labyrinths, castles, fairy-tale characters, etc. These smaller structures are very popular among outdoor enthusiasts - a small inflatable trampoline is much easier to transport and set up than a classic mesh trampoline.
The quality of the trampoline depends on the material from which the net and frame are made. It really is. The best choice would be a product in which both the frame and the springs are galvanized - this kind of coating will reliably protect parts of the trampoline from the effects of bad weather. A galvanized frame will not last so long, and completely devoid of coating will rust very quickly. When choosing a trampoline, be sure to pay attention to what steel the frame is made of: a thickness of at least 2 mm is suitable for adults, but if the frame is made of steel with a thickness of 1.5 mm - such a product is intended only for children or adolescents whose weight does not exceed 70 kg. It will be useful to pay attention to the number of springs - the fewer there are, the less weight the product can withstand. It should be taken into account that a trampoline with a diameter of 3.7 m must have 80 springs, but if the diameter is slightly larger - 4.3 m, then the number of springs increases - in such a sports equipment there will already be 96 of them. Buying inflatable trampolines, do not one should be tempted by the lowest price and maximum lightness of the product. The fact is that if a trampoline is made of material, 1 m2 of which weighs 450 g, it will last a maximum of 2 seasons (the weight of a quality material should be at least 650 g per 1 m2). And fan blowers, which are equipped with cheaper designs, quickly fail.
The trampoline can be installed anywhere. Yes, this kind of sports equipment is weather-resistant, so it can be installed indoors, in a summer cottage, and just on a green lawn in the middle of a forest or on the shore of a reservoir. But there are some factors to consider when installing. Firstly, the trampoline should be placed on a horizontal flat surface, in a well-lit place, away from fences, playgrounds, building walls, etc. Secondly, the upper one is free from tree branches, wires, etc. the space above the trampoline must be at least 7 m 30 cm (with the exception of inflatable and mini trampolines). And, finally, no objects should be placed under the trampoline, and for maximum safety, this sports equipment should be surrounded by a special safety net.
You can only jump on a trampoline - it is not suitable for anything else. The trampoline is used in different ways: they arrange various kinds of games and competitions on it (however, you need to make sure that several people are not on the sports equipment at the same time), they rest, read, draw, even sleep. And small children, holding on to the trampoline net, can take their first steps.