Vampires are reanimated dead, able to live in a body after death, thanks to animal or human blood. In a number of folklore representations, non-human beings are also called vampires, such as bats, dogs, spiders, etc. In a broad sense, the term "vampire" is used to refer to any predatory parasite that sucks not only blood, but also energy from its victims against their will (energetic vampire).
In real life, vampires do not exist. This is only partly true. Among zoologists, the term "vampirism", for example, is applied to leeches and vampire bats. The situation with people is much more interesting. It is believed that stories about vampires appeared under the influence of a real external factor - a rare blood disorder that disrupts gene reproduction called "porphyria." It was believed that about 1000 years ago, porphyria was common in small villages in Transylvania, from where the myths of vampires came to us. They were able to describe the disease only in the second half of the 20th century, and until that time, society treated strange patients quite ruthlessly and attributed all unexplained deaths to them. Porphyria is a rather rare form of genetic pathology (on average, it is inherent in one person out of 200 thousand), which disrupts pigment metabolism in blood and tissues under conditions of solar ultraviolet radiation. The disease process deprives a person of the opportunity to appear in the sun and in some cases leads to deformation of the tendons.
The vampire story begins with Count Dracula. Rather, the story is popular. Vampires became known to mankind much earlier. Early Babylonian demonology tells about vampire-like spirits Lilu, Sumerian - about blood-sucking aksharas, one of whose demonesses named Lilith was later adopted by Jewish demonology. Ancient Indian folklore also tells about the vampire-like creatures of the vetal, the undead hanging upside down in the trees growing near the cemeteries. Not without vampires and in Italy, in the folk tales of which there is information about the ghost-bloodsucking lamias.
Count Dracula was a real person. But the vampire from him was useless. The Romanian prince Vlad Tepes, known as Vlad III Dracula, was distinguished by particular cruelty and atrocities against his subjects. Lord Tepes was famous for especially sophisticated executions, a craving for the shedding of blood and complete calmness for the latter. The bloody scenes of torment did not horrify him, but, on the contrary, often served as a backdrop for dinner. Apparently, thanks to this, in the people's memory Vlad Tepes remained the most terrible thing that could have been thought of at that time - a bloodsucker belonging to the devilish world.
Blood-drinking bats are named by vampires after traditional vampires. In Europe, bats have long been associated with the transcendental world, but there were no blood-eating bats among them. For the first time, Europeans encountered blood-drinking bats in the 16th century in Latin America and, having learned their taste preferences, named the latter after folklore vampires.
Vampires are as pale as death. Only in Hollywood movies. In life, everything turned out the opposite. Several centuries ago, the practice of opening the graves of suspected vampirism was widespread, and suspicions over and over again fell on the same corpses - not subject to decay. People at that time did not take into account that bodies decompose at different rates, depending on the composition of the soil, temperature, humidity, the state of health of the deceased, etc., etc. Such ideas led to the false conclusion that the dead body not only did not decompose, but also continued to live. The misconceptions were also supported by the fact that the dug-out bodies, as a rule, were found at the stage of decay, when, due to physical reasons, they swelled and turned red from the blood trying to leave the body. As a result, the deceased, who was thin and pale during his lifetime, sometimes looked healthier than during his lifetime.
A vampire can be destroyed with a wooden stake stuck in the heart, silver bullets, depriving its head or completely burning the corpse. And vampires are not reflected in mirrors, especially those hung with garlic, and are afraid of sunlight, holy water and crucifixion. This is all part of the Eastern European concept of vampires. In the absence of real facts confirming the existence of vampires, and methods of dealing with them remain only fantasy.
The victim of a vampire also becomes a vampire. This belief is the exception rather than the rule in vampire myths. In addition, if this were so, then the tales of vampires would quickly disappear due to the fact that everyone bitten by them would have bitten others in turn, and there would be simply no one to bite on the earth ball, as there would be no one then believe or not believe in vampire tales.
The famous fangs of vampires are the invention of writers and screenwriters. It seems that this is an invention of life itself. It is known that in patients with porphyria, the skin around the mouth and lips dries out over time, thereby exposing the teeth. The gums deformed due to disease add their own touch to the overall picture, turning the teeth into canines. In some patients, porphyrin deposits also appear on the teeth, staining the bone tissue of the teeth in a reddish color.
There is no place for vampires in modern life. In fact, modern art is so replete with vampire stories that people do not stop believing in their reality. So in the mid-90s in Latin America, rumors spread about the chupacabra, a scary small creature that drinks blood and eats meat from domestic animals. Chupacabra was searched for a long time and persistently, some blurry photographs of an unprecedented beast appeared in the press, but no real confirmation of the existence of an animal vampire was found. In addition, at the beginning of this century, vampiric hysteria swept through a number of countries, full of unconfirmed stories about the attack of humanoid vampires on people.