Venezuela (Republic of Venezuela) is located in the northern part of the South American continent. Translated from Spanish, the word "Venezuela" means "little Venice".
The Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea wash Venezuela on the north side. The state borders on Brazil, Guyana and Colombia.
The capital of the Republic of Venezuela is the city of Caracas. The area of the country is nine hundred and twelve thousand square kilometers.
Venezuela is a republic. In terms of administrative division, the country is a federation. It consists of federal estates, a federal district, one federal territory and twenty states. The Supreme Tribunal of Justice is the highest organ of the judiciary.
Parliament appoints its masters, whose term of office is twelve years. Masters cannot be re-elected for a new term of office.
Spanish is recognized as the state language. Catholicism is the main religion. Sixty-seven percent of the population is mestizo, twenty-one percent are Europeans, ten percent are blacks and two percent are Indians.
Oil production has become the backbone of Venezuela's economy. Oil dominates the country's exports.
Venezuela is a republic by the form of government. The head of state is the president, who is elected by popular vote for a six-year term. One and the same person can be re-elected to the post of President of Venezuela an unlimited number of times. The President simultaneously heads the country's Parliament, with the consent of which he appoints members of the government, decides on its composition and structure. Although the head of state has the right, the president's proposals can be rejected by a simple majority of parliamentary votes. The Parliament of the Republic of Venezuela is unicameral. This is the National Assembly. The Parliament consists of one hundred and sixty-five deputies, of which sixty-five are elected by party lists, and ninety-seven - personally. Thus, one hundred and sixty-two deputies are elected according to the proportional-list system. As for the other three places, they belong to representatives of the country's indigenous peoples. Deputies are elected for five years, and can be re-elected up to three times.
Venezuela has a tropical climate. The republic has a tropical and subequatorial climate. The rainy season starts in May and lasts until December. Dry weather is predominant for the period from January to May, when anticyclones dominate the country. The amount of precipitation can vary from 280 mm to 3000 mm per year. Average monthly temperatures range from plus twenty to plus twenty-nine degrees Celsius plus - during the year, the average monthly temperatures do not change much. As for the latter, the change in temperature, as a rule, mainly depends on the height of the terrain. Thus, the alternation of dry trade winds in winter and humid equatorial air masses in summer has a decisive influence on the country's climate. For human life, climatic conditions on the hills are more comfortable, thanks to which all major cities of the Republic of Venezuela are located at an altitude of six hundred to one thousand eight hundred and fifty meters above sea level (above this level, the climate resembles the climate of temperate latitudes, it is much cooler here). Farming is practically impossible at an altitude exceeding three thousand meters above sea level. Residents of settlements located at such a height are engaged in sheep breeding. The coastal areas are characterized by high air humidity and intense heat.
Venezuela is proud of the diversity of flora and fauna in its territory. Various environmental conditions are the reason. The main floristic areas include the following. First, the Caribbean region on the north coast. The species Ziziphus, Jacquinia, Capparia, numerous cacti, and trees from the legume family grow here. Secondly, this is the territory of the Venezuelan Andes, which is characterized by vegetation of the temperate forests of Colombia and alpine meadows (paramo). The Orinoco basin has a rich vegetation cover; plantations of exotic species are often found here. The latter include, for example, coffee tree and sugarcane plantations. The Orinoco drainage basin contains approximately four parts of the country's five territories. The area of the most interesting floristic province, encompassing the peaks of the Serra Pacaraima sandstone mountains, is quite small. This zone is relict. The reason for this is its antiquity. As for the fauna, bakers, tapir, chain-tailed porcupine, nutria, mumps, monkeys, otters, taira, bush dog, ocelot, puma, jaguar and other animals live on the territory of the Republic; in addition, opossums and deer are occasionally encountered. Turtles, alligators and crocodiles are typical inhabitants of Venezuelan rivers. Lizards, snakes (for example, boas) are found in large numbers in the jungle. Ducks, storks, herons, cranes are found in low-lying areas, and birds of prey prefer life in the mountains.
Oil production is the backbone of Venezuela's economy. It is oil that dominates exports, accounting for approximately eighty percent of export earnings. Moreover, oil accounts for approximately thirty percent of the gross domestic product and more than fifty percent of the revenue side of the budget of the Republic of Venezuela. The core of the Venezuelan industry is oil production, as well as the textile, food industry, construction materials, steel and aluminum smelting, iron ore mining, and vehicle assembly.
Venezuela is a poor country. In 2009, the country's gross domestic product amounted to three hundred forty-nine billion dollars. According to this indicator, the Republic of Venezuela took thirty-second place in the world. The gross domestic product per capita for the same year was thirteen thousand dollars. But for this indicator, Venezuela has already taken the eighty-seventh place in the world. Unemployment was found to be about eight percent, and the proportion of the population living below the poverty line was estimated at the end of 2005 to approach thirty-eight percent. In 2009, consumer prices rose by about twenty-seven percent.
Agriculture makes up a significant share in the gross domestic product of the Republic of Venezuela. This is not true. This indicator is equal to only four percent. Agriculture occupies thirteen percent of the country's workforce. Corn, bananas, rice, sugar cane, sorghum, coffee, vegetables are cultivated in Venezuela. Milk, pork, beef, eggs are produced, and fishing is also developed. However, agriculture meets only a third of Venezuela's needs for its products. For example, in 2005, the United States of America shipped three hundred and forty-seven million dollars worth of agricultural products to the Republic. Moreover, Venezuela has become the second most important agricultural market for the United States on the South American continent.
Caracas is the capital of the Republic of Venezuela. The founding date of Caracas is 1567. Diego de Lozada became its founder. Caracas is located close to the coast in a mountain valley. It is located at an altitude of eight hundred and thirty-five meters above sea level.
Caracas is a picturesque city. Its architecture especially testifies to this. It combines both buildings from the colonial period and modern high-rise buildings. Some of the most important historical sights of the Venezuelan capital are the following: the seventeenth century cathedral in Piazza Bolivar, the Chapel of the Holy Rose, the National Pantheon, the building of the National Congress built in 1873. In addition, a wide variety of museums are of interest. These are, for example, the Bolivar Museum, the Museum of Colonial Art, the Museum of Fine Arts, the Transport Museum, the National Art Gallery. As for the Gallery, it gives an opportunity to see four hundred works of famous authors of the Spanish period. It also presents items from the pre-colonial period that belonged to Indian peoples.
Merida is a student city. About forty thousand students study within the walls of its universities. The people of Merida are very polite people. The city is also famous for its parks. By their number, Merida is the leader among other Venezuelan cities. There are twenty-eight city parks on the territory of Merida. Among the main attractions of Merida: the popular Black Lagoon, Mukubahi Lagoon, old La Parocchia, Miranda Viaduct, Albarregas Park, Jardin Aquario Park, Flower Clock, Plaza de Toros Square, Plaza de Los Geronas Square , a monument to Juan Rodriguez Suarez, the Museum of Science and Technology, the largest University in the Republic of Venezuela, the Mercado Murace market, the Mercado Artesanal-Manuel-Rojas-Guillén market and the Mercada-Principal de Merida street market. Another undoubtedly very popular attraction of the country is the cable car, built in 1958. It is called Teleferico de Merida. This cante road is the highest on Earth - it stretches from the center of Merida to the Espejo peak. The central part of the city is located at an altitude of one thousand six hundred and thirty-nine meters above sea level. Espejo Peak - the second highest in the country - has a height of four thousand seven hundred sixty-five meters above sea level. The total length of the cable car is approximately twelve and a half kilometers. Of no less interest for tourists are the town of La Mesa de Los Indios, the "garden city" of Bokono, the Correra de Las Gonzalez waterfalls, the amazing town of Jajo (located thirty-eight kilometers from Merida, the small historical town of Trujillo, a large a number of mountain lakes, as well as theme parks Venezuela de Antje and Los Aleros.
Bolivar Peak is the main attraction of the city of Merida. This city is located on a mountain plateau. At an altitude of one thousand six hundred and forty meters. The date of its foundation is October 9, 1558. At the very top of the Bolivar peak there is a monument to Simon Bolivar. In addition, excursions to the village of Los Nevada are organized from the city. This village is unique in the sense that it is the only settlement of its kind, inhabited at a similar height.
Cumana is one of the oldest Venezuelan towns. Furthermore. Kumana tops this list. The city is located on the north-eastern coast of the country. Kumana stretches along the sea for thirty kilometers. Slender rows of palm trees and endless white sand beaches make this city a charming city. The city was founded in 1521 and became the first in the list of cities that appeared on the territory of the South American continent thanks to the Europeans. True, Franciscan monks have lived on the territory of the Cumana since 1515. In the past, a huge number of forts were erected in the city. They were called upon to defend the city of Kumanu from pirate attacks and invaders. Some of the forts have survived to this day. Now the largest port of the Republic of Venezuela is located in Cumana. The fortresses of Santa Maria de la Cabeza and San Antonio are popular among modern tourists. As mentioned above, almost the main attraction of Kumana is the stunning beaches. Back in the sixteenth century, the fame of their pearl sand spread throughout Europe. Fans of snorkelling and diving are attracted by the Mochima Marine Park. It consists of numerous small islets located between Puerto de la Cruz and Camana. Those who wish to swim in the waters of the national park will find not only amazing coral reefs, but also the remains of ships that were wrecked in the old days. And Kumana is also considered to be the birthplace of Indian beliefs and pearl divers.
The Guiana Plateau occupies almost one-half of the territory of the Republic of Venezuela. The Guiana Plateau is replete with river valleys and numerous gorges that dissect vast regions of the mesas (tepuis). This plateau covers the territory of the states of Delta Amakuro, Bolivar and Amazonas. The total population of these states is about one and a half million people, although it is not evenly distributed - the bulk of the population lives in two cities: Ciudad Bolivar and Ciudad Guayana. As for the highlands itself, only Indian tribes live here. These are the "Piaroa", "Huarao", "Pemon", "Yanomama" and others tribes, a significant part of them have a rather limited connection with modern civilization. In view of this fact, these tribes still live according to ancient traditions and customs. At the same time, modern life has included some of the tribal groups living on the Guiana Plateau. The highlands are of great economic importance, despite the conspicuous lack of population. The fact is that in the bowels of the Guiana Plateau, a large amount of such natural resources as diamonds and gold, alumina and iron ore have been explored. In addition, the Guiana Plateau generates up to seventy-six percent of the country's electricity. This fact makes it possible not only to cover their own needs for electricity, but also to export it. However, the main "resource" of this part of the Republic of Venezuela is undoubtedly the unique nature. It combines amazing flora and fauna, mighty rivers and waterfalls, breathtaking mountains, and of course, the rainforests of the Amazon.
Venezuela has the highest waterfall on Earth. This is Angel Falls. It is located in the central part of the Canaima National Park, on one of the branches of the Carrao River. Eight hundred and seven meters - this is the highest height of free fall of water. It is worth noting the fact that Ayhel Falls is fifteen times higher than Iguazu and twenty times higher than Niagara. According to official data, Angel Falls was opened in 1935. Its discoverer was James Angel, an American pilot who at that time was conducting reconnaissance of the surroundings from the air. Until this moment, the waterfall was known only to local Indians. They called him Kerepakupai-Meru. In translation, this name means the following: "falls into the deepest place." The Indians never once told the Europeans about the waterfall they knew, and, moreover, they never climbed to the top of the mountain themselves. Locals simply believed that a spirit stealing human souls lived on the mountain in the guise of a Mavari man. Currently, in order to look at the highest waterfall on the planet, a huge number of tourists rush to this area, hundreds of excursions are organized annually. Air tours are especially popular as the land is very difficult to reach. Small planes fly directly over unique forests, over the canyons "simas", over precipices and rocks. You can get to the unique waterfall by land only after a long preliminary journey: from Canaima you need to make a journey of seventy kilometers by boat, and then two or three kilometers to wade through the jungle.In relation to the latter, it should be noted that this kind of transition is similar to a transition of ten to fifteen kilometers through the Central Russian forests. Thus, it is quite difficult to see the miracle of the planet. And sometimes it is very difficult. During the rainy season, which is accompanied by fog and powerful clouds, Angel Falls is the most beautiful and full of water. Air excursions are difficult due to weather conditions. It is also difficult to get to the waterfall through the jungle in rainy weather. The largest mountain in the region rises just three kilometers from Angel. This is Mount Auyantepui. Its height is two thousand nine hundred and fifty meters.
The small town of Canaima is the gateway to Angel. The waterfall is located fifty kilometers from the city. It is also the heart of the National Park. The population of Canaima is small - it is home to about one thousand two hundred people. Locals and tourists are served by a very small airport. The town is surrounded by 4 beautiful waterfalls. These are the waterfalls of Salto-Guadima, Salto-Galondrina, Salto-Ukaima and Salto-Acha. In addition, the picturesque Laguna de Canaima is nearby. There are 2 more waterfalls near Canaima. We are talking about the Salto el-Sapo waterfall falling from a height of twenty meters and the very low Salto-el-Sapito waterfall. An extraordinary path leads to the first waterfall. Thomas Bernal, a Peruvian hermit, carved it directly into the rock. The hard-to-reach Salto Aponguao Falls is another attraction in the Canaima area. Its height is one hundred and five meters. The starting point of the excursion to this waterfall is the small Indian village of Iboribi, located forty kilometers from Canaima. To get to the Salto-Aponguao waterfall is possible only by canoe.
The Rio Orinoco is one of the longest rivers in the South American continent. Rio Orinoco ranks third in length on this continent. Its length is two thousand one hundred and fifty kilometers. The river originates in the south of Venezuela - near the border with Brazil. As for the Rio Orinoco delta, it is located in the northeastern part of the country - on the coast. The delta of this river is so wide that it is recognized as one of the largest on Earth. And this is not surprising, because its area is approximately twenty-five thousand square kilometers. The delta is made up of many islands overgrown with forest. The latter are the home of the Huarao tribes. The name of the tribe translates as "canoe people". Local residents of these places earn their living by hunting, fishing and wood carving, and they build houses on stilts on the banks of the river. It is worth noting the fact that tourists are just beginning to explore this area, the main attractions of which are currently the amazing delta of the river, the stunning city of Ciudad Bolivar, interesting from a historical point of view, as well as the distinctive Indian tribes. The cities of Puerto Ordaz and San Felix are located slightly downstream of the river. The first city is the commercial and industrial center of the region, while the second has earned a reputation for its preserved colonial architecture.
Orinoco is in many ways a unique river. It can even be called a separate attraction. Each channel of the Orinoco River has its own composition of water, its own ecosystem, its color. Huge populations of birds (more than three hundred and fifty species) find shelter here, more than one thousand three hundred species of plants grow, more than one hundred and twenty species of mammals live. However, the fish fauna is of the greatest interest. In the waters of the Orinoco, up to four hundred and twenty species of fish and about seventy species of reptiles are found. About forty species of fish are endemic. The world's largest snake, the anaconda, is also found here.
The Caribbean coast is the pride of Venezuela. This country has approximately three thousand kilometers of coastline, as well as about a hundred islands. And this circumstance raises the Republic of Venezuela to the rank of regions with the greatest prospects for sea recreation. The first resorts were built by the Spaniards on the northern coast of the country. The twentieth century gave a powerful impetus to the development of these resorts. The climate on the north coast, as well as on the Caribbean islands, is significantly drier and hotter than the rest of Venezuela. The floods and landslides of 1999 had a very negative impact on the coastal region of El Litoral, north of the Venezuelan capital. However, the coastal areas to the west and east of the heart of El Litoral were hardly affected by the disaster. Nowadays there are quite a few relatively wild shores here. The town of Cumana is located four hundred and two kilometers from Caracas, in the eastern part of the coast of El Litoral. One of the nicest coasts of Venezuela is protected by the Mochima National Park, which is located slightly east of this picturesque town.
Margarita Island is an island discovered by Christopher Columbus. On August 15, 1498, his ships approached the coast of the island, on this day the Europeans first saw this island. Margarita Island is located forty kilometers from the northern coast of the Republic of Venezuela. The island is part of a very small archipelago, which, in addition to Margarita Island, includes two more islands: Cubagua and Coche. The reason for the rapid colonization process of Margarita was pearls. Pedro Alonso Niño became the first representative of the Old World to set foot on the island's land. This man traded thirty-eight kilograms of pearls from the indigenous population of Margarita. The island has gained fame as the "Pearl of Venezuela". However, over time, pearl banks have ceased to play a leading role. The first place in terms of income was taken by the tourist destination. About three hundred and fifteen kilometers of the beach and over one hundred excellent hotels attract tourists from all over the world, especially since the beaches have a reputation for being the best in the Republic of Venezuela. The attractiveness of the island is added by a certain serenity and tranquility of its life, this place is not affected by any political conflicts.
The capital of Margherita is Porlamar. It is also a popular duty-free zone. This city is one of the many island towns in the Caribbean. The Santiago Marino area is a collection of duty-free shops. In Parlamar itself, there is hardly much that would attract the attention of tourists, including upscale hotels. However, its surroundings are the exact opposite. The tourist will be interested to visit the valley of Santa Espirito, in the wonderful town of Juan Griego, in the fort of La Galera and Espana, in the village of potters El Cercado, in the picturesque town of Santa Ana, at the walls of Fort La Caranta and in the epicenter of nightlife Margarita - a suburb of Parlamar Costa Azul. No less interesting will be a visit to the city of Pampatar, founded in 1530, the National Park of La Restinga Bay, the beach town of Santa Fe, etc. The greatest pride of these places is the countless number of excellent beaches. The most popular beaches are Playas de Uva, Playas Colorada, Playas el Agua, a three-kilometer long beach. For surfers, the Playas Medina coastline is ideal.
The Los Roques Archipelago is a former favorite destination for pirates. The archipelago includes three hundred and forty-two small islands and four relatively large ones. Los Roques is located one hundred and sixty-eight kilometers north of El Litoral. 1529 is the year of the first mention of the existence of this archipelago. For a long period, only pirates (and birds) lived on the islands of Los Roques. They set up their bases on their territory. Later, Dutch fishermen began to move to the archipelago. In 1972, a National Park was established on the territory of the archipelago. At the same time, the twenty-four kilometer system of coral reefs surrounding the central lagoon of Los Roques comes under the protection of Venezuela. A considerable number of Los Roques islands are closed to the public. The recreational area, which is provided to tourists, includes the islands of Cayo Pirate Francisca, Madrisca, Gran Roque, Nordiski Kraski, as well as a huge number of small islets. Coral reefs surround all the islands; nature here has remained untouched by man. The islands of the Los Roques archipelago are rightfully among the first places in the Republic of Venezuela, ideal for snorkeling and diving. Moreover, off the coast of Nordiski, having gone on an underwater trip, you can see several sunken ships. The famous Caribbean lobsters find refuge in them.
Coro is one of the oldest Spanish cities in South America. For superiority in this regard, the city of Koro competes only with the city of Kumano. Coro was founded by the Spaniard Juan de Ampies in 1527 and is located in the northwestern part of Venezuela. It was from Koro that the first land expeditions went in search of the legendary Eldorado. The corsairs more than once subjected Corot to defeat, but the favorable geographical position and the smuggling of goods each time became the reason that Corot was restored. In 1950, Corot was included in the UNESCO list, due to the fact that it retained many features of the colonial period. Moreover, no other Venezuelan settlements besides Corot are included in the UNESCO list. Among the main attractions of Corot are the following: the mansions of Casa Gourmesido Torres (built in 1875) and Casa del Sol (built in the seventeenth century, due to which it is considered one of the oldest colonial buildings in the city), the picturesque Plaza Manaure, the Chapel of El Carrizal, the churches of San Francisco (originally built in 1620, rebuilt at the end of the twentieth century) and San Clemente (erected in 1538), the Coro Cathedral and the Iglesia San Gabriel Church. A considerable number of Koro museums are also worthy of a tourist's attention. These are the Art Gallery of Corot, the Museo de la Tradision-Familiar, the Lucas-Guillermo-Castillo Museum, the De Borojo Art Museum, the UNEFM Art Museum, the Virtual Art Museum, the Museum of Ceramics and Natural History and others. In the immediate vicinity of the city, there are a series of dunes. Their presence is quite an interesting phenomenon, since it is not typical for this region of the Earth. Fifteen kilometers from Corot, you can see the statue of the Holy Virgin Mary of Guadalupe.
The Republic of Venezuela is a Catholic country. Adherence to Christian norms of behavior justifies a considerable number of local traditions and customs. The Church in Venezuela is the center of not only spiritual life, but also cultural and political life. The priest, as a rule, has unquestionable authority. In the interior regions of the Republic, which are still in relative isolation, ancient tribal beliefs often persist. The value system of such peoples differs significantly from the European one. Despite this, the local people have a tolerance for racial and cultural differences. The formation of a distinctive multicultural nation was greatly influenced by the possibility of mixed marriages.
English is widely spoken on the territory of the Republic of Venezuela. It is possible to explain in English only on some islands of the Caribbean Sea, and, of course, in the business districts of the largest Venezuelan cities. Spanish, officially adopted in Venezuela, is widely spoken.
Family means a lot to a Venezuelan. Venezuelans spend a significant part of their time at home, this applies to both women and men. As for the latter, they often prefer to spend time at home with children than to spend it on any traditional hobbies. Family is a matter of pride for every Venezuelan. Considerable importance is attached to family "outings". It could be Sunday Mass or a local carnival. As a rule, three generations of people live under one roof. Older people have a higher status, often they are the ones who take care of the children, as the parents work. Grandparents organize family vacations, they also have responsibilities for the kitchen. Professionally in Venezuela there is no discrimination between the female and male parts of the population. Many women have found themselves in education, medicine, law, even politics. And of course, in addition to work, women are responsible for the main care of the home, the elderly and children.
Venezuelan streets are full of large residential buildings. This, indeed, is not uncommon. The affordable housing market has been sponsored by the government for a long period of time. Despite this, at present a considerable number of local residents are unable to purchase good housing for themselves. The recent economic difficulties undoubtedly have had some impact on this circumstance. Real slums are emerging around the major cities of Venezuela, as the poor part of the population builds houses for themselves that are significantly different from the houses of the richer part of the population. Such areas are called "ranches", often there is no sewage system, no water, or electricity. Some Native American peoples in Venezuela build and live in traditional houses. These houses are called "Yanoma", and one such house can accommodate up to one hundred families. Each family in Yanoma has its own place. The coastal regions of the country are characterized by the construction of residential buildings on piles, in such buildings it is dry.
Politeness is a hallmark of the character of Venezuelans. There is no familiarity here. Venezuelans are polite towards each other and correct in their behavior. In order to facilitate communication, Venezuelans often assign a nickname to their interlocutors. For example, a Venezuelan can address his acquaintance something like this: "my joy", and apply to a friend a more distinct "saffron milk", "fat man", etc. In the language of Venezuelans there are a considerable number of nuances, thanks to which even offensive words can get a rather acceptable coloration.
There is such a thing as "Venezuelan time". Locals claim that they live in it. Indeed, their relationship to time is rather peculiar. It is extremely rare for Venezuelans to feel rushed. They speak calmly, their speech is lengthy and lengthy. Slow service is typical for restaurants. Punctuality is highly valued in Venezuela. As for business issues, they just find their solution quickly.
Venezuelans lead an active lifestyle. Basketball and football are very popular in the Republic of Venezuela. This is especially true for the Andean areas. Equestrian competitions can be classified as national sports. Indeed, Venezuelan racehorses are among the best in the world. Venezuela's freshwater lakes and seashore attract locals during their holidays. They love to spend time fishing, scuba diving, snorkeling, surfing. Bullfighting and cockfighting are also very popular in Venezuela.