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Volleyball (English volleyball from volley - "flying", "hitting the ball from the air", "serving with access to the net" and ball - "ball") is a non-contact team sport. The game takes place on an 18x9 meter court, divided in the middle by a net fixed at a height of 2.43 m (for women - 2.24 m).
The goal of the game is to throw the ball (circumference 65-67 cm, weight 260-280 g) over the net so that it touches the ground on the opponent's court, and at the same time does not allow the opponents to do the same. Games of this kind have long been known in many countries of the world (in Ancient Rome, Ancient Greece, medieval Japan). Modern volleyball originated in America in 1895.
In 1913, volleyball was included in the program of the first Southeast Asian Games, held in Manila (Philippines). In Europe, this sport appeared in the 20s of the last century, and quickly gained considerable popularity. The first European championship in volleyball among men's teams took place in 1948, a year later a competition of this kind was held among women's teams.
In 1949, the first world championship among men's teams took place in Prague, and in 1952 representatives of the fair sex fought for the champion title. Volleyball has been an Olympic sport since 1964. In 1990, the World Volleyball League was created.
Volleyball is a Russian folk game. This misconception took place in the 30s of the last century (it was then that the rules of the competition called "Volleyball - the Russian national game" were published in Germany), since volleyball was very popular in Russia, where this sport appeared in 1923. But in fact, the inventor of this game is a resident of Holyoke, Massachusetts (USA) William J. Morgan, who worked as a physical education teacher at the College of the Young Christian Association. It was he who, on February 9, 1895, came up with the idea of hanging a net (some sources claim that a tennis net, others that an ordinary fishing net) at a height of 198 cm and throw a basketball over it (some researchers believe that at first they used a camera from a basketball ball or bullish bubble). Initially, the game was called "mintonette" (eng. Mintonette), and got its current name in 1896 - it was proposed by Professor Alfred T. Halstead.
The first volleyball federation was created in America. No, the first organization of this kind in the world was created in 1922 (at the same time the first US championship in this sport was held) in Czechoslovakia. And only a few years later, volleyball federations emerged in the USA, Bulgaria, the USSR and Japan.
The first international volleyball organization was founded in 1947. Yes, the International Volleyball Federation, or FIVB for short (Federation Internationale de Volleybal, FIVB) was founded in mid-April 1947 in Paris. Its first official members were Belgium, the Netherlands, Portugal, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, France, Italy, Brazil, Egypt, USA, Uruguay. Today, this organization is the most numerous in the world, and unites 220 national volleyball federations. However, back in 1936, a congress of the International Handball Federation was held in Stockholm, during which the Polish delegation made a proposal to organize a volleyball technical committee within the federation. As a result, the first international commission for this sport was created, which included 5 American countries, 13 European countries and 4 Asian countries.
Experienced athletes become FIVB presidents. Completely erroneous opinion. The first president of the International Volleyball Federation Paul Libo (France) was an architect, who succeeded him in 1984 by Ruben Acosta (Mexico) - a lawyer.
Volleyball was first introduced at the Olympic Games in 1964. Volleyball was really included in the list of Olympic sports only in 1964, at the XVIII Olympiad (Tokyo (Japan)), but demonstration matches of volleyball players were held back in 1924 at the VIII Olympiad in Paris (France). It was then that the American delegation received a proposal to classify this sport as an Olympic one.
Volleyball rules date back to 1897. It really is. However, many significant changes were subsequently made to them. For example, since 1917, the rally is limited to 15 points, and the net is fixed at a height of 243 cm (against 198 cm, provided for by the first rules), since 1918 a limit on the number of players (six) has been introduced, the three-touch rule was introduced in 1922. The modern size of the site was approved in 1925 (at first the game was played on a 7.6 x 15.1 m site), the tactics of command actions (group block, insurance, etc.) took shape in the 30s of the last century, and the jump has become one of the favorite (and extremely effective) techniques of volleyball players since 1984 - it was then at the XXIII Olympics in Los Angeles (USA) that it was first performed by the players of the Brazilian team. The tie-break system for scoring was introduced in 1988 (initially for only 5 games, and somewhat later for the rest of the game).
Since 1925, volleyball matches all over the world have been played according to the same rules. This is not true. Until the 60s of the last century in Asian countries, the game was played according to the rules, according to which there were not 6, but 12 players on the court and there was no practice of changing positions. And the site itself was of a non-standard size - 11x22 meters.
Athletes from the USA achieve the best results in volleyball competitions. According to statistics, the highest results, for example, in volleyball competitions at the Olympic Games were achieved by athletes from the USSR and Russia (a total of 17 medals, of which 7 are gold), Japan (8 medals, of which 3 are gold) and Brazil (7 medals, of which 3 gold). The achievement of athletes from the USA, the homeland of volleyball, is somewhat more modest - 6 medals (of which 3 are gold). The team from the USSR and Russia firmly held the palm in the European and World Championships in this sport. And according to FIVB data published in 2000, the best national teams of the last century were the women's team in Japan and the men's team in Italy.
There is a limit on substitutions on the volleyball court. Yes, in each game, no more than 6 substitutions are allowed and 6 more so-called reverse substitutions (when a player returns to the court once per game to the place of the athlete who replaced him). However, if any of the volleyball players is injured, an "exceptional substitution" is allowed, when instead of a retired athlete, any of the players (with the exception of the libero - a free defender playing on the back line) can enter the court.
Volleyball players are universal players, therefore, if necessary, they can replace any member of their team. In a volleyball team, each player has his own specialization:
- sideplayers (or second-rate attackers) attacking from the edge of the net;
- diagonal (universal attackers, characterized by high growth, great strength and jumping ability) - do not participate in receiving the ball, carry out an attack from the back line of the court;
- central blockers (or attackers of the first pace) - most often the tallest players in the team, their task is to block the opponent's blows, attack from the third zone;
- connecting (passing) - team leaders, players not only strong and mobile, but also possessing knowledge of strategy and tactics of the game, as well as remarkable intelligence. Their task is to analyze the situation on the site and, in accordance with the conclusions made, choose attack options;
- liberos (free defenders or back line defenders) - as a rule, not very tall players, whose duties include receiving balls.
The best defenders should be in the front line and the best blockers should be in the back. However, after the transitions of the players, the situation may change, therefore, before the match, the athletes and the coach devote a lot of time to choosing the initial location of the volleyball players, which will allow them to achieve the most winning combinations with the help of substitutions. In addition, each team has in its arsenal favorite techniques and game schemes, which have proven their effectiveness in practice.
A volleyball match can end in a draw. Misconception. Usually the game is played up to 25 points (and the win is counted only if the difference is 2 points), but if the score is 24:24, the game continues until one of the teams reaches an advantage of 2 points. If, after 4 games have been played, the score is 2: 2, a decisive game is assigned, in which the game is played up to 15 points.
Only very tall athletes participate in international volleyball competitions. Indeed, today the height of volleyball players most often exceeds 190 cm.However, the possibility of holding (for experimental purposes) international competitions is being considered, to which only players with a height of no more than 185 cm will be allowed (for women, the limit will be 175 cm).
In volleyball, only the serving team can score a point. Yes, for a long time in the first 4 games only the servers could earn a point, and the opposing team was only winning back the serve. As a result, matches sometimes lasted 2-3 hours. However, at the end of the last century, changes were made to the rules, according to which at first only 5 games, and since 2000 - and the remaining 4 games are held according to the "tie-break" system (from the English tie - "draw", break - "break" .) or "rally point" ("rally - point") used in tennis. According to the mentioned system, any of the teams can earn a point, regardless of who is serving.
All athletes on a volleyball team wear the same uniform. The uniform of two (until 2009 - one) volleyball players differs in color from the equipment of the rest of the team - this is how the libero is distinguished, that is, the defensive players who can replace any of the athletes on the back line.
The best results are achieved by volleyball players with powerful muscles. Too much muscle mass negatively affects the player's mobility. Therefore, volleyball players scrupulously monitor their weight, and in training with weights, although they work with considerable loads, they perform the minimum number of repetitions at high intensity - this allows you to increase endurance and strength without increasing muscle mass.
Volleyball players need to train all muscle groups, therefore, while doing weights, they perform many different exercises. Fitness training for volleyball players includes only basic exercises, and is by no means very diverse, unlike, for example, bodybuilding training.
Strength training is contraindicated for women volleyball players. Women, like men who prefer this sport, not only can, but also need to do various kinds of strength exercises. It is the work with weights that will help increase the strength required when playing volleyball. Moreover, muscle mass in women builds up much more slowly than in men. Therefore, weight gain, especially with properly structured workouts, should not be feared.
Strength training cannot help reduce the weight of an athlete. It is better to prefer aerobic exercise. First, strength training burns a significant amount of calories, which helps to reduce body weight. Secondly, exercise with weights speeds up metabolism, which again contributes to weight loss. Therefore, volleyball players who have set themselves the goal of losing their weight and increasing strength, classes in a fitness center are essential.
Beach volleyball is not considered a sport - it is just a form of outdoor activity. No, beach volleyball or beach volley (from the English beach - "beach" and volley - "flying", "hitting the ball in flight") has been an officially recognized sport for many years. Back in 1947, the first official beach volleyball tournament was held in California, in 1965 the Association of this sport was created, and uniform rules for the competition were developed. The first unofficial World Beach Volleyball Championship was held in the USA in 1976, and in 1986 it was officially recognized by the International Volleyball Federation. This sport appeared in the program of the Olympic Games in 1996, at the XXVI Olympiad (Atlanta (USA)), a year later the first official world beach volleyball championship was held (today competitions of this kind are held regularly, once every 2 years).
Beach volleyball originated in California in the 1920s. Indeed, it is believed that it was there that the sites for this game first appeared. However, it is believed that as early as 1910, beach volleyball was played by surfers in Hawaii in anticipation of a good wave.
Beach volleyball tournaments are held on the beaches. Not always. The official world championships are held most often in the most famous and visited places in large cities. For example, in 2005, the Beach Volleyball World Championship was held at Schlossplatz in Berlin (Germany), and the Grand Slam World Tour stages were held near the Eiffel Tower (Paris (France)) and on Poklonnaya Hill (Moscow (Russia)).
Beach volleyball first appeared at the 1996 Olympics. This is not entirely true. The demonstration performance of beach volleyball players took place in 1992 at the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona (Spain), and on September 24, 1993, at the 101st session of the IOC in Monte Carlo, it was officially ranked among the Olympic sports.
Beach volleyball needs the same player qualities as classic volleyball. Yes, however, in addition to a good reaction, dexterity, jumping ability, the player will need great strength (movement on the sand, replete with jumps and dashes, requires considerable effort) and endurance (in beach volleyball competitions, held under the scorching sun, and sometimes in the rain with a strong wind, no replacements available). Universalism is also very important (since the team consists of only 2 people).
If a player is injured in beach volleyball, a substitution is allowed. In case of disqualification, injury or refusal of one of the players to continue the competition, the team is simply credited as a defeat.
Beach volleyball goggles cannot be broken. This part of the equipment is really extremely durable - glasses do not break even when the ball hits the volleyball player's face.
A special insulated uniform made of swan's down or wool protects the beach volleyball players from the cold. No, in cool weather, athletes simply wear T-shirts over their usual shirts. It should be borne in mind that there are no temperature restrictions in this sport, unlike classic volleyball, the rules of which strictly regulate the temperature in the hall - from +16 to + 25 ° C, no more and no less.
Beach volleyball players often find various lost things in the sand - mobile phones, watches, etc. Quite the opposite - beach volleyball players often lose various items (for example, jewelry). And the finds that they constantly stumble upon during the game (sharp shells, stones) are more likely to deliver unpleasant sensations than to increase the budget.
Beach volleyball players during the match exchange information through special gestures. Yes, the signals that the player closer to the net gives behind his back (to hide from the eyes of the opponent) play an important role in this sport.Hands correspond to the sides of the attack (for example, clenching and unclenching of the left hand - readiness to serve from the left), and different positions of the fingers correspond to one or another action of the athlete (one finger - the player is ready to block a strike in a line, two - a block in a diagonal, a clenched fist - refusal to block, etc.) During beach volleyball matches, the referee informs the players about various kinds of events on the court also by means of gestures. So a double touch means 2 fingers raised up (4 touches - 4 fingers), a wave of the hand signals the permission to serve, raising a hand followed by bending it at the elbow - an error in the execution of an attacking blow, a raised hand of one hand covered with a brush of the other hand - a break ( and if the right hand is raised, the break is announced at the request of the team on the court on the right, if the left hand is the other way around), etc.
Nowadays, volleyball is played on an 18x9 meter court using standard equipment. This is true when it comes to classic volleyball, beach volleyball, or pioneerball. However, there are varieties of this sport, where the game is played on a site with different parameters. For example, in mini-volleyball, the size of the court is 6x6 meters, the height of the net is 2.05 m, the weight of the ball is 210-230 grams, the diameter is 61-63 cm (i.e., slightly less than usual). And in giant volleyball, the game is played on a court twice as large as the standard one. And the number of players is larger (sometimes there can be about 100 people in one team), and the ball is larger - its diameter can reach 80 cm. Competitions in seated volleyball (competitions for disabled athletes) are held on the site 10x6 meters, the size of the net is 6, 5x0.8, it is fixed at a height of 1.15 m (for women - 1.05 m).
Volleyball and volleyball are the same thing. Despite the consonance, these words are used to name various types of volleyball. Wallyball (English wallyball, from wall - "wall" and ball - "ball") - a game during which athletes can send the ball to the side walls of the hall to achieve their goal, was created by Joe Garcia (USA) in 1979. Today there are volleyball associations, international tournaments are held, and Garcia himself plans to achieve recognition of this game as an Olympic sport.
Faustball evolved from volleyball. No, faustball (from German faust - "fist") or fistball (from English fist - "fist") appeared much earlier than volleyball. Such fun was known back in the days of the Roman Empire. The rules of this game were developed in Italy back in 1555, while Germany became the center of the world faustball, where the game was introduced at the end of the 19th century. There are many significant differences between the games mentioned. For example, instead of a net, a rope is pulled across the platform at a height of 2 m, through which the ball should be thrown using a fist or forearm (according to the researchers, at first the ball was thrown over a stone wall).
Volleyball is played exclusively with hands. Indeed, earlier during this game, athletes could hit the ball only with their hands or with any part of the body above the waist. However, according to the changes made to the rules after 2000, it is allowed to play with the legs and any other part of the body in defense. And in takro (the full name is sepak takro - "volleyball with feet", extremely popular in Asian countries, especially in Thailand), you can touch the ball woven from rattan with your hands only when serving, the rest of the time blows are applied exclusively with your feet or with your head ...
Volleyball players kick the ball back to each other. However, there is a form of volleyball called a kickball. In the course of this game, the ball is not bounced, but thrown. The matches played in this sport consist of 3 games; to win the team must score 15 points. In some countries, throwball is included in the school curriculum, and it serves as a considerable help in mastering two sports at once - volleyball and basketball.
Volleyball can only be played by strong and resilient people with indestructible health. Not necessary. There is volleyball (two types - standing and sitting) for the disabled, included in the Paralympic Games program since 1976. Such volleyball appeared in the Netherlands back in 1956.
The area in all types of volleyball is divided in half by a net. More often than not, this is true. However, in Faustball, the net is replaced with a regular rope, and in Curtball, an opaque fabric is used instead of the net.
Volleyball competitions are held on grounds with various types of surfaces. Yes, the composition of the coatings can vary significantly. If the competition is held in the hall, the flooring is most often made of wood or of various kinds of synthetic materials; if outdoors, the area can be covered with ceramic or rubber chips, artificial grass, sand (in beach volleyball). There are also some varieties of volleyball, where the game is played in an open area filled with water - about knee-deep for the players ("swamp volleyball" or swamp ball, from the English swamp - "bog, swamp" ball - "ball"), or in a shallow pool ("water volleyball", English water volleyball).
Volleyball is a dreary game. Completely wrong opinion! According to experienced athletes, this is one of the most emotional sports. In some cases, it is volleyball (especially some of its varieties, for example, beach) that even helps get rid of depression.
The volleyball is soft, light and slow. Yes, this type of sports equipment, specially created for playing volleyball in 1900 and consisting of a frame around which 6 leather panels (natural or artificial) are stretched, really has both lightness and relative softness (due to the low internal pressure - 0.30 - 0.325 kg / cm2, and even less in beach volleyball balls). But the judgment about its slowness is erroneous - sometimes a ball launched with great force can reach a speed of 130 km / h. It is with these "hard" balls that some strong volleyball players can even take one of the opponents out of the game for a while.
Volleyball is an activity for young people. No, age in this sport (especially amateur) is not a hindrance. For example, in the city of Ivanovo there is a whole team of volleyball players, whose age is from 70 to 91 years. At first, there were men in the team, but at the moment there is only one representative of the strong half of humanity in the composition. And the oldest athlete of Yekaterinburg, Sofya Ivanovna Komarevich, turned 100 years old, 40 of which she and her friends devoted to regular volleyball. According to the long-liver, it is this sport that helps her to keep fit and get rid of many diseases. Moreover, according to studies, for people of the second mature age (40-60 years old), regular playing sports (in particular volleyball) are simply necessary, as they prevent the development of hypodynamia, have a positive effect on health, and slow down the aging process.